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Hilkka Kontro, Marta Kozior, Gráinne Whelehan, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Catherine Norton, Brian P. Carson, and Phil Jakeman

Supplementing postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake with protein has been suggested to enhance recovery from endurance exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding protein to the recovery drink can improve 24-hr recovery when CHO intake is suboptimal. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men performed three 2-day trials consisting of constant-load exercise to reduce glycogen on Day 1, followed by ingestion of a CHO drink (1.2 g·kg−1·2 hr−1) either without or with added whey protein concentrate (CHO + PRO) or whey protein hydrolysate (CHO + PROH) (0.3 g·kg−1·2 hr−1). Arterialized blood glucose and insulin responses were analyzed for 2 hr postingestion. Time-trial performance was measured the next day after another bout of glycogen-reducing exercise. The 30-min time-trial performance did not differ between the three trials (M ± SD, 401 ± 75, 411 ± 80, 404 ± 58 kJ in CHO, CHO + PRO, and CHO + PROH, respectively, p = .83). No significant differences were found in glucose disposal (area under the curve [AUC]) between the postexercise conditions (364 ± 107, 341 ± 76, and 330 ± 147, mmol·L−1·2 hr−1, respectively). Insulin AUC was lower in CHO (18.1 ± 7.7 nmol·L−1·2 hr−1) compared with CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH (24.6 ± 12.4 vs. 24.5 ± 10.6, p = .036 and .015). No difference in insulin AUC was found between CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH. Despite a higher acute insulin response, adding protein to a CHO-based recovery drink after a prolonged, high-intensity exercise bout did not change next-day exercise capacity when overall 24-hr macronutrient and caloric intake was controlled.

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Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf

This study aimed to assess the internalization of sociocultural attitudes and appearance comparison among U.S. athletes with physical disabilities. Female (n = 19) and male (n = 25) athletes between the ages of 18 and 73 years completed a quantitative survey along with two exploratory open-ended questions related to body appearance and influencers. Results showed significant correlations between internalization of the thin and low-body-fat ideal and appearance comparison (r = .55, p < .05) and internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .76, p < .05) among women. For men, results showed a significant association between internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .52, p < .05). The findings prompt further investigation of whether appearance comparison and internalization influence body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among athletes with physical disabilities.

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Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pedagogical strategies in adapted physical education (hybrid virtual/real vs. conventional) on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children with intellectual disability age 7–10 years. Children with intellectual disability (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either the hybrid (experimental group) or the conventional (control group) group and were evaluated across 10 weeks. The hybrid program was based on virtual and real game situations, while the conventional program was based on adapted sports. FMS were evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 at pre- and postprogram for both groups. Both programs significantly improve locomotor skills, with significantly better improvement in the experimental group. However, a significant improvement was observed only among the experimental group for object-control skills and gross motor quotient. Based on these results, a hybrid program may be considered for FMS improvement.

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Darda Sales and Laura Misener

This study examined para swimmers’ athlete development experiences from the perspectives and reflections of athletes, and parents of athletes, with a focus on the constraints and challenges experienced. Guided by interpretive phenomenological analysis, 12 participants engaged in the interview process (seven parents and five athletes). Five themes were identified: fundamental skill development, personal connection, coaching, classification, and connecting with others “like me.” Through a discussion of the differences in development experiences between the participants in this study and the current literature on athlete development, the authors highlight areas of concern in applying a non-para-specific athlete development model to para swimmers. This study identifies several areas of consideration in the future design of a para athlete development framework or model.

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Scott McLean, Hugo A. Kerhervé, Nicholas Stevens, and Paul M. Salmon

Purpose: The broad aim of sport-science research is to enhance the performance of coaches and athletes. Despite decades of such research, it is well documented that sport-science research lacks empirical evidence, and critics have questioned its scientific methods. Moreover, many have pointed to a research–practice gap, whereby the work undertaken by researchers is not readily applied by practitioners. The aim of this study was to use a systems thinking analysis method, causal loop diagrams, to understand the systemic issues that interact to influence the quality of sport-science research. Methods: A group model-building process was utilized to develop the causal loop diagram based on data obtained from relevant peer-reviewed literature and subject-matter experts. Results: The findings demonstrate the panoply of systemic influences associated with sport-science research, including the existence of silos, a focus on quantitative research, archaic practices, and an academic system that is incongruous with what it actually purports to achieve. Conclusions: The emergent outcome of the interacting components is the creation of an underperforming sport-science research system, as indicated by a lack of ecological validity, translation to practice, and, ultimately, a research–practice gap.

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Janet A. Lawson, Jennifer Turnnidge, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

Nonformal learning opportunities, such as accessing text-based online resources, are an important means of developing parasport coaches’ knowledge of how to coach. However, the focus of such resources, as well as their quality and quantity, are unknown. Using an adapted version of Lefebvre, Evans, Turnnidge, Gainforth, and Côté’s taxonomy of coach development programs, the authors explored and cataloged text-based online resources for parasport coaches identified through a broad Internet search. In addition, the technical quality of these resources was evaluated. After cataloguing and evaluating 136 resources, professional knowledge domains, specifically pedagogy and planning, were identified as the most commonly targeted domains of focus. The least frequently cited professional domains of focus were maltreatment, movement fundamentals, and preventative health and health promotion. Limited resources addressed interpersonal and intrapersonal domains of focus. Resource quality varied greatly, but the overall quality was low indicating that increasing the technical quality of online resources should be prioritized in the future.

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Ruben Vist Hagen, Håvard Lorås, Hermundur Sigmundsson, and Monika Haga

Purpose: Physical education (PE) teachers’ assessments are often based on continuous observations of pupils. As certain psychological factors may mediate pupils’ learning behaviors relevant to the PE context, they may also influence academic achievement in PE. Thus, this study’s aim was to explore the association between pupil-related psychological factors and academic achievement in PE. Methods: Eighty-nine boys and 111 girls (12–16 years old) in lower secondary school participated in this study, responding to a questionnaire containing previously validated scales measuring pupils’ grit, mindset, self-perceptions, and situational motivation. The pupils’ final grade in PE was collected at the end of the school year. Results: A multiple regression model significantly explained 33% of the variance in grade. The self-perception domains—scholastic competence, athletic competence, and physical appearance—acted as unique predictors, explaining a small portion of the variance in academic achievement. Discussion/conclusion: These results support the importance of positive self-perceptions in relation to academic achievement in PE.

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Jorge Zamarripa, René Rodríguez-Medellín, and Fernándo Otero-Saborido

Purpose: To test a structural equations model that analyzes the effects from satisfaction and frustration of the basic psychological needs on motivation types and the same effects on engagement and disaffection in physical education class, and to validate invariance among gender groups. Method: The participants were 1,470 fifth- and sixth-grade students from elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Results: The model showed satisfactory data fit. The results underscore the importance of fulfilling basic psychological needs to generate both autonomous motivation and engagement, as well as to prevent amotivation and disaffection in the students, regardless of sex. Discussion/Conclusion: The findings were discussed and are deemed consistent with other studies, sustaining the idea of basic psychological needs universality as set forth by the self-determination theory.

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Kelly L. Simonton, Alex C. Garn, and Nicholas Washburn

Purpose: This study evaluated relationships among students’ views of the caring climate, emotions, and engagement in high school physical education (PE) classes utilizing Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions. Method: Structural education modeling tested the direct and mediating roles of the caring climate and emotions on engagement in high school PE students (N = 638). Results: The caring climate predicted enjoyment (β = 0.45), boredom (β = −0.44), and shame (β = −0.31), while enjoyment (β = 0.71) and shame (β = 0.12) predicted student engagement, supporting Control-Value Theory of Achievement Emotions assumptions. However, caring climate also predicted student engagement directly, aligning with study hypotheses. Discussion/Conclusion: The findings suggest that a caring climate relates to student emotions and engagement in PE and supports the value of emotions in PE. This highlights the need for training high school PE teachers to facilitate a caring climate in the interest of maximizing optimal student emotions and engagement.