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Volume 39 (2023): Issue 4 (Aug 2023)

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Preparing to Land: Hamstring Preactivation Is Higher in Females and Is Inhibited by Fatigue

David Alan Phillips, Bridgette Rae Buckalew, Bridget Keough, and Jacklyn Stephanie Alencewicz

The hamstring plays an important role in reducing loads born by the anterior cruciate ligament. As anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur rapidly after ground contact, how the hamstring is activated prior to landing can influence injury risk. The purpose was to determine sex-related differences in hamstring activation immediately before landing and the effect of fatigue on “preactivation.” Twenty-four participants (13 males and 11 females, age = 24.3 [6.5] y, mass = 72.2 [19.3] kg, height = 169 [9.7] cm) participated in this study. Participants completed a drop-vertical jump protocol before and after a lower body fatigue protocol. Hamstring electromyography (EMG) amplitude at 5 periods prior to landing, peak vertical ground reactions forces (in newtons/body weight), rate of loading (in body weight/second), and landing error scoring system were measured. Females had higher EMG amplitude before and after fatigue (P < .024), with decreased EMG amplitude for both sexes after fatigue (P = .025). There was no change on vertical ground reaction force, rate of loading, or landing error scoring system. Males and females demonstrated similar landing performance before and after fatigue but have different hamstring neuromuscular coordination strategies. The acute reduction in hamstring EMG amplitude following fatigue may increase loading on the anterior cruciate ligament.

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Effects of Resistance Training of Upper Limb and Trunk Muscles on Soccer Instep Kick Kinematics

Miguel Arcanjo de Assis, Thiago Ribeiro Teles Santos, Sergio Teixeira Fonseca, André Gustavo Pereira de Andrade, Priscila Albuquerque Araújo, Thales Rezende de Souza, Renan Alves Resende, and Juliana Melo Ocarino

The upper body and trunk muscles are crucial to perform soccer kicks. Resistance training targeting these muscles may modify the pattern adopted during kicking. This study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training of the arm and anterior trunk muscles on instep kicking kinematics. Twenty-six male participants were randomly allocated into a training group or control group. The training group underwent resistance training of arm and trunk muscles and practiced the instep kick for 8 weeks. The control group only practiced kicking during the same period. The trunk, hip, and knee kinematics were assessed during the instep kick before and after the intervention. Kinematics were analyzed according to their data distribution with statistical parametric or nonparametric mapping. The effect of the training on the 1-repetition maximum test was analyzed using a repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. The training group showed greater hip extension after the training during the backswing phase (Hedge g effect size of 0.316–0.321) and increased 1-repetition maximum for all exercises. There were no other differences. The present study documented the nonlocal effect of strengthening training in which arm and trunk muscle training resulted in changes in hip kinematics during the backswing phase of the instep kick.

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Influence of Surface Geometry on Palm and Fist Contact Pressure Distribution During Strikes With the Hand in Automotive Assembly

Lukas Hausmanninger, Igor Komnik, Mario Fleiter, and Wolfgang Potthast

The increase in repetitive strain injuries to the hand underscores the need for assessing and preventing musculoskeletal overuse associated with hand-intensive tasks. This study investigates the risk of overload injuries in soft tissue structures of the hand by analyzing the pressure distribution and location of peak pressure in the hand during snap-fit connection assembly in the automotive industry. The influence of the surface geometry of automotive trim components the pressure distribution and force imparted during strikes with the palm and the fist are investigated in a cohort of 30 subjects with extensive experience installing trim parts with snap-fit connections. Using the palm or fist (ulnar hand side) of the dominant hand, the subjects struck a simulation device with a flat, rounded, or edged surface geometry. The average peak force applied was 600 N (±122 N), nearly 3 times the force required to overcome the technical resistance of the snap-fit connector (220 N). Fist strikes exerted a 40% higher mean peak pressure and 18% higher mean pressure than did palm strikes. The pressure distribution in the region of the thenar eminence and soft tissue of the ulnar side of the hand did not differ between fist strikes on flat and edged surfaces. Considering the delicate anatomy of the hand, especially the hypothenar muscles on the ulnar side, assembling connection claps using the fist instead of the palm may prevent repetitive blunt trauma to the sensitive blood vessels and nerves in the palm.

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Running-Related Achilles Tendon Injury: A Prospective Biomechanical Study in Recreational Runners

Jiri Skypala, Joseph Hamill, Michal Sebera, Steriani Elavsky, Andrea Monte, and Daniel Jandacka

There are relatively few running studies that have attempted to prospectively identify biomechanical risk factors associated with Achilles tendon (AT) injuries. Therefore, the aim was to prospectively determine potential running biomechanical risk factors associated with the development of AT injuries in recreational, healthy runners. At study entry, 108 participants completed a set of questionnaires. They underwent an analysis of their running biomechanics at self-selected running speed. The incidence of AT running-related injuries (RRI) was assessed after 1-year using a weekly questionnaire standardized for RRI. Potential biomechanical risk factors for the development of AT RRI injury were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 103 participants, 25% of the sample (15 males and 11 females) reported an AT RRI on the right lower limb during the 1-year evaluation period. A more flexed knee at initial contact (odds ratio = 1.146, P = .034) and at the midstance phase (odds ratio = 1.143, P = .037) were significant predictors for developing AT RRI. The results suggested that a 1-degree increase in knee flexion at initial contact and midstance was associated with a 15% increase in the risk of an AT RRI, thus causing a limitation of training or a stoppage of running in runners.

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In Silico Biomarkers of Motor Function to Inform Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation and Orthopedic Treatment

Ilse Jonkers, Erica Beaucage-Gauvreau, Bryce Adrian Killen, Dhruv Gupta, Lennart Scheys, and Friedl De Groote

In this review, we elaborate on how musculoskeletal (MSK) modeling combined with dynamic movement simulation is gradually evolving from a research tool to a promising in silico tool to assist medical doctors and physical therapists in decision making by providing parameters relating to dynamic MSK function and loading. This review primarily focuses on our own and related work to illustrate the framework and the interpretation of MSK model-based parameters in patients with 3 different conditions, that is, degenerative joint disease, cerebral palsy, and adult spinal deformities. By selecting these 3 clinical applications, we also aim to demonstrate the differing levels of clinical readiness of the different simulation frameworks introducing in silico model-based biomarkers of motor function to inform MSK rehabilitation and treatment, with the application for adult spinal deformities being the most recent of the 3. Based on these applications, barriers to clinical integration and positioning of these in silico technologies within standard clinical practice are discussed in the light of specific challenges related to model assumptions, required level of complexity and personalization, and clinical implementation.

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Standing Pelvic Tilt Is Associated With Dynamic Pelvic Tilt During Running When Measured by 3-Dimensional Motion Capture

Madison S. Mach, Kyle T. Ebersole, Hayley E. Ericksen, Anh-Dung Nguyen, and Jennifer E. Earl-Boehm

Standing pelvic tilt (PT) is related to biomechanics linked with increased risk of injury such as dynamic knee valgus. However, there is limited evidence on how standing PT relates to dynamic PT and whether the palpation meter (PALM), a tool to measure standing PT, is valid against 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the criterion validity of the PALM for measuring standing PT and (2) identify the relationship between standing PT and dynamic PT during running. Participants (n = 25; 10 males and 15 females) had their standing PT measured by the PALM and 3D motion analysis. Dynamic PT variables were defined at initial contact and toe off. No relationship between the 2 tools was found. Significant large positive relationships between standing PT and PT at initial contact (r = .751, N = 25, P < .001) and PT at toe off (r = .761, N = 25, P < .001) were found. Since no relationship was found between standing PT measured by the PALM and 3D motion analysis, the PALM is not a valid alternative to 3D motion analysis. Clinicians may be able to measure standing PT and gain valuable information on dynamic PT, allowing clinicians to quickly assess whether further biomechanical testing is needed.

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Can Shoulder Impairments Be Classified From 3-Dimensional Kinematics Using Inertial Sensors?

Bruno Mazuquin, Karl Peter Gill, Puneet Monga, James Selfe, and Jim Richards

Inertial sensors may help clinicians to assess patients’ movement and potentially support clinical decision making. Our aim was to determine whether shoulder range of motion during movement tasks measured using inertial sensors is capable of accurately discriminating between patients with different shoulder problems. Inertial sensors were used to measure 3-dimensional shoulder motion during 6 tasks of 37 patients on the waiting list for shoulder surgery. Discriminant function analysis was used to identify whether the range of motion of different tasks could classify patients with different shoulder problems. The discriminant function analysis could correctly classify 91.9% of patients into one of the 3 diagnostic groups based. The tasks that associated a patient with a particular diagnostic group were the following: subacromial decompression: abduction, rotator cuff repair of tears ≤5 cm: flexion and rotator cuff repair of tears >5 cm: combing hair, abduction, and horizontal abduction–adduction. The discriminant function analysis showed that range of motion measured by inertial sensors can correctly classify patients and could be used as a screening tool to support surgery planning.

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Volume 39 (2023): Issue 3 (Jun 2023)

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Examining the Effect of Time-From-Treatment on Activities of Daily Living Kinematics in Breast Cancer Survivors

Rebecca A.M. Wills, Jacquelyn M. Maciukiewicz, Marina Mourtzakis, and Clark R. Dickerson

Breast cancer affects one in 8 females with a 5-year survival rate of 89%. Up to 72% of breast cancer survivors have trouble with activities of daily living (ADL) following treatment. Increased time-from-treatment improves some measures of function, yet ADL limitations persist. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of time-from-treatment on upper extremity kinematics during ADLs in breast cancer survivors. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors were divided into 2 groups: <1 year (n = 12) and 1–2 years (n = 17) from treatment. Kinematics were collected during 6 ADL tasks, and humerothoracic joint angles were quantified. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance assessed the effects of time-from-treatment and arm on maximum angles for each ADL. Decreased maximum angle existed for breast cancer survivors with increased time-from-treatment during all ADLs. Breast cancer survivors in the 1–2 years group used ∼28° to 32° lower elevation, ∼14° to 28° lower axial rotation, and ∼10° to 14° lower plane of elevation range across tasks. Decreased ranges of arm movement during ADLs with increased time-from-treatment may reflect compensatory movement strategies. Recognizing this shift in strategies and accompanying underlying disease progression can help inform responses to functional performance limitations in breast cancer survivors as delayed effects are present posttreatment.