Browse

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 5,178 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Free access

Erratum. Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport

Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Restricted access

Exploring Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy to Teach Students With Disabilities in General Physical Education

Lindsey A. Nowland

The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which in-service physical education teachers construct their self-efficacy beliefs toward teaching students with disabilities in general physical education classes. Using a qualitative descriptive approach situated within self-efficacy theory, data were collected via semistructured audio-recorded interviews with 16 in-service physical educators. Three interrelated themes were constructed: (a) The more I do it, the better I feel: the importance of professional experiences; (b) I’ve learned from others: the influence of colleagues; and (c) Being in the general educational setting is a challenge: the impact of contextual factors. Findings supported the influence of the four sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and affective and physiological state), in addition to potential contextual factors (i.e., class sizes and availability of hands-on support), impacting participants’ self-efficacy to teach students with disabilities in general physical education classes.

Restricted access

People With Low Back Pain Exhibit Higher Trunk Muscle Activity and Impaired Postural Control During Static and Dynamic Functional Tasks: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sara Salamat, Saeed Talebian, Nader Maroufi, Gitta Kalbassi, Davood Salamat, and Kieran O’Sullivan

The study compared superficial trunk muscle activity and postural control among an active extension subgroup of people with nonspecific chronic low back pain (AE-NSCLBP) with painfree controls during functional tasks. Thirty-two people (17 people with low back pain [LBP] and 15 painfree controls) participated in this study. Muscle activity of 5 trunk muscles and postural control were investigated during both standing tasks (eyes open/closed; single/double-leg balance) and dynamic functional tasks (spinal forward flexion and return, and a sit to stand transfer). Results showed that during single-leg standing, people with AE-NSCLBP exhibit higher muscle activity than painfree controls for 3 trunk muscles, especially with their eyes closed. There were no significant differences in muscle activity between eye conditions during double-leg standing and sit to stand transfer, forward flexion, and return from flexion. The AE-NSCLBP subgroup also demonstrated significantly impaired postural control (lower time to boundary) in 4 of 8 conditions, especially during single-leg standing and with their eyes closed. These findings show people with LBP typically demonstrated greater trunk muscle activity and poorer postural control while maintaining standing posture. This pattern was most evident when the postural challenge was higher, such as single-leg standing or with eyes closed. While this study design cannot infer causality, these findings have implications for LBP rehabilitation, particularly regarding approaches which seek to alter muscle activation among people with LBP.

Full access

Do Sex and Age Influence Scapular and Thoracohumeral Kinematics During a Functional Task Protocol?

Alexander Waslen, Kenzie B. Friesen, and Angelica E. Lang

There is mixed evidence on the role that biological sex plays in shoulder biomechanics despite known differences in musculoskeletal disorder prevalence between males and females. Additionally, advancing age may contribute to shoulder kinematic changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex and age influenced scapular and thoracohumeral kinematics during a range of functional tasks. Sixty healthy participants aged 19–63 years (30 males; 30 females) completed a functional task protocol while their upper limb motion was recorded. Scapular and humeral angles were calculated and compared with multiple linear regressions to assess the interaction effects of sex and age. Shoulder kinematics were not different between sex and age groups for many of the functional tasks. However, females had lower humeral external rotation in the overhead lift task (15°, P < .001), and less scapular anterior tilt angles in the forward transfer task (6°, P < .001) than males. Age was positively associated with humeral elevation (R 2 = .330, P < .001) and scapular rotation (R 2 = .299, P < .001) in the Wash Axilla task. There exist some kinematic differences between sex and with advancing age for select functional tasks, which should be considered for musculoskeletal disorder development.

Full access

Increasing Breast Support is Associated With a Distal-to-Proximal Redistribution of Joint Negative Work During a Double-Limb Landing Task

Hailey B. Fong, Alexis K. Nelson, Deirdre McGhee, Kevin R. Ford, and Douglas W. Powell

Female athletes exhibit greater rates of anterior cruciate ligament injury compared with male athletes. Biomechanical factors are suggested to contribute to sex differences in injury rates. No previous investigation has evaluated the role of breast support on landing biomechanics. This study investigates the effect of breast support on joint negative work and joint contributions to total negative work during landing. Thirty-five female athletes performed 5 landing trials in 3 breast support conditions. Lower-extremity joint negative work and relative joint contributions to total negative work were calculated. Univariate analyses of variance were used to determine the effect of breast support on negative joint work values. Increasing levels of breast support were associated with lower ankle negative work (P < .001) and ankle relative contributions (P < .001) and increases in hip negative work (P = .008) and hip relative contributions (P < .001). No changes were observed in total negative work (P = .759), knee negative work (P = .059), or knee contributions to negative work (P = .094). These data demonstrate that the level of breast support affects lower-extremity biomechanics. The distal-to-proximal shift in negative joint work and relative joint contributions may be indicative of a more protective landing strategy for anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

Restricted access

Personality and Attitudinal Predictors of Sportspersonship in Recreational Sport

Tanya Fozzard and Dara Mojtahedi

Respect and fair treatment among competitors are necessary for maintaining quality and enjoyment in sporting competitions. Yet despite the existence of rules and expectations, many athletes choose to violate such sporting norms. The present study examined whether individual differences in Sportspersonship within recreational sports could be explained by personality and sport-related attitudes. Ultimate Frisbee players (N = 828) completed an online survey consisting of personality (dark triad, HEXACO-60, and Sportspersonship), demographic, and attitudinal questionnaires. Psychopathy was associated with low Sportspersonship, whereas Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Openness to Experience predicted greater Sportspersonship. Additionally, participants holding positive attitudes about the conduct of other players and the efficacy of self-governed regulation displayed higher Sportspersonship. Positive associations between personality traits and Sportspersonship may be attributed to positive views toward cooperation and enjoyment of the experience, whereas negative associations between Psychopathy and Sportspersonship are likely to be linked to the callous and risk-taking nature of such individuals.

Restricted access

Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness: Supporting Individuals With Childhood-Onset Disabilities

Myung Ha Sur

Restricted access

Morality- and Norm-Based Subgroups of Disability-Sport Athletes Differ on Their Anticipated Guilt and Intentions Toward Doping

Tyler S. Harris, Alan L. Smith, and Ian Boardley

The purpose of this study was to examine whether subgroups of disability-sport athletes exist on morality- and norm-based doping cognitions and whether these groups differ in anticipated guilt or doping intentions. A survey was completed by 186 athletes (M age = 37.5 years, 78.0% male, 45.1% wheelchair basketball) assessing norms, doping moral disengagement, anticipated guilt, and intentions to dope. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct subgroups of athletes, including one potentially high-risk subgroup characterized by relatively high scores on doping moral disengagement, subjective norms, and descriptive norms. One-way analysis of variance revealed significantly lower anticipated guilt in two athlete subgroups characterized by relatively higher doping moral disengagement than the other two subgroups. Moreover, the potentially high-risk group had a greater proportion of athletes showing some presence of intention to dope. This study suggests there is a small subgroup of disability-sport athletes at elevated risk of doping who might benefit from targeted antidoping interventions.

Restricted access

Quantitative Muscle Fascicle Tractography Using Brightness-Mode Ultrasound

Hannah Kilpatrick, Emily Bush, Carly Lockard, Xingyu Zhou, Crystal Coolbaugh, and Bruce Damon

A muscle’s architecture, defined as the geometric arrangement of its fibers with respect to its mechanical line of action, impacts its abilities to produce force and shorten or lengthen under load. Ultrasound and other noninvasive imaging methods have contributed significantly to our understanding of these structure–function relationships. The goal of this work was to develop a MATLAB toolbox for tracking and mathematically representing muscle architecture at the fascicle scale, based on brightness-mode ultrasound imaging data. The MuscleUS_Toolbox allows user-performed segmentation of a region of interest and automated modeling of local fascicle orientation; calculation of streamlines between aponeuroses of origin and insertion; and quantification of fascicle length, pennation angle, and curvature. A method is described for optimizing the fascicle orientation modeling process, and the capabilities of the toolbox for quantifying and visualizing fascicle architecture are illustrated in the human tibialis anterior muscle. The toolbox is freely available.

Restricted access

A Systematic Review of Digital Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in People With Intellectual Disabilities and/or Autism

Debbie Van Biesen, Tine Van Damme, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Aleksandra Buchholz, Momna Anjum, and Séan Healy

This systematic review synthesized the literature on digital health interventions for the promotion of physical activity (PA) among people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. From an initial screening of 553 records, 10 studies underwent full-text review. Data were extracted relating to study, intervention, and sample characteristics and PA-related findings. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. There were mixed findings pertaining to the effectiveness of digital health interventions for promoting PA among these populations. Positive results were reported for three of five active-video-game interventions, two of three social-media-based interventions, and one of two e-learning/multicomponent interventions. Digital health interventions can potentially be effective for promoting PA among people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. However, the large variation in the samples and intervention types and a reliance on pre- and quasi-experimental research designs suggest that inferences should be made with caution and additional research is needed.