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Julia Hussien and Diane Ste-Marie

The focus of attention literature has shown robust findings for the benefits of providing statements that focus on the movement effect or outcome (external focus of attention [EFOA]) as opposed to focusing on the movement kinematics (internal focus of attention). Observational studies, however, have revealed that physiotherapists use fewer EFOA statements than internal focus of attention statements in their practice. Most evidence in this regard has been from non-Canadian physiotherapists working in stroke rehabilitation; consequently, we sought to examine whether Canadian physiotherapists working with various rehabilitation populations also use EFOA statements to a lesser extent than internal focus of attention statements. The “Therapists’ Perceptions of Motor Learning Principles Questionnaire (TPMLPQ)” was thus designed and data from 121 Canadian physiotherapists showed low relative frequencies of EFOA use (31.3% ± 14%) averaged across six hypothetical scenarios. A higher EFOA was reported, however, for two of the six scenarios: a functional reaching scenario (55.5% ± 37.0%) and pelvic floor task (65.6% ±32.9%). This data suggest that the findings of EFOA benefits have not been widely translated into Canadian physiotherapy settings; furthermore, the findings of the scenario-dependency warrant future investigation into factors, such as task characteristics, that may influence physiotherapists’ FOA use.

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Kylie Hesketh, Katherine Downing, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, and Lisa M. Barnett

Background: Understanding how or whether sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children is important considering that children spend a lot of time sedentary. The aim of this study was to examine whether sedentary behavior predicts motor competence in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study with a total of 372 children aged 3.5 years at baseline and 5 years at follow-up was conducted. Objectively measured activity patterns (i.e., using accelerometers) were conducted in a subsample with 188 children. Sedentary behavior was assessed both objectively and subjectively (parent-reported screen time). Locomotor and object control skill scores were determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition. A multivariable analysis was executed adjusting for potential confounders (such as age, sex, time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, monitor wear time, body mass index z scores, and maternal education). Results: Sedentary behavior at either time point was not significantly associated with either locomotor or object control skills after adjusting for potential confounders. Discussion: Our results did not support the assumption that sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children. Regardless, given the lack of consistency in the evidence base, we recommend to parents, educators, and health professionals that sedentary activities should be kept within government recommendations due to potential negative effects on child development.

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Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elahe Banitalebi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Rahimi, Ismail Laher, and Kade Davison

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65–80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.

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David X. Marquez, Michelle A. Jaldin, Miguel Negrete, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, and Crystal M. Glover

Physical activity (PA) has been associated with a multitude of beneficial mental and physical outcomes. It is well documented, however, that there are health disparities and inequities for segments of the population, especially as related to PA. Engagement of traditionally minoritized populations into research is essential for justice in health. We discuss a community engagement model that can be used for recruiting and retaining traditionally minoritized populations into PA research, and then we go into three major ethnic/racial groups in the United States: Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Background information of each group, cultural values that play a role in health for each of the groups, and research demonstrating how culture plays a role in the formation and implementation of PA interventions in these groups is presented.

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Nancy E. Mayo, Kedar Mate, Olayinka Akinrolie, Hong Chan, Nancy M. Salbach, Sandra C. Webber, and Ruth Barclay

This study aimed to inform a measurement approach for older persons who wish to engage in active living such as participating in a walking program. The Patient Generated Index, an individualized measurement approach, and directed and summative content analyses were carried out. A sample size of 204 participants (mean age 75 years; 62% women) was recruited; it generated 934 text threads mapped to 460 unique categories within 45 domains with similarities and differences for women and men. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviors Model best linked the domains. The results suggest that older persons identify the need to overcome impaired capacity, low motivation, and barriers to engagement to live actively. These are all areas that active living programs could address. How to measure the outcomes of these programs remains elusive.

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Yi Sun and Ye Yuan

External connectivity refers to the service opportunities provided by community open spaces that are influenced by the factors such as traffic distance, road conditions, residence patterns, and population distribution. It is an important factor in determining access to community open spaces. This has important implications for promoting walking behavior and community physical activity among aging urban populations. Using the accessibility evaluation method, we proposed an external connectivity of the community open spaces model from the community perspective and conducted an empirical study using the Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen as an example. External connectivity of the community open spaces can be used to evaluate the efficiency of community open spaces, serving as a reference for open space optimization. Moreover, it has applicable value in promoting physical activity and healthy aging among older adults.

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Shruti Patelia, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker

Issues relating to older adults in sport are ongoing topics of interest among sport scientists; however, our knowledge on how older athletes have been studied is incomplete, which has implications for understanding the comprehensiveness of this evidence base. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of how sport and older adults have been studied since the first World Masters Games. Data on research topics, research methods, sport-specific information, and demographic information on older athletes were collected and reviewed. Results suggest older athletes who are White, male, and competitive athletes have largely been the focus of research. In addition, results highlight an alarming number of unreported data related to the demographics of athlete samples. As a result, the well-documented benefits of sport may reflect a homogenous group of older adults, limiting our overall understanding of aging and sport and the value of this research for developing evidence-informed policy.

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Sam N. Thrower, Christopher M. Spray, and Chris G. Harwood

The purpose of the current study was to utilize the RE-AIM (i.e., reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to evaluate the national-level scale-out of the Lawn Tennis Association’s “Optimal Competition Parenting Workshop” (OCPW) across a 4-year period. During 2018, 65 workshops were run across the United Kingdom, 1,043 parents registered, and 933 parents attended. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, multilevel analyses revealed significant increases in parents’ (n = 130) task goal orientation and competition tennis parenting efficacy, as well as significant decreases in ego goal orientation and unpleasant emotions. Children’s perceptions of both mother- and father-initiated ego-involving motivational climate and their own ego goal orientation significantly decreased across time. From 2019 to 2021, a further 64 workshops were delivered to 1,110 parents with no significant differences in parents’ satisfaction, enjoyment, instructor evaluation, or transfer intention over time when compared against workshop evaluations in 2018. Overall, the OCPW represents a well-received, practical, and effective brief intervention for enhancing parental involvement in junior tennis.

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Milla Saarinen, Raymond Bertram, Kaisa Aunola, Julia Pankkonen, and Tatiana V. Ryba

The present study longitudinally examined stability and change in the attributional profiles of Finnish student athletes (n = 391) in upper secondary sport schools. Moreover, it examined the extent to which these profiles, and changes in them, were associated with athletes’ level of sport competition and school achievements and dropouts at the end of upper secondary sport school. Using latent profile analysis, five different and highly stable attributional profiles were identified for student athletes: (a) depressive (6.9%), (b) athletic self-serving (23.0%), (c) average (16.4%), (d) learned helplessness (30.9%), and (e) responsible (22.8%). The results further showed that over the 3-year study period, the responsible attributional style, wherein individuals take responsibility for successes and failures, predicted student athletes’ subsequent high grade point average and low sport dropout rates even after controlling for the impacts of their earlier grade point average, gender, and type of sport.