The efficient coordination of fingertip forces to maintain static equilibrium while grasping an object continues to intrigue scientists. While many studies have explored this coordination, most of these studies assumed that interactions of hands primarily occur with rigid inanimate objects. Instead, our daily interactions with living and nonliving entities involve many dynamic, compliant, or fragile bodies. This paper investigates the fingertip force coordination on a manipulandum that changes its shape while grasping it. We designed a five-finger perturbation system with linear actuators at positions corresponding to each finger that would protrude outward from the center of the handle or retract toward the center of the handle as programmed. The behavior of the perturbed fingers and the other fingers while grasping this device was studied. Based on previous experiments on expanding and contracting handles, we hypothesized that each finger would exhibit a comparable response to similar horizontal perturbations. However, the response of the little finger was significantly different from the other fingers. We speculate that the central nervous system demonstrates preferential recruitment of some fingers over others while performing a task.
Inverse Saxophone—A Device to Study the Role of Individual Finger Perturbations on Grasp Stability
Thomas Jacob, Swarnab Dutta, Salai Jeyaseelan Annamalai, and Varadhan SKM
Electrical Stimulation of Distal Tibial Nerve During Stance Phase of Walking May Reverse Effects of Unilateral Paw Pad Anesthesia in the Cat
Hangue Park, Alexander N. Klishko, Kyunggeune Oh, Celina Zhang, Gina Grenga, Kinsey R. Herrin, John F. Dalton IV, Robert S. Kistenberg, Michel A. Lemay, Mark Pitkin, Stephen P. DeWeerth, and Boris I. Prilutsky
Cutaneous feedback from feet is involved in regulation of muscle activity during locomotion, and the lack of this feedback results in motor deficits. We tested the hypothesis that locomotor changes caused by local unilateral anesthesia of paw pads in the cat could be reduced/reversed by electrical stimulation of cutaneous and proprioceptive afferents in the distal tibial nerve during stance. Several split-belt conditions were investigated in four adult female cats. In addition, we investigated the effects of similar distal tibial nerve stimulation on overground walking of one male cat that had a transtibial, bone-anchored prosthesis for 29 months and, thus, had no cutaneous/proprioceptive feedback from the foot. In all treadmill conditions, cats walked with intact cutaneous feedback (control), with right fore- and hindpaw pads anesthetized by lidocaine injections, and with a combination of anesthesia and electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral distal tibial nerve during the stance phase at 1.2× threshold of afferent activation. Electrical stimulation of the distal tibial nerve during the stance phase of walking with anesthetized ipsilateral paw pads reversed or significantly reduced the effects of paw pad anesthesia on several kinematic variables, including lateral center of mass shift, cycle and swing durations, and duty factor. We also found that stimulation of the residual distal tibial nerve in the prosthetic hindlimb often had different effects on kinematics compared with stimulation of the intact hindlimb with paw anesthetized. We suggest that stimulation of cutaneous and proprioceptive afferents in the distal tibial nerve provides functionally meaningful motion-dependent sensory feedback, and stimulation responses depend on limb conditions.
External Focus Reduces Accuracy and Increases Antagonist Muscle Activation in Novice Adolescent Soccer Players
Serkan Uslu and Emel Çetin Özdoğan
Instep kick is one of the most effective kicking techniques in soccer. Lower extremity muscles and joints play a crucial role during instep kick. However, external (EF) and internal focus and their effect on the muscles are still ambiguous. In this study, 13 male adolescent soccer players were included and aimed to hit the targets in internal and EF conditions. Lower extremity muscle activations were measured with surface electromyography, and kinematics were measured with a high-speed video camera. Muscle activations and movement latencies were analyzed in four different phases (backswing, leg cocking, acceleration, and follow-through) of kicking. While 10 out of 13 participants kicked accurately in internal focus, only five out of 13 in EF kicked accurately. Gastrocnemius muscle activations increased significantly in EF in all phases except acceleration. Movement latencies were found 0.07 ± 0.002 s for accurate and 0.05 ± 0.004 s for inaccurate kicks in EF. A correlation has been found between accuracy and movement latency in EF (R = .67). Our results suggest that novices cannot yet coordinate their muscles in EF, cocontraction ratio increases. Therefore, training strategies that aim to reduce the cocontraction ratio can help the athlete increase performance through better motor coordination. Moreover, better motor coordination may be beneficial in preventing injuries (joint stiffness, etc.) caused by increased cocontraction ratio.
Decoupled Control of Grasp and Rotation Constraints During Prehension of Weightless Objects
Dayuan Xu, Jiwon Park, Jiseop Lee, Sungjune Lee, and Jaebum Park
Gravity provides critical information for the adjustment of body movement or manipulation of the handheld object. Indeed, the changes in gravity modify the mechanical constraints of prehensile actions, which may be accompanied by the changes in control strategies. The current study examined the effect of the gravitational force of a handheld object on the control strategies for subactions of multidigit prehension. A total of eight subjects performed prehensile tasks while grasping and lifting the handle by about 250 mm along the vertical direction. The experiment consisted of two conditions: lifting gravity-induced (1g) and weightless (0g) handheld objects. The weightless object condition was implemented utilizing a robot arm that produced a constant antigravitational force of the handle. The current analysis was limited to the two-dimensional grasping plane, and the notion of the virtual finger was employed to formulate the cause–effect chain of elemental variables during the prehensile action. The results of correlation analyses confirmed that decoupled organization of two subsets of mechanical variables was observed in both 1g and 0g conditions. While lifting the handle, the two subsets of variables were assumed to contribute to the grasping and rotational equilibrium, respectively. Notably, the normal forces of the thumb and virtual finger had strong positive correlations. In contrast, the normal forces had no significant relationship with the variables as to the moment of force. We conclude that the gravitational force had no detrimental effect on adjustments of the mechanical variables for the rotational action and its decoupling from the grasping equilibrium.
Optimization Reduces Knee-Joint Forces During Walking and Squatting: Validating the Inverse Dynamics Approach for Full Body Movements on Instrumented Knee Prostheses
Heiko Wagner, Kim Joris Boström, Marc H.E. de Lussanet, Myriam L. de Graaf, Christian Puta, and Luis Mochizuki
Because of the redundancy of our motor system, movements can be performed in many ways. While multiple motor control strategies can all lead to the desired behavior, they result in different joint and muscle forces. This creates opportunities to explore this redundancy, for example, for pain avoidance or reducing the risk of further injury. To assess the effect of different motor control optimization strategies, a direct measurement of muscle and joint forces is desirable, but problematic for medical and ethical reasons. Computational modeling might provide a solution by calculating approximations of these forces. In this study, we used a full-body computational musculoskeletal model to (a) predict forces measured in knee prostheses during walking and squatting and (b) study the effect of different motor control strategies (i.e., minimizing joint force vs. muscle activation) on the joint load and prediction error. We found that musculoskeletal models can accurately predict knee joint forces with a root mean squared error of <0.5 body weight (BW) in the superior direction and about 0.1 BW in the medial and anterior directions. Generally, minimization of joint forces produced the best predictions. Furthermore, minimizing muscle activation resulted in maximum knee forces of about 4 BW for walking and 2.5 BW for squatting. Minimizing joint forces resulted in maximum knee forces of 2.25 BW and 2.12 BW, that is, a reduction of 44% and 15%, respectively. Thus, changing the muscular coordination strategy can strongly affect knee joint forces. Patients with a knee prosthesis may adapt their neuromuscular activation to reduce joint forces during locomotion.
Postural Control and Adaptation Strategy of Young Adults on Unstable Surface
Qian Qi Lai, Darwin Gouwanda, and Alpha A. Gopalai
Balance control is essential for postural adjustment in physical activities. This study investigates the behavior of human postural control and the coordination and adaptation strategy of hip, knee, and ankle when standing on an unstable surface. Twenty participants were recruited. Four different conditions were investigated: a quiet bipedal stance with eyes open and eyes closed, and standing on an unstable surface with eyes open and eyes closed. Other than the joint angle, the standard body sway measures, such as sway area and sway velocity, were computed. A nonlinear time series measure, that is, sample entropy, was used to determine the regularity of the time series and body adaptability to change and perturbation. The results show that the body sway increases as the difficulty increases. This study also confirms the coordination of the hip, knee, and ankle to maintain body balance on the unstable surface by decreasing the joint angle and adopting a lower posture. Even though the individual joint has lower sample entropy value and is deemed to be rigid and less adaptive to perturbation, the postural control exhibits higher sample entropy value, particularly in the anterior–posterior direction, and has the ability to stabilize the body by manipulating the joints simultaneously. These outcomes suggest that an unstable surface not only challenges the human postural control, but also reduces the hip, knee, and ankle adaptability to perturbation, thus making it a great tool to train body balance.
Volume 26 (2022): Issue 4 (Oct 2022)
Memory-Guided Reaching: Is It Effortful?
Hui-Ting Goh, Jill Campbell Stewart, Kevin Becker, and Cheng-Ju Hung
We previously showed that perceived effort during visually guided reaching was altered as task demand varied. Further, self-reported subjective fatigue correlated with perceived effort and reach performance under visually guided conditions. Memory-guided reaching often leads to performance deterioration and can provide insights about the planning and control of reach actions. It is unclear how perceived effort changes during memory-guided reaching and whether self-reported subjective fatigue is associated with perceived effort of memory-guided reaching. Twenty-three young adults performed reach actions under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Perceived effort, reaction time, and endpoint error increased significantly from the visually- to the memory-guided condition. Self-reported subjective fatigue was associated with perceived effort and reach distance error during memory-guided reaching; those with higher levels of fatigue reported greater perceived effort and tended to reach farther when visual information was not available. These findings establish a foundation to examine relationships between subjective fatigue, perceived effort, and reach control.
Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis of the Effects of Different Fatigue Locations on Kinematic Coordination During a Repetitive Upper-Limb Task
Matthew Slopecki, Fariba Hasanbarani, Chen Yang, Christopher A. Bailey, and Julie N. Côté
Fatigue at individual joints is known to affect interjoint coordination during repetitive multijoint tasks. However, how these coordination adjustments affect overall task stability is unknown. Twelve participants completed a repetitive pointing task at rest and after fatigue of the shoulder, elbow, and trunk. Upper-limb and trunk kinematics were collected. Uncontrolled manifold framework was applied to a kinematic model to link elemental variables to endpoint fingertip position. Mixed and one-way analysis of variances determined effects (phase and fatigue location) on variance components and synergy index, respectively. The shoulder fatigue condition had the greatest impact in causing increases in variance components and a decreased synergy index in the late phase of movement, suggesting more destabilization of the interjoint task caused by shoulder fatigue.
Functional Performance, Leg Muscle Strength, and Core Muscle Endurance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Mild Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study
Cagla Ozkul, Kader Eldemir, Sefa Eldemir, Muhammed Seref Yildirim, Fettah Saygili, Arzu Guclu-Gunduz, and Ceyla Irkec
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of sit-to-stand and walking performance with leg muscle strength and core muscle endurance in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) with mild disabilities. In this study, 49 PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score = 1.59 ± 0.79) and 26 healthy controls were enrolled. The functional performances, including sit-to-stand and walking performances, were evaluated with the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, timed up and go test, and 6-min walking test. The PwMS finished significantly slower five-repetition sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and 6-min walking test than the healthy controls. In addition, the significant contributors were the weakest trunk lateral flexor endurance for five-repetition sit-to-stand; the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, and the weakest hip adductor muscle for timed up and go; the weakest hip extensor muscles strength for 6-min walking test. The functional performances in PwMS, even with mild disabilities, were lower compared with healthy controls. Decreases in both leg muscle strength and core muscle endurance are associated with lower functional performance in PwMS.