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Xiu Hu, Shaojun Lyu, Min Mao, Jianwei Zhang, Wei Sun, Cui Zhang, and Qipeng Song

The team developed the newly compiled eight methods and five steps of Tai Chi (EMFSTC), which includes introductory routines to Tai Chi characterized by simple structures. This study examined the effectiveness of EMFSTC practice on balance control. A total of 31 participants were randomly assigned to EMFSTC (n = 15, age = 66.4 ± 1.7 years, received 16-week EMFSTC practice) or control (n = 16, age = 66.7 ± 1.8 years, received no practice) groups. Significant group by training interactions were observed. After EMFSTC practice, balance control improved, as indicated by decreased root mean square and mean velocity of center of pressure, proprioception threshold during knee extension, and plantar tactile sensitivity threshold at the arch. EMFSCT can be an effective rehabilitation modality to improve balance control among older adults.

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Valters Abolins and Mark L. Latash

We present a review on the phenomenon of unintentional finger action seen when other fingers of the hand act intentionally. This phenomenon (enslaving) has been viewed as a consequence of both peripheral (e.g., connective tissue links and multifinger muscles) and neural (e.g., projections of corticospinal pathways) factors. Recent studies have shown relatively large and fast drifts in enslaving toward higher magnitudes, which are not perceived by subjects. These and other results emphasize the defining role of neural factors in enslaving. We analyze enslaving within the framework of the theory of motor control with spatial referent coordinates. This analysis suggests that unintentional finger force changes result from drifts of referent coordinates, possibly reflecting the spread of cortical excitation.

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Luk Devorski, David M. Bazett-Jones, L. Colby Mangum, and Neal R. Glaviano

Context: Lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) exercises are used to increase stabilization within the human body. Torso-elevated side support (TESS), foot-elevated side support (FESS), prone bridge plank (PBP), and V-sit are common LPHC exercises. Objective: To evaluate muscle activation in the shoulder girdle and LPHC during 4 LPHC exercises and evaluate the reasoning for termination. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventeen healthy participants (12 males and 5 females; age: 21.47 [3.16] y, height: 179.73 [8.92] cm, mass: 76.89 [11.17] kg). Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed 2 repetitions of the TESS, FESS, PBP, and V-sit until failure. Surface electromyography of the middle deltoid, latissimus dorsi, middle trapezius, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, external oblique, and gluteus medius were recorded and normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The duration of exercise and subjective reasoning for termination of exercise was completed following the 4 tasks. Results: The TESS and PBP had significantly greater middle deltoid muscle activation (TESS: 55.66% [24.45%] MVIC and PBP: 42.63% [18.25%] MVIC) compared with the FESS (10.10% [10.04%] MVIC) and V-sit (2.21% [1.94%] MVIC), P < .05. The TESS produced significantly greater external oblique activity (78.13% [32.32%] MVIC) than the PBP (54.99% [19.54%] MVIC), P < .05. Due to shoulder fatigue and pain, 41.1% and 17.0% of participants terminated the TESS, respectively. The PBP was terminated due to abdominal fatigue (41.1%) and upper-extremity fatigue (47.0%). Conclusions: The V-sit resulted in isolated activity of the abdominal portion of the LPHC. The FESS had increased global co-contraction of the LPHC compared with the TESS. The PBP and TESS had significant muscle activation in the upper-extremity.

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Shauna Ericksen, Geoff Dover, and Richard DeMont

Clinical Scenario: Injury prevention programs are becoming standard practice for reducing sports-related injuries, but most programs focus on musculoskeletal elements. Psychological factors can be strong predictors of sports-related injuries and there is recent evidence that suggests psychological interventions can be effective at reducing injury risk. It is unclear if injury prevention programs that focus on psychological factors are an important inclusion for athletic trainers/therapists. Athletes can be exposed to different psychological factors based on sport type including team or individual sports, which can increase their risk of injury. While psychological interventions can reduce injuries by addressing psychological symptoms, it is unclear if the interventions are effective for at-risk athletes in addition to athletes who are not suffering from any psychological factors. Currently, there are no guidelines or recommendations for athletic trainers/therapists to address psychological factors with the purpose of injury prevention. Clinical Question: Are psychological intervention programs effective in reducing sports-related injury risk and are they clinically relevant to athletic trainers/therapists for implementation in all settings? Summary of Findings: The authors searched the literature for studies investigating the use of psychological intervention programs to reduce sports-related injuries in an athletic population. The search returned 6 possible papers (2 systematic reviews without meta-analysis, 1 systematic review with a meta-analysis, 2 meta-analyses, and 1 randomized control trial not included in the systematic reviews). The authors narrowed our appraisal to one systematic review and one randomized controlled trial. The review contained all the studies from the previous review papers including 3 studies which performed screening procedures. The collection of evidence demonstrates positive effects associated with implementing psychological intervention techniques to reduce sports injury rates in all athletes; at-risk athletes, not at-risk athletes, and individual and team-sport athletes. Bottom Line: There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of a psychological-based intervention by athletic trainers/therapists to effectively reduce the number of injury occurrences in the athletic population. Direct comparisons of effectiveness between team and individual sports was not conducted in the research, but a substantial representation of both sport types existed. The current evidence includes a variety of athletic populations, at-risk and not at-risk, different sport types, and competition levels. Athletic trainers/therapists should consider the integration of psychological disciplines in current injury prevention practices to address the psychological concerns which put athletes at additional risk for injury. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of psychological intervention strategies in a well-developed injury prevention plan. Sports medicine practitioners can help athletes reduce stress, increase mindfulness, and be more aware of mental health practices which helps reduce injury risk.

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Jessica G. Hunter, Gina L. Garcia, Sushant M. Ranadive, Jae Kun Shim, and Ross H. Miller

Context: Understanding if roller massage prior to a run can mitigate fatigue-related decrements in muscle force production during prolonged running is important because of the association between fatigue and running-related injury. Objective: The authors investigated whether a bout of roller massage prior to running would (1) mitigate fatigue-related increases in vertical average load rate and free moment of the ground reaction force of running and (2) mitigate decreases in maximal countermovement jump height. Design: Repeated-measures study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 14 recreational endurance athletes (11 men and 3 women) volunteered for the study. Interventions: A 12.5-minute foam roller protocol for the lower extremities and a fatiguing 30-minute treadmill run. Main Outcome Measures: Vertical average load rate, free moment, and maximal jump height before (PRE) and after (POST) the fatiguing treadmill run on separate experimental days: once where participants sat quietly prior to the fatiguing run (REST) and another where the foam roller protocol was performed prior to the run (ROLL). Results: A 2-way multiple analysis of variance found no significant differences in vertical average load rate, free moment, and jump height between PRE/POST times in both REST/ROLL conditions. Conclusions: The authors concluded that recreational endurance athletes maintain running mechanics and jump performance after a fatiguing run regardless of prerun roller massage and may not rely on prerun roller massage as a form of injury prevention.

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Shawn R. Eagle, Patrick J. Sparto, Cynthia L. Holland, Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry, Nicholas A. Blaney, Hannah B. Bitzer, Michael W. Collins, Joseph M. Furman, and Anthony P. Kontos

Context: Research in the area of dual-task paradigms to assess sport-related concussion (SRC) status is growing, but additional assessment of this paradigm in adolescents is warranted. Design: This case-control study compared 49 adolescent athletes aged 12–20 years with diagnosed SRC to 49 age- and sex-matched controls on visual–spatial discrimination and perceptual inhibition (PIT) reaction time tasks performed while balancing on floor/foam pad conditions. Methods: The SRC group completed measures at a single time point between 1 and 10 days postinjury. Primary outcomes were dual-task reaction time, accuracy, and sway. General linear models evaluated differences between groups (P < .05). Logistic regression identified predictors of concussion from outcomes. Area under the curve evaluated discriminative ability of identifying SRC. Results: Results supported significantly higher anterior–posterior (AP) sway values in concussed participants for visual–spatial discrimination and PIT when balancing on the floor (P = .03) and foam pad (P = .03), as well as mediolateral sway values on the floor during visual–spatial discrimination (P = .01). Logistic regression analysis (R 2 = .15; P = .001) of all dual-task outcomes identified AP postural sway during the PIT foam dual task as the only significant predictor of concussed status (ß = −2.4; P = .004). Total symptoms (area under the curve = 0.87; P < .001) and AP postural sway on foam (area under the curve = 0.70; P = .001) differentiated concussed from controls. Conclusion: The AP postural sway on foam during a postural stability/PIT dual task can identify concussion in adolescents between 1 and 10 days from injury.

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Nina Robinson, Shannon L. David, Nicole A. German, and Jennifer Swenson

A healthy 20-year-old Division I track athlete participated in out-of-season practice and experienced inflammation on mid-lateral aspect of his right calcaneus. The patient modified his weekly training program, and a magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an accessory peroneus quartus. This muscle is present in around 5.2% of the population. The pathological symptoms cause pain, snapping, and synovitis. Literature shows a higher prevalence of the accessory peroneus quartus muscle in males of European/American descent and in the right lower leg. Symptoms include peroneal tears, decrease in range of motion, and pain of the ankle and foot.

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Caitlin A. Madison, Rod A. Harter, Marie L. Pickerill, and Jeff M. Housman

Rib stress injuries (RSIs) are debilitating injuries that competitive rowers often sustain during their careers, losing up to 10 weeks of training per year. Minimal research exists on RSIs and associated risk factors among National Collegiate Athletic Association women’s open-weight rowers. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of RSIs and assess injury risk factors in intercollegiate female rowers. A prospective 14-week in-season injury surveillance was conducted via online surveys to collect demographic information, identify intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, and document RSIs and other rowing-related injuries. During one National Collegiate Athletic Association season, 26% of our participants reported a rib cage injury, with six of these injuries identified as potential RSIs. Estimated prevalence for rib cage injuries is 6–33% in National Collegiate Athletic Association women’s rowing teams. RSI reporting and recognition was followed by aggressive clinical management in the population sampled, suggesting the need for larger scale epidemiological studies to determine the true prevalence, severity, and typical clinical course of these injuries.

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Konstantin Beinert, Katharina Deutsch, Sebastian Löscher, and Martin Diers

Patients with neck pain demonstrate a variety of sensorimotor impairments, such as decreased cervical joint position sense (CJPS) acuity, which might also be associated with an impaired internal body representation. The present study evaluated the effect of real-time visual feedback of the individual’s own neck on CJPS compared to observing a book. Twenty-three patients with neck pain participated in the experiment and received the interventions in randomized order on separate days in a within-subject pretest–posttest design. Before and immediately after each intervention, CJPS was measured by a therapist blinded to the intervention. The results demonstrate a significantly different development of CJPS (p = .04), with increased CJPS acuity after observing one’s own neck and decreased acuity after observing a book. Real-time visual feedback of the neck improved CJPS acuity in patients with neck pain without active movements of the neck, indicating the importance of central nervous system processing for CJPS acuity.

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Hananeh Younesian, Thomas Legrand, Ludovic Miramand, Sarah Beausoleil, and Katia Turcot

Inertial measurement units and normative values enable clinicians to quantify clinical walking tests and set rehabilitation goals. Objectives of this study were (1) to compare time- and distance-based walking tests in individuals with lower limb amputation (iLLA) and normative values following rehabilitation discharge (T1) and 6 weeks after discharge (T2) and (2) to investigate spatiotemporal and foot kinematic parameters over a 6-minute walk test using inertial measurement units. Twelve iLLA participated in this study. Distance, cadence, stance ratio, loading rate ratio, push-up ratio, path length, and minimum toe clearance were analyzed during 6-minute walk test. Nonparametric repeated-measures analysis of variance tests, Bonferroni corrections, were performed. Time of distance-based walking tests diminished at T2 (P < .02). Compared with normative values, walking performance in iLLA was reduced. Cadence at T2 increased significantly (P = .026). Stance ratio increased in both legs at T2 (P < .05). Push-up ratio tended to decrease at T2 in the amputated leg (P = .0003). Variability of path length and minimum toe clearance at T2 were less than at T1 in the nonamputated leg (P < .05). Spatiotemporal improvement at T2 could be due to prosthesis adaptation in iLLA. The lower performance of the functional walk test compared with normative values could be due to amputation and pain-related fatigue.