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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Thais Reichert, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Vitória Bones, Ricardo Stein, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: To compare the effects of aquatic aerobic and combined (aerobic more resistance) training on glycemic control and other cardiometabolic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Patients were randomized to an aquatic aerobic training (AERO, n = 19; 57.5 [7.4] y; 9 [47%] women), or an aquatic combined training (COMBI, n = 19; 60.9 [7.4] y; 10 [53%] women), or an aquatic active procedure control (n = 19; 58.6 [9.7] y; 10 [53%] women) in 3 weekly sessions (50 min each), during 15 weeks. Glycated hemoglobin was the primary outcome, whereas insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, systemic inflammation, renin concentration, blood pressure, physical activity levels, and sitting time were secondary outcomes. Results: Glycated hemoglobin was reduced in all groups (P = .021), although changes were more marked in AERO (−0.36%) and COMBI (−0.44%) than in active control (−0.26%) group. Lipid profile was similarly modified in all groups. Diastolic blood pressure and renin concentration were also reduced in all groups; however, renin showed more marked reductions in AERO (−17.7 uIU/mL) and COMBI (−15.1 uIU/mL) than in active control (0.2 uIU/mL) group. Fasting insulin, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, walking time, and sitting time on weekends were not modified. Conclusion: AERO and COMBI presented similar effect to improve glycemic control and some cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Open access

Markus Joseph Duncan, Negin Alivia Riazi, Guy Faulkner, Jenna Diane Gilchrist, Scott Thomas Leatherdale, and Karen Allison Patte

Background: Comprehensive, prospective, longitudinal data are lacking on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on adolescents’ movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], sleep, recreational screen use, and strengthening exercises). The purpose was to compare movement behavior changes among adolescents affected by the pandemic with controls. Methods: Survey data from 10,659 students at 82 Canadian secondary schools (aged 12–19 y) during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years were analyzed. One-year change in time spent in movement behaviors and likelihood of meeting Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was compared between preoutbreak controls (October 2019–March 2020) and early outbreak respondents (May–July 2020) after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Compared with controls, the early outbreak group reported a greater decrease in time spent in MVPA and greater increases in time spent in sleep and recreational screen use. The early outbreak group was less likely to meet MVPA and recreational screen time guidelines but more likely to meet guidelines for strengthening exercises and sleep duration. Conclusions: Findings for MVPA and screen time changes were in the same direction as retrospective reports from children and youth samples. Sleep adherence may have improved due to no longer having to commute to school. Strengthening exercises may represent physical activity that is easier to do in the home with minimal equipment leading to improved adherence during restrictions.

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Catalina Belalcazar, Tarcisio Hernández Nariño, and Bettina Callary

Coaches contribute toward helping older adults achieve quality sport experiences, but there are few resources grounded in adult-oriented psychosocial approaches from which they can learn. The purpose of this Participatory Action Research study was to facilitate a personalized professional development program for a Colombian football (soccer) league of older adult men using an evidence-based self-assessment tool for Masters coaches. Data were collected from 23 coaches, who were also players in the league, via interviews, workshops, and observations. Data were analyzed via reflective thematic analysis that aimed to understand coaches’ perceptions of how they learned through the workshops and how they implemented what they learned into their coaching. Findings indicate that personalized professional development enabled better structured leadership in the league, creating Quality Masters Sport Experiences.

Open access

Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers

Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.

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Guangxing Wang, Sixuan Wu, Kelly R. Evenson, Ilsuk Kang, Michael J. LaMonte, John Bellettiere, I-Min Lee, Annie Green Howard, Andrea Z. LaCroix, and Chongzhi Di

Purpose: Traditional summary metrics provided by accelerometer device manufacturers, known as counts, are proprietary and manufacturer specific, making it difficult to compare studies using different devices. Alternative summary metrics based on raw accelerometry data have been introduced in recent years. However, they were often not calibrated on ground truth measures of activity-related energy expenditure for direct translation into continuous activity intensity levels. Our purpose is to calibrate, derive, and validate thresholds among women 60 years and older based on a recently proposed transparent raw data-based accelerometer activity index (AAI) and to demonstrate its application in association with cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: We first built calibration equations for estimating metabolic equivalents continuously using AAI and personal characteristics using internal calibration data (N = 199). We then derived AAI cutpoints to classify epochs into sedentary behavior and physical activity intensity categories. The AAI cutpoints were applied to 4,655 data units in the main study. We then utilized linear models to investigate associations of AAI sedentary behavior and physical activity intensity with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: We found that AAI demonstrated great predictive accuracy for estimating metabolic equivalents (R 2 = .74). AAI-Based physical activity measures were associated in the expected directions with body mass index, blood glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: The calibration framework for AAI and the cutpoints derived for women older than 60 years can be applied to ongoing epidemiologic studies to more accurately define sedentary behavior and physical activity intensity exposures, which could improve accuracy of estimated associations with health outcomes.

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Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, and Tommi Vasankari

Background: Depression is a significant health problem, whereas higher physical activity (PA) associates with fewer depressive symptoms. We examined how self-reported depressive symptoms are associated with accelerometer-measured PA, standing, sedentary behavior, and time in bed (TIB) among 20- to 69-year-old men and women. Methods: The study is a part of the cross-sectional, population-based FinFit2017 study, in which depressive symptoms were assessed by modified nine-item Finnish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire, and physical behavior in terms of PA, sedentary behavior, standing, and TIB was assessed 24/7 by a triaxial accelerometer. During waking hours, the accelerometer was hip worn. Intensity of PA was analyzed by mean amplitude deviation and body posture by angle for posture estimation algorithms. During TIB, the device was wrist worn, and the analysis was based on the wrist movements. A total of 1,823 participants answered the nine-item Finnish version of the Patient Health Questionnaire and used the accelerometer 24 hr at least 4 days per week. Results: Men without depressive symptoms had on average more standing, light, and moderate to vigorous PA and steps, and less low and high movement TIB than the men with at least moderate symptoms, when age group, education, work status, marital status, and fitness were adjusted for. The asymptomatic women had more moderate to vigorous PA and steps and less high movement TIB than the women with at least moderate symptoms. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of PA and longer TIB. It is important to identify these symptoms as early as possible to be able to initiate and target preventive actions, including PA promotion, to these symptomatic persons on time.