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A Modified Delphi Research Study on Fundamental Movement Skill Complexity for Teaching and Learning Physical Literacy

Homa Rafiei Milajerdi, Anna Thacker, Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi, Christoph Clephas, and Larry Katz

Purpose: To establish a consensus on the complexity of 16 fundamental movement skills (FMS). Initially, complexity was defined as how difficult it would be to teach FMS to children and for the children to learn them. Method: The study was conducted using a modified Delphi method and a mobile application called Move Improve® to showcase video demonstrations of 16 FMS. Six experts discussed and rated the complexity of each FMS using a 5-point Likert scale until a 75% consensus was obtained during three rounds. Result: Dribble was rated as the most complex (average five) and run as the least (average one). The highest percentage of consensus at 100% was obtained for dribble, overhead throw, run, and skip during Round 3. Conclusion: Eye–hand or eye–foot coordination, laterality, and the environment were deemed as the most influential factors when rating the complexity of FMS.

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Preservice Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Health-Related Fitness Self-Testing in a Teaching Methods Course

Xiaolu Liu, Jingwen Liu, and Rachel Gurvitch

Purpose: This study explored how preservice physical education teachers (PPETs) perceive health-related fitness testing (HRFT) administered in a self-testing format with the aim to enhance their HRFT learning and better prepare them for future HRFT implementation. Methods: The study utilized a constructive phenomenological research design. A total of 11 PPETs participated in the study. Data were collected through a focus group interview, individual interviews, observation and field notes, and written assignments. Two researchers analyzed the data in NVivo 12. Results: Three findings were concluded from the data. First, the administration of self-testing engaged PPETs in active learning of HRFT. Second, PPETs reported positive attitudes toward self-testing when their needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness were satisfied. Lastly, PPETs identified challenges and proposed suggestions for completing and administrating HRFT. Conclusions: Self-testing may be used as an alternative approach to preparing PPETs for HRFT. More research is needed to examine the effectiveness and reliability of self-testing in educational settings.

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Relationships Between Students’ Emotional Experiences and Cognitive and Physical Achievement During a Middle School Hybrid Sport Education Tactical Model Season

Kelly L. Simonton, Tristan Wallhead, and Ben D. Kern

Purpose: Despite evidence regarding emotions’ impact on learners, there remains a paucity of research examining the relationships between student emotions and achievement within contemporary instructional models. Grounded in the Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions, changes in middle school students’ motivational beliefs, emotions, and learning outcomes across one hybrid Sport Education Tactical Model season were examined. Methods: Middle school students (N = 72) completed pre–post surveys regarding their control-value beliefs and emotions. They also completed physical and cognitive tests, and daily physical activity tracking. Repeated measures of multivariate covariance and regression were tested. Results: Students’ perceived control improved, while their extrinsic value reduced. Emotions did not significantly change, while cognitive exam scores and game performance increased. Conclusion: Emotions varied and influenced intentions for play as opposed to learning and achievement. The study provides preliminary insights into the complexity of how student emotions connect to their motivation and learning within the hybrid Sport Education Tactical Model.

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Exploring Blind and Visually Impaired Students’ Views on How to Improve Physical Education

M. Ally Keene, Justin A. Haegele, Lindsay E. Ball, Lindsey A. Nowland, and Xihe Zhu

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore blind and visually impaired students’ opinions on ways to improve physical education. Method: Twenty-two blind and visually impaired youth (age 12–17 years) completed one-to-one interviews. Three themes were constructed using a reflexive thematic analysis approach. F indings: The first theme depicted participants’ views that physical education was a break during the day that did not have educational benefits. In the second theme, the participants highlighted communication and collaboration as important elements that could improve their experiences. The final theme centered on the nonexistent, insufficient, or demoralizing nature of seldom existing accommodations. Discussion: Blind and visually impaired students noted aspects of curriculum content, communication, and accommodations in physical education that may be changed to enhance their experiences, which largely centered on their physical educators’ behaviors.

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Providing Support to First-Year Graduate Teaching Assistants: What Do They Really Need?

Sheri J. Brock, Brenna Cosgrove Miller, Nikki Hollett, Jessica R. Grimes, and Michele Moore

Purpose: Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) often play a vital role in the delivery of university programs, yet GTAs may lack pedagogical experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of GTAs during their first semester of university teaching. Specifically, we provide a descriptive account of the GTAs’ lived experiences and how departments can best prepare GTAs. Method: Four first-year GTAs at a university in the United States participated in the study. Data collection included participant journals, focus group interviews, and individual interviews. Results: Utilizing situated learning theory as a theoretical frame, data sources generated four themes. GTAs reported positive experiences as ample support was provided, expectations were outlined, experiential learning occurred, and confidence increased through the establishment of routines. Discussion/Conclusion: Findings indicated that GTAs can acclimate to their new universities and responsibilities with guidance, resources, and support.

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Stepping Back, Stepping Up, and Stepping Forward: Exploring One Teacher’s Evolving Approach to Teaching Social and Emotional Learning in High School Physical Education

Donal Howley, Ben Dyson, and Seunghyun Baek

Purpose: Utilizing social constructivist learning theory and a conceptual framework for Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), this self-study explores how I as a teacher-researcher intentionally evolved my approach to teaching SEL in a high school Physical Education setting. Method: Data were collected over twenty 75-min lessons over 15 weeks. One critical friend interview, 20 postteaching reflections, 18 observations, and 22 journal entries were conducted. A deductive and inductive approach utilizing the Miles, Huberman, and Saldana Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis was implemented. Results: Findings demonstrate how aligning my teaching with a contemporary framework led to a more explicit and intentional focus on SEL within my already utilized repertoire of pedagogies. Discussion/Conclusion: Incorporating self-study structure as a teacher-researcher led me to understand how I evolved and felt better equipped to teach for targeted SEL competencies and skills to further compliment the teaching of core Physical Education content.

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Teaching in a New World: A Novice Teacher Educator’s Pursuit for Change

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Purpose: To understand the process of an international doctoral physical education teacher education instructor instituting change during one semester of teaching a university course in the United States. Method: Data included reflexive journal entries, recordings of peer debriefing meetings with a critical friend, informal WhatsApp messages, and anonymous feedback from students. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results: The three main themes were (a) action research as a tool for change, (b) the challenges of the first year as a doctoral physical education teacher education instructor, and (c) the power of reflection. We discuss the main challenges the first author faced and the complexities of the process of developing her pedagogical philosophies in teaching higher education for the first time in a new culture. Conclusions: Action research served as a tool to overcome challenges, develop confidence, and autonomy. The support system provided by her advisors was the main asset for achieving pedagogical change.

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“Learn to Function in the System”: The Organizational Socialization of Urban Physical Educators

Colin G. Pennington, Galila Werber-Zion, and Tanya Prewitt-White

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how urban physical educators’ experiences influence their motivations toward vocational persistence emphasizing health and fitness. Methods: Participants included 16 urban physical educators who participated in semistructured interviews about their experiences teaching in urban settings. For minority youths, who predominantly attend urban public schools, fitness rates are lower than the national average. Physical education has been discussed as a potential solution to combating this public health trend; however, considering Common Core reforms in public education by which health and physical education has been de-emphasized as a curricular requirement, scholars are pursuing knowledge of how the experiences of urban physical educators are evolving. Using occupational socialization as the operating theoretical framework, this study seeks to explore how 16 urban physical educators’ experiences are evolving with the changes in public education, including administrative support and other indicators of marginalization and attrition.  Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in the construction of six themes which suggest that teaching students to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle remains a powerful motivator for urban physical educators’ persistence despite feelings of marginalization and burnout. Conclusions: The authors provide practical suggestions for practitioners and scholars to overcome feelings of marginalization and lack of resources.

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A Qualitative Examination of Online Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Observational Preferences Within Physical Education

Ken Murfay, Sarah Pyszczynski, and Heather Erwin

Purpose: This qualitative case study examined students’ interpretations of their physical activity (PA) experiences within in-person and online physical education and how that influenced their PA self-efficacy. Method: The study participants were 40 (24 females) current high school students from three different schools who participated in focus group semistructured interviews. Results: Two themes were developed during analysis of the coded data: (a) online participation in PA within physical education was awkward and (b) students had a variety of observational preferences based on perceived and actual similarities/differences between students and their teachers, peers, and people within online videos. Discussion/Conclusion: The design of PA experiences should attempt to support or increase students’ PA self-efficacy by limiting students’ feelings of being uncomfortable or on display, increasing students’ opportunities to learn from each other in comfortable ways, and providing students with detailed demonstrations from teachers and peers with a variety of skill levels.

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Physical Education Teachers’ Swimming Skill Analysis in 6- to 12-Year-Old Children: Findings From an Online Survey

Inga Fokken, Ilka Staub, and Tobias Vogt

Purpose: This study aims to investigate how physical education teachers analyze their students’ swimming skills. Particular attention is given to information gathering within the diagnostic process. Methods: Data were collected from a quantitative online survey of German physical education teachers from primary and secondary schools (n = 551). This survey’s questionnaire is based on evaluated statements from a qualitative interview study (n = 10). Findings: Teachers’ diagnostic approaches vary greatly and differ in terms of quality criteria and usability. The predominant method used is movement observation, but 50.3% of the teachers do it rather rarely or without the use of criteria. Many of them (63.8%) would like to be supported by a diagnostic tool for the analysis of swimming skills. Discussion/Conclusion: It has been concluded that an accurate analysis of the students’ swimming skills as a precondition for adaptive lesson structuring is not achieved. It is necessary to determine whether a diagnostic tool could improve this process.