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Tracking District and School Physical Education Time Policies After Legal Adjudication: A Case Study in California

David Kahan, Thomas L. McKenzie, Maya Satnick, and Olivia Hansen

Purpose: Studies tracking changes in physical education (PE) policy adherence after an intervention are scarce. In California, successful litigation against 37 school districts for not providing adequate PE time compelled district schools’ teachers to post PE schedules online or on-site for 3 years. We performed a follow-up study 4 years after the expiration of lawsuit settlement stipulations to determine the level of adherence in the absence of external accountability. Methods: We reexamined the websites of all 37 school districts, 106 schools’ websites that posted time information in spring 2018 (Time 1), and a proportionate 20% random sample of schools’ websites (n = 150) that posted no information at Time 1. We used descriptive statistics and paired t tests to detect differences between Times 1 and 2. Discussion/Conclusion: District websites mostly maintained postings of PE time documents and information, while the proportion of Time 1 posting school websites with such content dropped by 58%–67%. At the school level, compliance to policy mandates was positively, but not permanently impacted by a lawsuit intervention.

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“It’s Been a Hell of a First Year. I Can Tell You That”: Two Novice Physical Educators’ Experiences Teaching in a Global Pandemic

Jacob T. Peterson, Meghan Dennis, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purposes: The purposes of this study were to describe (a) the perspectives and practices of two beginning physical education teachers working in the COVID-19 pandemic and (b) the influence of the teachers’ occupational socialization on these perspectives and practices. Method: Data were collected with four qualitative techniques (formal interviews, informal interviews, document analysis, and a reflection journal). They were analyzed by employing the techniques of analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Jason and Lane were able to cope with and successfully adapt their teaching to the conditions dictated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This appeared to be due to the influence of their professional and secondary professional socialization and the fact that their schools’ cultures were mainly supportive. Conclusions: The study indicates that research-based undergraduate physical education teacher education combined with a specialist sport pedagogy master’s degree can produce skilled physical educators able to deliver effective physical education, even in very difficult circumstances.

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Moving Well-Being Well: Evaluating the Efficacy, Impact on Gender, and Role of Teacher Fidelity of a Fundamental Movement Skill-Based Intervention in Irish Primary School Children

Nathan Gavigan, Johann Issartel, Cameron Peers, and Sarahjane Belton

Purpose: Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMS) is purported to be linked with increased physical activity participation. Yet, recent research suggests a low level of FMS proficiency in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, impact on gender, and influence of teacher fidelity on the Moving Well-Being Well intervention. Method: The intervention was delivered in 18 primary schools (n = 925, M age = 7.55 years). Data were gathered on six FMS and two balance skills pre- and postintervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition and Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2. Results: The mean postintervention FMS score was higher than preintervention, with a mean increase of 7.85 (23%). A two-way analysis of covariance found gender was not statistically significant (p = .74), but teacher fidelity was statistically significant (p = .000; moderate effect size). Conclusions: The intervention significantly improved children’s FMS, having a similar effect on boys and girls. Teacher fidelity of implementation had a significant impact on FMS improvement.

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Moving Well-Being Well: Evaluating the Efficacy, Impact on Gender, and Role of Teacher Fidelity of a Fundamental Movement Skill-Based Intervention in Irish Primary School Children

Nathan Gavigan, Johann Issartel, Cameron Peers, and Sarahjane Belton

Purpose: Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMS) is purported to be linked with increased physical activity participation. Yet, recent research suggests a low level of FMS proficiency in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, impact on gender, and influence of teacher fidelity on the Moving Well-Being Well intervention. Method: The intervention was delivered in 18 primary schools (n = 925, M age = 7.55 years). Data were gathered on six FMS and two balance skills pre- and postintervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition and Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2. Results: The mean postintervention FMS score was higher than preintervention, with a mean increase of 7.85 (23%). A two-way analysis of covariance found gender was not statistically significant (p = .74), but teacher fidelity was statistically significant (p = .000; moderate effect size). Conclusions: The intervention significantly improved children’s FMS, having a similar effect on boys and girls. Teacher fidelity of implementation had a significant impact on FMS improvement.

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Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of a Motor Competence Assessment Digital App

Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Natalie Lander, Ahmad Abu Alqumsan, Shehab Alsanwy, Darius Nahavandi, Nicole Toomey, Shady Mohamed, Steven Lewis, and Lisa M. Barnett

Purpose: To refine a motor competence assessment app prototype, enabling its redesign. Method: Workshops were conducted to inform the prototype development. App’s usability was evaluated on its ability to communicate relevant information to the teachers (n = 9). A “think out loud” protocol was applied by the users. Results: Both workshops refined the app, namely: interface, background, acceptability/feasibility, results, teachers themselves, and effectiveness. Competitor analysis revealed recommendations for the wireframe, visuals, and proposed skills to be assessed. The need to include a demonstration for first-time users, video guidance, and links to more information for each skill was also raised. There was a recommendation on the design brief features and experiences. Conclusions: This study will provide guidance in discovering how digital solutions may shape motor competence assessment. The usability testing process with the teachers provides insight on the essential/desirable features required on these apps, enabling the prototype’s redesign to meet the users’ needs.

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Physical Activity Promotion on Private School Websites: The Case of Maryland

David Kahan, Thomas L. McKenzie, Maya Satnick, and Olivia Hansen

Purpose: Content analysis of school websites may reveal the degree to which schools value physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA). We used the approach to quantify Maryland’s private school websites’ PE/PA content and associations with school characteristics. Method: The analytic sample (n = 387) was examined for mention of PE-/PA-related content (e.g., curriculum, dosage, intramurals). Associations between content and school characteristics (e.g., grade levels offered, religious orientation) were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test. Results: PE (∼75% of school websites) was mentioned most frequently, and PA images and PE curriculum (∼30% each) were mentioned least frequently. Elementary and Catholic school websites were proportionately less and more likely, respectively, to mention various PE/PA content. Discussion/Conclusion: Representation of PE/PA content among Maryland’s private schools surpassed that found in previous studies. Nonetheless, relative omission of some content may allude to PE/PA being less valued compared with other academic subjects. Follow-up with stakeholders may help elucidate factors that influence content gatekeeping.

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Preservice Teachers’ Implementation of Cooperative Learning in Chinese Physical Education

Wen Xiong, Rod Philpot, Penelope W. St J. Watson, and Ben Dyson

Purpose: To explore preservice teachers’ (PSTs) implementation of cooperative learning (CL) during their school-based student-teaching after undertaking a CL course in a Chinese physical education teacher education program. Method: An interpretive qualitative case study design gathered data from eight PSTs using classroom observations, semistructured interviews, reflective journals, instructional materials, and field notes. Interactive cycling coding was used to analyze the data. Findings: The two themes, putting five key elements into practice and learning to facilitate with CL, convey how the PSTs implemented the procedures of CL and adapted CL to the contexts they were teaching in. Discussion and Conclusions: The eight PSTs appropriately implemented CL and contextualized CL practice in their classrooms. They shifted their teaching approaches away from direct instruction and toward more independent, pupil group-based tasks. This growth is particularly important in the Chinese physical education context, where policies advocate for CL yet student-centered teaching which is rarely seen in practice.

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Socializing Influences in the Careers of South Korean Female Physical Educators

Okseon Lee, Kevin Andrew Richards, Yeri Hong, and Youngjoon Kim

Purpose: Grounded in the occupational socialization theory, this study explored how gender interacted with and influenced socialization experiences in the careers of South Korean female physical educators. Specific attention was directed toward the gendered experiences that female teachers experienced and the coping strategies to navigate them. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative case study design, and the participants were 15 female secondary school physical educators. Data were collected through life story timelines, critical incident writings, and individual interviews. Results: Four themes emerged: (a) unwelcomed and invisible; (b) experiencing a physicality-driven hierarchy; (c) dual marginalization as female physical educators; and (d) retreating, masking, redefining, or leaving to cope with challenges. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings indicated that female physical educators experienced being dual-marginalized due to the interplay between gender and subject matter. In response to the challenges, some conformed to their gender role to be safe; however, other teachers employed various strategies to overcome the status quo.

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Assessing Student Ratings of Developmental Experiences in a High School Physical Education Leadership Program

Paul M. Wright, Kevin Andrews Richards, and James D. Ressler

Purpose: Although physical education (PE) leadership programs are widespread, little research has examined the PE leaders’ perceptions of these experiences. The purpose of this study was to assess student ratings of developmental experiences in a PE leadership program compared with ratings of the typical PE student experience. Method: A matched case-control study design was used to assess high school students’ (n = 186) subscale scores on the Youth Experience Survey 2.0. Data were analyzed using matched-pairs t tests, and Cohen’s d was used as a measure of effect size. Results: As hypothesized, PE leaders reported significantly higher levels of positive experiences and no significant differences on negative experiences. Discussion/Conclusions: Little is known about what happens in most PE leadership programs. Results presented here support claims that PE can support meaningful leadership development. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

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Female Undergraduate Students’ Experiences Facilitating an Out-of-School Physical Activity Program for Middle School Girls

Peter Stoepker, Duke Biber, and Jaimie McMullen

Purpose: To explore undergraduate students’ experiences leading and facilitating an out-of-school-time (OST) physical activity program for middle school girls. Method: Five female undergraduate students (N = 4 Black or African American) participated in semistructured individual interviews and submitted weekly reflections during their time leading the OST Girls Empowering Movement (program). The data were analyzed inductively by conducting systematic searches across interview transcripts and artifacts. Results: Four themes were generated, including: find something that they would like, sometimes it is hard to calm chaos, those girls cling to me, and this experience was really good for me. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the undergraduate students who facilitated the Girls Empowering Movement program experienced significant growth and learned the complexities involved in facilitating and leading an OST program. These findings have practical implications when considering physical activity leadership practices and experiences leading OST physical activity programming.