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Evaluating the Feasibility of the Education, Movement, and Understanding (EMU) Program: A Primary School-Based Physical Education Program Integrating Indigenous Games Alongside Numeracy and Literacy Skills

Narelle Eather, Nicholas Riley, Mark Babic, Andrew Bennie, John Maynard, and Philip J. Morgan

Purpose : The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a 16-lesson integrated physical education program focusing on Indigenous games: Education, Movement, and Understanding (EMU). Method: The study aligned with current physical education, English, and mathematics syllabi and involved 105 children (9–12 years) from two primary schools (Awabakal Country, Australia; 2020). Children participated in sixteen 45–60 min EMU lessons over 8 weeks, with feasibility and preliminary efficacy outcomes assessed via mixed methods. Results: EMU was delivered successfully by the research team, with excellent student and teacher evaluations (M = 4.36–5.0 across 20 items). Improvements resulted for children’s cardiorespiratory fitness (d = 0.37, p = .001), enjoyment of sport (d = 0.27, p = .024), physical self-perceptions (d = 0.27, p = .043), and academic achievement (spelling d = 0.91, addition d = 0.40, subtraction d = 0.53, and division d = 0.68). No significant changes in well-being or multiplication scores resulted. Conclusion: Our results provide support for the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of EMU as a beneficial and enjoyable integrated primary school physical education program.

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Volume 42 (2023): Issue 2 (Apr 2023)

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Encouraging Students to Co-Construct and Co- and Self-Regulate Their Learning Within a Cooperative Learning Environment in Physical Education

André Moura, Ann MacPhail, Amândio Graça, and Paula Batista

Purpose : Improving students’ learning is dependent on students’ participation, meaningfulness, and value of the teaching–learning process. This study explores students’ learning experiences when undertaking the role of co-constructors and co- and self-regulators in a cooperative learning environment. Methods : The study included 110 school students aged between 15 and 18 years from four physical education preservice teachers’ classes. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, a postteaching units’ survey, students’ class reflections, and the researcher’s field notes. Results/Discussion : Data report that (a) having access to learning goals and assessment criteria was essential for the co-construction and co- and self-regulation processes, (b) there is a positive reciprocal relationship between students’ involvement in co-construction and co- and self-regulations, and (c) co-construction and co- and self-regulations were strengthened by students’ involvement in cooperative learning and vice versa.

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The Relationship and Effect Among Physical Literacy Attributes in University Physical Education During the Pandemic Quarantine Period

Siu Ming Choi, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, Elean Fung Lin Leung, and Cindy Sit

Purpose: This prospective cohort study investigated the impact of online and hybrid teaching of university-required physical education on students’ physical literacy-related correlates. To avoid the widespread pandemic, the university decided to offer courses online through video conferencing or via a hybrid mode. When compared with face-to-face instruction, these formats may intensely affect students’ physical literacy journey during early adulthood. Methods: A group of 1,738 students (42% males and 58% females) aged 18.52 (±1.29) responded to a three-phase online survey in various courses. Results: The structural equation modeling determined that motivation and physical activity levels were negatively related to physical competence and knowledge and understanding. Further repeated-measure analyses recognized the interaction effect of amotivation. Results indicated that participants in the online teaching mode may experience a learning predicament over those in the hybrid one. Conclusion: Practically, the physical literacy teaching strategies in nurturing motivation and physical competence should be reinforced.

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Strength and Conditioning in U.S. Schools: A Qualitative Investigation of Physical Educators’ Socialization and Professional Experiences

Ben D. Kern, David Bellar, Wesley J. Wilson, and Samiyah Rasheed

Purpose: To examine socialization experiences of physical educators who deliver strength and conditioning (S&C) programming, particularly the development of subjective theories, expertise, orientations, and perceived mattering. Methods: Thirty-one secondary school physical educators providing S&C instruction/supervision as part of required duties completed in-depth interviews with Occupational Socialization Theory as a guiding framework for analysis. Results: Themes developed were (a) acculturation and organizational socialization influence beliefs, (b) S&C professional development is scarce, (c) S&C in physical education is a sporting endeavor, (d) blurred lines between teaching and coaching, and (e) S&C-related programs matter. Discussion: Physical educators delivering S&C programming lack adequate preservice preparation and professional development, and experience both role conflict and decreased marginalization. Physical education teacher education programs should offer more formal S&C training for safe and effective instruction/supervision. Schools should provide S&C-related professional development to maximize student learning and safety and avoid potential legal liability.

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Investigating Middle School Students’ Physical Education Emotions, Emotional Antecedents, Self-Esteem, and Intentions for Physical Activity

Kelly L. Simonton and Todd E. Layne

Purpose: Grounded in Control-Value Theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between emotional antecedents (control-value beliefs) and emotions with students' perceived self-esteem and physical activity intention. In addition, the potential differences in antecedents, emotions, and outcomes by gender were explored. Method: Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple hierarchical regressions were used to explore self-reported responses from middle school students (N = 247; 51% male, 49% female). Results: Preliminary analysis showed males reporting higher levels of intrinsic value, enjoyment, and self-esteem, while females reported more boredom and shame in PE. Control beliefs and intrinsic value were maintained as positive significant predictors (p < .05) of self-esteem and physical activity intention. Emotions of boredom and shame were significant predictors above any positive reported emotions for negatively impacting self-esteem and physical activity intention. Discussion/Conclusion: Emotions and their antecedents need consideration for understanding student motivation, particularly for female students who are more vulnerable to negative PE experiences.

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Measuring Physical Education Teacher Socialization With Respect to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

Christopher Barton Merica, Cate A. Egan, Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Grace Goc Karp, David R. Paul, Hailey McKown, and Seth Rose

Purpose: Utilizing teacher socialization in physical education theory, the aim of this study was to develop a survey to measure physical education teachers’ socialization experiences and comprehensive school physical activity program involvement. Method: Instrument development included a review of existing comprehensive school physical activity program and socialization instruments, Delphi method to evaluate face and content validity through expert feedback, and a pilot test to examine the instrument’s psychometric properties. Results: Upon completion of expert feedback, three items were removed, four items were revised, and open-ended questions were added to each survey construct. The pilot test yielded 28 completed surveys (40% response rate). Bayesian exploratory factor analytic procedures showed that items had statistically significant loadings and were quality measures of the corresponding constructs. Survey subscales had acceptable and high internal consistency coefficients. Discussion/Conclusion: Results suggest that this instrument is a trustworthy tool for continued research examining physical education teachers’ socialization and comprehensive school physical activity program involvement.

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Can Physical Activity Breaks Assist Mathematics Learning? A Domain Learning Theory Perspective

Wen-Yi Wang and Ang Chen

Purpose : Guided by the model of domain learning theory, this study was intended to determine the extent to which integrating a 10-min physical activity (PA) break in elementary school mathematics lessons would enhance the learning of mathematics content. Methods: A sample of 22 intact classes from a random sample of eight schools in Taiwan were randomly assigned to an experimental condition with PA breaks (n = 11) and a control condition (n = 11) for 12 weeks. Students’ (N = 420) mathematics knowledge was assessed using the standardized aptitude tests accompanying the curriculum, which encompassed five knowledge domains. Results: Analysis on class means showed that adding the PA breaks did not benefit mathematics learning, which lends support to the model of domain learning theory. Discussion/Conclusion: The findings seem to question the theoretical foundation for adding PA breaks to classroom-taught content, including mathematics. Although interdisciplinary or cross-disciplinary instruction and learning may be necessary to advance students’ knowledge, including PA in classroom-taught subjects needs extensive research.

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“I Thought It Was Going to Be Trash”: Rural High School Students’ Disability-Related Perception Change Following Paralympic School Day

Cathy McKay, T.N. Kirk, and Marie Leake

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the experiences and impact of the Paralympic School Day program on disability-related perceptions of rural high school students. Methods: Ninth- and tenth-grade physical education classes from a rural high school participated in the Paralympic School Day event. Of the 68 who attended the event, 42 students furnished assent and consent to participate. Data from reflective writing responses were analyzed inductively using a three-step approach. Findings: The analysis revealed three interrelated themes: (a) “I didn’t expect it to be fun”: preconceptions and reality of trying parasport, (b) “Anyone can play a sport”: developing new perceptions of disability, and (c) “I never realized how blessed I was”: persistence of ableist framing. Discussion: As a result of participants interacting with and learning from athletes with physical disabilities, they developed an understanding of parasport and a new paradigm through which to view individuals with disabilities.

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Influence of a Summer Wellness Program on Bullying Reduction Among School-Age Children

Mengyi Wei, Kevin Andrew Richards, Naiman A. Khan, Amelia Mays Woods, Dorothy L. Espelage, and Kim C. Graber

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine children’s, camp counselors’, and activity leaders’ perceptions toward the effects of a 4-week teaching personal and social responsibility model-based summer learning and enrichment program and its ability to reduce bullying behaviors among school-age children. Method: Data collection included semistructured interviews with 30 children and eight camp staff. Child participants completed the following pre- and postsurveys: Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire and the Illinois Bullying Scale. In addition, daily observations over a 4-week period were recorded in a field notes log. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations, and all observational and interview data were coded using inductive and deductive techniques. Results: The results indicated that the implementation of teaching personal and social responsibility model was perceived to be associated with reduction in the bullying. Conclusion: Findings from the present study suggested teaching personal and social responsibility facilitated social and emotional learning and improved children’s personal and social responsibility.