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Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument

Aia Boldovskaia, Diogo S. Teixeira, Marlene N. Silva, and Eliana V. Carraça

Background: The Perceived Physical Literacy Instrument (PPLI) has been the most adopted physical literacy instrument designed for adults to date, having been already translated to 5 languages. Still, despite its popularity, there is limited evidence of its psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt cross-culturally the PPLI to the Portuguese language and to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version in a sample of Portuguese-speaking adults. Methods: The study sample was composed of 434 participants (70% females) with a median age of 25 (18–39) years. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess psychometric properties of the scale. In addition, instrument assumptions between sexes through invariance testing were examined. Finally, concurrent validity, test–retest reliability, and test–retest agreement analyses were performed to gather additional evidence. Results: The results of the present study generally supported the measurement model. The 9-item, 3-factor model presented a good fit to the data and adequate construct validity (χ2 = 82.859 [24], P < .001, comparative-fit index = .948, Tucker–Lewis index = .922, standardized root mean square residual = .049, root mean square error of approximation = .075). In addition, the scale presented concurrent validity. Some issues arose with measurement invariance and overtime consistency. Conclusions: Considering the lack of validated instruments, we suggest a fair use of Portuguese version of PPLI to access physical literacy in adults. This study contributes to the validation of the PPLI by providing evidence of its psychometric properties in the Portuguese-speaking adult population and facilitates comparative analysis with previous and future studies utilizing the PPLI instrument.

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Gender Differences in Caregivers’ Attitudes to Risky Child Play in Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Andrea D. Smith, Helen F. Dodd, Luiza Ricardo, and Esther van Sluijs

Background: This study examines gender differences in parental attitudes toward risky play for 5- to 11-year-old boys and girls in Britain. Methods: Analyses use data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative British Child Play Survey. Survey respondents were caregivers of primary-school-aged children living in Britain. Parent self-reported their risk tolerance in play via the Tolerance for Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) and the Risk Engagement and Protection Survey (REPS). The REPS includes subscales that assess caregiver attitudes around “Protection from Injury” (PFI) and “Engagement with Risk” (EWR) in relation to children’s play. Multiple linear regression compared caregiver gender differences in TRiPS, REPS-PFI, and REPS-EWR at the item level, and overall. Associations between child gender and these scales were also examined. Results: Among 1919 caregivers, no significant gender differences emerged in mean TRiPS (P = .72), REPS-EWR (P = .58), and REPS-PFI (P = .34) scores. Activity-specific differences were evident in caregivers’ tolerance for individual risky play activities (15/31 activities). Parents of boys exhibited higher risk tolerance (B = −4.48, P < .01) and willingness for their child to engage in risky play (B = −0.63, P < .01) than parents of girls. Conclusions: While there was no difference between male and female caregivers overall attitudes, gender differences were prominent for specific play activities and attitudes, with male caregivers demonstrating higher tolerance for the riskiest activities. Parents of boys expressed more permissive attitudes toward engagement in risky play. Further work is needed to identify why there is gender-related variation in these attitudes and should be considered in interventions that support parents in enabling adventurous play opportunities for children.

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Serum Vitamin D Levels Mediate the Association Between Physical Activity and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

Keisyanne Araujo-Moura, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Beatriz Schaan, Kátia Bloch, Kênia de Carvalho, Felipe Cureau, and Augusto César Ferreira De Moraes

Individuals with low levels of vitamin D are associated with cardiovascular risks, such as elevated blood pressure (BP), and are; therefore, more likely to develop hypertension. Patients with vitamin D deficiency may face an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, a multicenter, cross-sectional, and school-based investigation was conducted as part of the ERICA project. The sample comprised 1152 adolescents aged 12–17 years from 4 Brazilian cities. Anthropometric variables, BP measurements, and hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were assessed. A 2-level linear regression was fitted to examine the relationship between each level of BP and independent variables. Our findings indicate that movement behaviors were not associated with BP levels, with the exception of sleep time, which demonstrated a positive association. However, after adjustment, this association was found to be nonsignificant. Our study’s mediation analysis revealed that vitamin D mediates up to 12.9% of the association between physical activity and systolic BP. Vitamin D is inversely associated with BP in adolescents. In addition to mediating the physical activity and systolic BP association, engaging in physical activity, particularly outdoors, can provide a dual benefit for adolescents by increasing serum vitamin D levels and assisting in the control of BP levels.

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ISPAH Statement on the Passing of Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

The ISPAH Executive Committee, on behalf of the ISPAH board and members

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Breaking Barriers: An Innovative Tool to Assess the National and City-Level Physical Activity Policy Development to Practice Disconnect

Eugen Resendiz, Andrea Ramírez-Varela, Juliana Mejía-Grueso, Jane Moon, Josef Mitáš, Ross C. Brownson, Deborah Salvo, and Michael Pratt

Background: Population-level physical activity increases are improbable without intersectoral collaboration across government levels and sectors to develop and implement physical activity promotion policies. This study aims to provide information about the development of the Interaction between National and Local Government Levels in Development and Implementation of Physical Activity Policies Tool (INTEGRATE PA-Pol). A framework was created to examine the development and implementation of national and subnational physical activity policies and the (mis)alignment between government levels. Methods: The work was conducted in 3 phases: (1) a scoping review was carried out to identify local government physical activity promotion policies and instruments for assessing them, (2) an expert group designed 6 questionnaires, and (3) cognitive response testing was employed for validity testing and item modification with a panel of research and policy experts. Results: The INTEGRATE PA-Pol Tool consists of 6 questionnaires assessing how national and subnational governments collaborate to develop and implement physical activity promotion policies. Conclusion: This tool can assist in better understanding the development and implementation of a public policy monitoring system that will allow for benchmarking and priority setting to comprehend how physical activity promotion policies are designed and executed.

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Prevalence and Health Associations of Meeting the World Health Organization Guidelines for Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep in Preschool-Aged Children: The SUNRISE Mongolia Pilot and Feasibility Study

Ankhmaa Byambaa, Oyundelger Dechinjamts, Bayasgalan Jambaldorj, Rachel A. Jones, Kar Hau Chong, and Anthony D. Okely

Background: There is a lack of evidence regarding 24-hour movement behaviors of young children from low- and middle-income countries. This study examined Mongolian preschoolers’ adherence to the World Health Organization’s guidelines for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep; their associations with health indicators, and the feasibility of the SUNRISE International study in Mongolia. Methods: Preschool-aged children were recruited from 5 kindergartens in urban and rural areas of Ulaanbaatar city and Tuv province in Mongolia. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured by an ActiGraph accelerometer worn for 5 consecutive days. Screen time and sleep were reported by parents. The National Institute of Health and Early Years Toolboxes were used to assess motor skills and executive function, respectively. Results: One hundred and one children participated in the study (mean age = 4.82 y, boys = 58), with 88% (n = 89) having complete data for analysis. The proportion of children who met the recommendations for physical activity, sedentary screen time, and sleep was 61%, 23%, and 82%, respectively. Only 7% met all recommendations. Meeting the sleep recommendation individually (P = .032) and in combination with the physical activity recommendation was associated with better gross (P = .019) and fine (P = .042) motor skills. Spending more time in physical activity was positively correlated with motor development. Results confirmed that the SUNRISE study protocol was feasible, age-appropriate, and enjoyable for children. Conclusions: The results of the SUNRISE pilot study will help inform the SUNRISE Mongolia main study and lay the groundwork for future research into children’s 24-hour movement behaviors in Mongolia.

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The Legacy of Harold Willis Kohl III

Loretta DiPietro

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Remembering Dr. Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

Deborah Salvo

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“I Can Do It”: Perceived Competence of Parents of Autistic Children After Participating in a Physical Activity Intervention

Luis Columna, Justin A. Haegele, Ashlyn Barry, and Laura Prieto

Background: Autistic children can benefit from physical activity (PA) in a variety of ways. However, autistic children tend not to meet PA recommendations and, consequently, may not experience the associated benefits. Parental PA support can facilitate PA participation among autistic children, but parents of autistic children may lack the skills to help their child engage in PA. Few studies, to date, have examined the outcomes of parent-mediated PA interventions for autistic children. The purpose of this study was to explore parents’ perceived behavioral control (PBC) to support their autistic children in PA after their participation in a PA intervention. Methods: The theory of planned behavior served as the framework for this descriptive–qualitative investigation. Fifteen parents (each with 1 autistic child in the intervention) participated in semistructured interviews (3 wk after the intervention), which were transcribed and then analyzed using thematic line-by-line analysis. Results: Three themes characterized the changes to parents’ PBC after completing the PA intervention. Those themes were: (1) I learned by son! (2) You are my coach! and (3) I can do it! Conclusions: The results showed that by participating in a parent-mediated PA intervention, parents experienced improved confidence and awareness of their child’s abilities, thus enhancing their PBC. Future research is needed to examine how these improvements in PBC may influence the actual PA behaviors of autistic children.

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Associations Between Changes in 24-Hour Movement Behaviors in Children and Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Mediation-Based Meta-Analysis

Ross D. Neville, William G. Hopkins, Brae Anne McArthur, Catherine E. Draper, and Sheri Madigan

Background: Although 24-hour movement behaviors are known to be interconnected, limited knowledge exists about whether change in one behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic (eg, increased screen time) was associated with change in another (eg, reduced physical activity or sleep). This review estimates mediational associations between changes in children’s physical activity, screen time, and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We included studies published between January 1, 2020 and June 27, 2022, in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases. Summary data were extracted from included studies and analyzed with random-effects meta-regression. Results: This review included 26 studies representing 18,959 children across 18 mid-high-income countries (53% male; mean age, 11.5 [2.9] y). There was very good evidence of decreased total daily physical activity (factor change, 0.62; 90% CI, 0.47–0.81) and strong evidence of increased screen time (1.56; 90% CI, 1.38–1.77). There was very good evidence of decreased moderate to vigorous physical activity (0.75; 90% CI, 0.62–0.90) and weak evidence of increased sleep (1.02; 90% CI, 1.00–1.04). Mediational analysis revealed strong evidence that most of the reduction in total daily physical activity from before, to during, the pandemic was associated with increased screen time (0.53; 90% CI, 0.42–0.67). We observed no further mediational associations. Conclusion: Increased reliance on and use of screen-based devices during the COVID-19 pandemic can be linked with reduced child and adolescent physical activity. This finding links COVID-related restrictions to potential displacement effects within child and adolescent 24-hour movement behavior.