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Protocol Standardization May Improve Precision Error of InBody 720 Body Composition Analysis

Tia Herberts, Gary J. Slater, Ava Farley, Luke Hogarth, Jose L. Areta, Gøran Paulsen, and Ina Garthe

Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a popular technique which can be used to track longitudinal changes in body composition. However, precision of the technique has been questioned, especially among athletic populations where small but meaningful changes are often observed. Guidelines exist which attempt to optimize precision of the technique but fail to account for potentially important variables. Standardization of dietary intake and physical activity in the 24 hr prior to assessment has been proposed as an approach to minimizing the error of impedance-derived estimates of body composition. Methods: Eighteen recreational athletes, male (n = 10) and female (n = 8), underwent two consecutive BIA tests to quantify within-day error, and a third test (the day before or after) to quantify between-day error. All food and fluid intake plus physical activity from the 24 hr prior to the first BIA scan was replicated during the following 24 hr. Precision error was calculated as the root mean square standard deviation, percentage coefficient of variation, and least significant change. Results: There were no significant differences in precision error of within- and between-day fat-free mass, fat mass, and total body water. Differences in precision error of fat-free mass and total body water, but not fat mass, were less than the smallest effect size of interest. Conclusion: The 24-hr standardization of dietary intake and physical activity may be an effective approach to minimizing precision error associated with BIA. However, further research to confirm the validity of this protocol compared to nonstandardized or randomized intake is warranted.

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Volume 33 (2023): Issue 3 (May 2023)

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Acute Ketone Monoester Supplementation Impairs 20-min Time-Trial Performance in Trained Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

Devin G. McCarthy, Jack Bone, Matthew Fong, Phillippe J.M. Pinckaers, William Bostad, Douglas L. Richards, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Martin J. Gibala

Acute ketone monoester (KE) supplementation can alter exercise responses, but the performance effect is unclear. The limited and equivocal data to date are likely related to factors including the KE dose, test conditions, and caliber of athletes studied. We tested the hypothesis that mean power output during a 20-min cycling time trial (TT) would be different after KE ingestion compared to a placebo (PL). A sample size of 22 was estimated to provide 80% power to detect an effect size d z of 0.63 at an alpha level of .05 with a two-tailed paired t test. This determination considered 2.0% as the minimal important difference in performance. Twenty-three trained cyclists (N = 23; peak oxygen uptake: 65 ± 12 ml·kg−1 min−1; M ± SD), who were regularly cycling >5 hr/week, completed a familiarization trial followed by two experimental trials. Participants self-selected and replicated their diet and exercise for ∼24 hr before each trial. Participants ingested either 0.35 g/kg body mass of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate KE or a flavor-matched PL 30 min before exercise in a randomized, triple-blind, crossover manner. Exercise involved a 15-min warm-up followed by the 20-min TT on a cycle ergometer. The only feedback provided was time elapsed. Preexercise venous [β-hydroxybutyrate] was higher after KE versus PL (2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 mM, p < .0001). Mean TT power output was 2.4% (0.6% to 4.1%; mean [95% confidence interval]) lower after KE versus PL (255 ± 54 vs. 261 ± 54 W, p < .01; d z  = 0.60). The mechanistic basis for the impaired TT performance after KE ingestion under the present study conditions remains to be determined.

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Effects of Changes in Body Fat Mass as a Result of Regular Exercise on Hemoglobin A1c in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

Yutaka Igarashi, Nobuhiko Akazawa, and Seiji Maeda

An increase in visceral fat is associated with an increase in insulin resistance, so reducing body fat mass through exercise may help alleviate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current meta-analysis evaluated the effect of changes in body fat via an intervention of regular exercise on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with T2DM. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials involving adults with T2DM, intervention involving exercise alone, an overall duration of intervention ≥12 weeks, and reporting HbA1c and body fat mass. The mean differences (MDs) were defined as the MD between the exercise group and the control group, and the MDs in HbA1c (in percentage) and body fat mass (in kilograms) were calculated. All MDs in HbA1c were pooled as overall effects. A meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the MD in the body fat mass (in kilograms) and the MD in HbA1c. Twenty studies (1,134 subjects) were analyzed. The pooled MD in HbA1c (in percentage) decreased significantly (−0.4; 95% confidence interval [−0.5, −0.3]) but contained significant heterogeneity (Q = 52.7, p < .01; I 2 = 41.6%). A meta-regression analysis showed that a decrease in the MD in body fat mass was significantly associated with a decrease in the MD in HbA1c (R 2 = 80.0%) and heterogeneity decreased (Q = 27.3, p = .61; I 2 = 11.9%), and a reduction in body fat mass of 1 kg was estimated to decrease the HbA1c (%) by approximately 0.2. The current study suggested that a decrease in HbA1c due to regular exercise depends on a reduction in body fat mass in patients with T2DM.

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How Skepticism (not Cynicism) Can Raise Scientific Standards and Reform the Health and Wellness Industry

Nicholas B. Tiller and Stuart M. Phillips

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Dietary β-Alanine Intake Assessed by Food Records Does Not Associate With Muscle Carnosine Content in Healthy, Active, Omnivorous Men and Women

Nathalia Saffioti Rezende, Giulia Cazetta Bestetti, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bruna Caruso Mazzolani, Fabiana Infante Smaira, Alina Dumas, Paul Swinton, Bryan Saunders, and Eimear Dolan

β-Alanine (BA) is one of the most widely used sport supplements, due to its capacity to improve high-intensity exercise performance by increasing muscle carnosine (MCarn) content, and consequently, the buffering capacity of the muscle. BA is also available in a variety of animal foods, but little is currently known about the influence of dietary BA intake on MCarn. The aim of the current study was to compile a detailed summary of available data on the BA content of commonly consumed foods, and to explore whether associations could be detected between self-reported dietary BA intake and skeletal MCarn in a group of 60 healthy, active, omnivorous men and women. Dietary BA intake was assessed via 3-day food records, and MCarn content assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A series of univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore associations between estimated dietary BA and MCarn. No evidence of associations between dietary BA intake and MCarn were identified, with effect sizes close to zero calculated from models accounting for key demographic variables (f 2  ≤ 0.02 for all analyses). These findings suggest that capacity to increase MCarn via dietary strategies may be limited, and that supplementation may be required to induce increases of the magnitude required to improve performance.

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Within-Subject Variability and the Influence of Exercise Training History on the Resting Plasma Metabolome in Men

Ian A.J. Darragh, Lorraine O’Driscoll, and Brendan Egan

This study investigated within-subject variability in the circulating metabolome under controlled conditions, and whether divergent exercise training backgrounds were associated with alterations in the circulating metabolome assessed in resting samples. Thirty-seven men comprising of endurance athletes (END; body mass, 71.0 ± 6.8 kg; fat-free mass index, 16.9 ± 1.1 kg/m2), strength athletes (STR; 94.5 ± 8.8 kg; 23.0 ± 1.8 kg/m2), and recreationally active controls (CON; 77.6 ± 7.7 kg; 18.1 ± 1.0 kg/m2) provided blood samples after an overnight fast on two separate occasions controlled for time of day of sampling, recent dietary intake, time since last meal, and time since last exercise training session. A targeted profile of metabolites, performed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry on plasma samples, identified 166 individual metabolites and metabolite features, which were analyzed with intraclass correlation coefficients, a multilevel principal component analysis, and univariate t tests adjusted for multiple comparisons. The median intraclass correlation coefficient was .49, with 46 metabolites displaying good reliability and 31 metabolites displaying excellent reliability. No difference in the abundance of any individual metabolite was identified within groups when compared between visits, but a combined total of 44 metabolites were significantly different (false discovery rate <0.05) between groups (END vs. CON, 42 metabolites; STR vs. CON, 10 metabolites; and END vs. STR, five metabolites). Under similar measurement conditions, the reliability of resting plasma metabolite concentrations varies largely at the level of individual metabolites with ∼48% of metabolites displaying good-to-excellent reliability. However, a history of exercise training was associated with alterations in the abundance of ∼28% of metabolites in the targeted profile employed in this study.

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Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition and Resting Metabolic Rate in Male Professional Flat Jockeys: Preliminary Outcomes and Implications for Future Research Directions

George Wilson, Carl Langan-Evans, Dan Martin, Andreas M. Kasper, James P. Morton, and Graeme L. Close

Jockeys are unique given that they make weight daily and, therefore, often resort to fasting and dehydration. Through increasing daily food frequency (during energy deficit), we have reported short-term improvements in jockey’s body composition. While these changes were observed over 6–12 weeks with food provided, it is unclear whether such improvements can be maintained over an extended period during free-living conditions. We, therefore, assessed jockeys over 5 years using dual X-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate, and hydration measurements. Following dietary and exercise advice, jockeys reduced fat mass from baseline of 7.1 ± 1.4 kg to 6.1 ± 0.7 kg and 6.1 ± 0.6 kg (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. In addition, fat-free mass was maintained with resting metabolic rate increasing significantly from 1,500 ± 51 kcal/day at baseline to 1,612 ± 95 kcal/day and 1,620 ± 92 kcal/day (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. Urine osmolality reduced from 816 ± 236 mOsmol/L at baseline to 564 ± 175 mOsmol/L and 524 ± 156 mOsmol/L (p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. The percent of jockeys consuming a regular breakfast significantly increased from 48% at baseline to 83% (p = .009) and 87% (p = .003) at Years 1 and 5, alongside regular lunch from 35% to 92% (p < .001) and 96% (p < .001) from baseline to Years 1 and 5, respectively. In conclusion, we report that improved body composition can be maintained in free-living jockeys over a 5-year period when appropriate guidance has been provided.

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Abstracts From the 2022 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference

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Volume 33 (2023): Issue S1 (Mar 2023)