Physical activity (PA) promotes survival and mitigates symptoms in older breast cancer survivors (BCS), especially to reduce joint pain associated with adjuvant hormonal treatment. The purpose is to describe the adaptation process for an evidence-based exercise and education curriculum (i.e., Fit & Strong!) to support older BCS participating in the Using Exercise to Relieve Joint Pain and Improve Aromatase Inhibitor Adherence in Older Breast Cancer Survivors trial. We reviewed all educational materials with scientific/clinical experts to identify necessary content changes. Next, we conducted semistructured phone interviews with BCS to review all educational materials and conducted a real-time pretest for the trial. Overall, BCS found the adapted materials and experience acceptable (mean score of 9.2/10 for satisfaction). Content changes included simplifying exercise instructions, prioritizing content related to the trial goals, and updating photographs. Because of COVID, the pretest was conducted via Zoom. Our multistep adaptation process provided an acceptable intervention to meet the needs of older BCS. Lessons learned will be applied to the forthcoming pilot trial.
Shirley M. Bluethmann, Eileen Flores, Meghan Grotte, Jared Heitzenrater, Cristina I. Truica, Nancy J. Olsen, Christopher Sciamanna, and Kathryn H. Schmitz
Dina L. Jones, Terry Kit Selfe, Sijin Wen, Jennifer L. Eicher, Sara Wilcox, and Corrie Mancinelli
This study implemented a 16-week Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance® intervention for older adults in churches in hard-to-reach, medically underserved, rural communities, and evaluated the process using the RE-AIM Framework. Community-dwelling adults, aged 55 years, or older, were eligible. Data (N = 237) were collected at baseline, 16 weeks, and 32 weeks on falls efficacy, depression, physical/mental health-related quality of life, aerobic activity, gait speed, mobility, balance, and leg strength. Generalized/linear mixed models determined if outcomes improved. Eighteen churches sponsored 16 classes. Church adoption was 94%, instructor adoption was 86%, reach was 90%, and fidelity was good/fair. All outcomes improved except physical health-related quality of life and gait speed. Thirty-six percent of participants, 28% of churches, and 37% of instructors continued Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance at 32 weeks. Compared with two prior RE-AIM evaluations, adoption and reach rates, improvements in outcomes, and satisfaction were comparable; attendance, program completion, and continuation rates were lower.
Sinika Timme, Jasmin Hutchinson, Anton Regorius, and Ralf Brand
The affective response during exercise is an important factor for long-term exercise adherence. Pottratz et al. suggested affective priming as a behavioral intervention for the enhancement of exercise-related affect. The present paper aims to replicate and extend upon these findings. We conducted a close replication with 53 participants completing a brisk walking task in two conditions (prime vs. no prime). Affective valence was assessed during exercise, and exercise enjoyment and remembered/forecasted pleasure were assessed postexercise. We could not replicate the findings of Pottratz et al., finding no evidence for positive changes in psychological responses in the priming condition. However, linear mixed models demonstrated significant interindividual differences in how participants responded to priming. These results demonstrate that affective priming during exercise does not work for everyone under every circumstance and, thus, provide an important contribution to the understanding of boundary conditions and moderating factors for priming in exercise psychology.
Cassandra M. Seguin and Diane M. Culver
While research advancements have substantially improved concussion management efforts, consideration for the psychological and social aspects of concussive injuries have remained largely absent from concussion protocols. The present study was undertaken to identify elite athletes’ psychological and social needs during the recovery process. Elite athletes with a history of concussion and mental performance consultants who work with concussed elite athletes participated in focus group interviews to shed light on these needs. A thematic analysis of these focus groups revealed six psychological and social needs: acceptance, normality, confidence, self-efficacy, trust in relationships, and social support. These themes are framed within concussion literature to help initiate a conversation on how psychological and social needs should be addressed as part of multifaceted efforts to improve concussion recovery.
Márcio Beck Schemes, Simone de Azevedo Bach, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Rodrigo Rabuski Neske, Cláudia Dornelles Schneider, and Ronei Silveira Pinto
Decreased muscle quality (MQ) may explain functional capacity impairments during aging. Thus, it is essential to verify the interaction between MQ and functional capacity in older adults. We investigated the relationship between MQ and functional capacity in older adults (n = 34; 66.3 ± 4.6 year). MQ was estimated by maximum strength of knee extensors normalized to thigh muscle mass. Maximum strength was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer (peak torque), while dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasonography, and anthropometry were used to determine thigh muscle mass. Functional capacity was verified by 30-s sit to stand and timed up and go tests. Significant correlations were found between MQ assessed by DXA with 30-s sit to stand (r = .35; p < .05) and timed up and go (r = −.47; p < .05), and MQ assessed by anthropometry with timed up and go (r = −.41; p < .05), but not between MQ assessed by ultrasonography with functional capacity (p > .05). No significant relationship between muscle mass with functional capacity was observed. Thus, MQ assessed by DXA and MQ assessed by anthropometry may partially explain functional capacity in older adults. Interestingly, muscle mass alone did not explain performance in functional tests in this population.
Bernadine Teng, Ingrid C.M. Rosbergen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Anna Hatton, and Sandra G. Brauer
Adherence to prescribed exercise poses significant challenges for older adults despite proven benefits. The aim of this exploratory descriptive qualitative study was to explore the perceived barriers to and facilitators of prescribed home exercise adherence in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Three focus groups with 17 older adults (M age ± SD = 77 ± 5.12) living in Singapore were conducted. Inductive thematic analysis revealed that “the level of motivation” of individuals constantly influenced their exercise adherence (core theme). The level of motivation appeared to be a fluid concept and changed due to interactions with two subthemes: (a) individual factors (exercise needs to be tailored to the individual) and (b) environmental factors (i.e., support is essential). Hence, these factors must be considered when designing strategies to enhance exercise adherence in this vulnerable population. Strategies must be informed by the culturally unique context, in this case, a developed country with a multiethnic urban Asian population.