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Sarah Morgan Hughey, Julian A. Reed, and Sarah B. King

Purpose: Physical education (PE) provides opportunities for youth physical activity during the school day, yet daily PE policies remain low. This study investigated whether daily PE was linked to youth aerobic capacity across a 4-year period in Greenville (South Carolina). Methods: Youth in grade levels second to eighth at 2 schools providing daily PE and 2 schools that did not provide daily PE participated in the study (N = 466). The 2 schools used as comparisons provided standard PE outlined by South Carolina, which included one 50-minute session per week (elementary) and daily PE for one semester (middle school). Aerobic fitness was measured using the FITNESSGRAM® Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test (May 2011–2015). Number of Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run laps completed, age, gender, ethnicity, body composition, and school attended were included in multilevel linear regression analyses. Results: Across the sample, aerobic fitness increased with age. Throughout the study, males demonstrated growth in aerobic fitness compared with a slight decline for females (P < .001). Youth participation in daily PE was linked to increases in aerobic fitness compared with youth who did not receive daily PE (P < .001). Conclusions: Findings suggest that exposure to daily PE may contribute to increased aerobic fitness in youth.

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Lisiane Piazza Luza, Diego Rodrigues Pimentel da Silva, Elizandra Gonçalves Ferreira, Greicy Kelly Wosniak Pires, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, and Rudney da Silva

Background: Limb loss affects quality of life, well-being, and autonomy. The World Health Organization has launched a global action plan to reduce physical inactivity and presented recommendations of physical activity for people living with disability. Knowledge of the characteristics of people with lower limb amputation regarding physical activity is important. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the quantity and type of physical activity done by people with lower limb amputation. Methods: The sample (N = 149) included adults aged 53.08 (17.24) years old with lower limb loss. Data collection was performed through the application of a sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data sheet and the Brazilian version of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. Results: The total Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities score was between 0 and 65.79 metabolic equivalents of task per hour per day, which suggests low practice of physical activities. The most frequently practiced activities (79.9%) were those that involved stationary behavior. Women carried out more domestic activities, and subjects who used lower limb prosthesis and those with traumatic amputation reported higher practice of physical activity. Conclusions: People living with lower limb amputation, from different regions of Brazil, have low levels of physical activity and mainly carry out activities of stationary behavior.

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Satoshi Kurita, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Hideaki Ishii, Yuto Kiuchi, and Hiroyuki Shimada

Background: This study aimed to examine whether physical activity measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) can predict incident disability in Japanese older adults. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults participated in a prospective cohort survey. The time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity was assessed at the survey baseline using the IPAQ-SF. The participants were categorized into those who spent ≥150 minutes per week (physically active) or <150 minutes per week (physically inactive) in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Incident disability was monitored through Long-Term Care Insurance certification during a follow-up lasting 5 years. Results: Among the 4387 analyzable participants (mean age = 75.8 y, 53.5% female), the IPAQ-SF grouped 1577 (35.9%) and 2810 (64.1%) participants as those who were physically active and inactive, respectively. A log-rank test showed a significantly higher incidence of disability among the inactive group of participants (P < .001). The Cox proportional hazards model showed that physically inactive participants had a higher risk of incident disability than the physically active ones did, even after adjusting for covariates (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07–1.45, P < .001). Conclusions: Older adults identified as physically inactive using the IPAQ-SF had a greater risk of developing disabilities than those identified as physically active. The IPAQ-SF seems to be appropriate to estimate the incidence risk of disability.

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Richard Larouche, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: In Colombia, active transportation has been assessed in multiple local and regional studies, but national data on active transportation are scarce. This study aims to describe the prevalence and factors associated with active transportation to/from school among Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: The authors analyzed nationally representative data from the National Survey of Nutrition 2015, with a sample of 11,466 children and adolescents aged between 3 and 17 years. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression multivariable models with robust variance. Results: Approximately 70% of Colombian children and adolescents reported engaging in active transportation to/from school over the last week. There were no differences by sex among preschoolers nor school-aged children. Fewer adolescent females than males used active transportation. Preschoolers and school-aged children living in Bogota were more likely to report active transport than children from other regions (prevalence ratios for other regions ranged from 0.59 to 0.86). School-aged children and adolescents with a lower wealth index were more likely to use active transportation than their counterparts (prevalence ratios = 1.32 and 1.22, respectively). Conclusions: The wealthiest children and adolescents, adolescents from rural areas, and female adolescents should be a focus for future interventions. Actions need to be implemented to improve the involvement in active transportation to/from school in Colombia.

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Marissa A. Gogniat, Catherine M. Mewborn, Talia L. Robinson, Kharine R. Jean, and L. Stephen Miller

The population of older adults is increasing, indicating a need to examine factors that may prevent or mitigate age-related cognitive decline. The current study examined whether microstructural white matter characteristics mediated the relation between physical activity and executive function in older adults without any self-reported psychiatric and neurological disorders or cognitive impairment (N = 43, mean age = 73 y). Physical activity was measured by average intensity and number of steps via accelerometry. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to examine microstructural white matter characteristics, and neuropsychological testing was used to examine executive functioning. Parallel mediation models were analyzed using microstructural white matter regions of interest as mediators of the association between physical activity and executive function. Results indicated that average steps was significantly related to executive function (β = 0.0003, t = 2.829, P = .007), while moderate to vigorous physical activity was not (β = 0.0007, t = 1.772, P = .08). White matter metrics did not mediate any associations. This suggests that microstructural white matter characteristics alone may not be the mechanism by which physical activity impacts executive function in aging.

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Laura E. Balis and Samantha M. Harden

Background: Interventions undergo adaptations when moving from efficacy to effectiveness trials. What happens beyond these initial steps—that is, when the “research” is over—is often unknown. The degree to which implementation quality remains high and impacts remain robust is underreported as these data are often less valued by community entities. Comprehensive and iterative evaluation is recommended to ensure robust outcomes over time. Methods: The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance framework was used within an assess, plan, do, evaluate, report process to determine the degree to which a statewide physical activity promotion program aligned with evidence-based core components, assess who was reached and impacts on physical activity behaviors, and make decisions for future iterations. Results: Walk Across Arkansas was adopted by a majority of delivery agents and was effective at increasing physical activity levels postprogram, but those effects were not maintained after 6 months. Future decisions included recruitment strategies to reach a more diverse population and a blueprint document to reduce program drift. Conclusions: This article details the process of “replanning” a community-based physical activity intervention to understand public health impact and make decisions for future iterations. Pragmatic reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance questions were useful throughout the assess, plan, do, evaluate, report process.

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Marcus V.V. Lopes, Bruno G.G. da Costa, Luis E.A. Malheiros, Rafael M. Costa, Ana C.C. Souza, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, and Kelly S. Silva

This study (a) compared accelerometer wear time and compliance between distinct wrist-worn accelerometer data collection plans, (b) analyzed participants’ perception of using accelerometers, and (c) identified sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of accelerometer compliance. A sample of high school students (n = 143) wore accelerometers attached to the wrist by a disposable polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wristband or a reusable fabric wristband for 24 hr over 6 days. Those who wore the reusable fabric band, but not their peers, were instructed to remove the device during water-based activities. Participants answered a questionnaire about sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and reported their experience wearing the accelerometer. We computed non-wear time and checked participants’ compliance with wear-time criteria (i.e., at least three valid weekdays and one valid weekend day) considering two valid day definitions separately (i.e., at least 16 and 23 hours of accelerometer data). Participants who wore a disposable band had greater compliance compared with those who wore a reusable band for both 16-hr (93% vs. 76%, respectively) and 23-hr valid day definitions (91% vs. 50%, respectively). High schoolers with the following characteristics were less likely to comply with wear time criteria if they (a) engaged in labor-intensive activities, (b) perceived that wearing the monitor hindered their daily activities, or (c) felt ashamed while wearing the accelerometer. In conclusion, the data collection plan composed of using disposable wristbands and not removing the monitor resulted in greater 24-hr accelerometer wear time and compliance. However, a negative experience in using the accelerometer may be a barrier to high schoolers’ adherence to rigorous protocols.

Open access

Doris Gebhard and Filip Mess

The objective of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a physical activity intervention for institutionalized people with dementia, individualized by capacity and biography. The intervention group (n = 34; age: mean = 86.09 years; 79.40% female; mean Mini-Mental State Examination value = 18.59) participated in a multicomponent training program, which included daily activities, dancing, gardening, and sports/games, twice weekly for 3 months. The control group (n = 29; age: mean = 86.34 years; 75.90% female; mean Mini-Mental State Examination value = 19.90) received standard care. Feasibility was evaluated by means of focus groups and feedback questionnaires. Functional performance (Short Physical Performance Battery and Timed Up and Go Test), activities of daily living, and gait were outcomes for effectiveness. A high adherence rate (80.46%) and uniformly positive feedback indicate that the piloted training program is feasible. The results show preliminary effectiveness on functional performance (Short Physical Performance Battery mean t0 = 3.15; mean t1 = 4.50; p = .006) and gait (e.g., velocity mean t 0 = 46.97; mean t 1 = 58.04; p = .007).

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Megan M. Byrd, Anthony P. Kontos, Shawn R. Eagle, and Samuel Zizzi

This study used an exploratory mixed-method sequential design to examine anger, impulsivity, and anxiety following sport-related concussions (SRC). Ten college athletes (M = 20.10 years, SD = 2.92) completed four measures 1–10 days postconcussion (Visit 1) and 11–20 days postconcussion (Visit 2). At return to play or 30 days postconcussion, the athletes completed a semistructured interview (follow-up) to assess their lived experiences of the emotional sequelae of concussions. All participants indicated experiencing some level of anxiety at Visit 1, with half the participants scoring above the measure’s threshold for probable clinical diagnosis of anxiety. The results found a significant decrease in symptoms and anxiety at Visit 2. Inductive coding revealed frustration, irritability, impulsive behavior, and fear of the unknown as themes pertaining to athletes’ experiences. The findings highlight the need for sports medicine and sport psychology professionals to provide athletes with information to normalize their emotional responses during recovery.

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Bridget Coyle-Asbil, Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, David W.L. Ma, Jess Haines, and Lori Ann Vallis

Sleep is vital for healthy development of young children; however, it is not understood how the quality and quantity vary between the weekends and weekdays (WE–WD). Research focused on older children has demonstrated that there is significant WE–WD variability and that this is associated with adiposity. It is unclear how this is experienced among preschoolers. This study explored: (a) the accuracy of WE–WD sleep as reported in parental logbooks compared with accelerometers; (b) the difference between WE and WD total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and timing, as assessed by accelerometers; and (c) the association between the variability of these metrics and adiposity. Eighty-seven preschoolers (M = 46; 4.48 ± 0.89 years) wore an accelerometer on their right hip for 7 days. Parents were given logbooks to track “lights out” times (sleep onset) and out of bed time (sleep offset). Compared with accelerometers, parental logbook reports indicated earlier sleep onset and later sleep offset times on both WEs and WDs. Accelerometer-derived total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and onset/offset were not significantly different on the WEs and WDs; however, a sex effect was observed, with males going to bed and waking up earlier than females. Correlation analyses revealed that variability of sleep onset times throughout the week was positively correlated with percentage of fat mass in children. Results suggest that variability of sleep onset may be associated with increased adiposity in preschool children. Additional research with larger and more socioeconomically and racially diverse samples is needed to confirm these findings.