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Reporting of Adverse Events in Muscle Strengthening Interventions in Youth: A Systematic Review

Diane E. Mack, Daniel Anzovino, Malcolm Sanderson, Raffy Dotan, and Bareket Falk

Clear definition, identification, and reporting of adverse event (AE) monitoring during training interventions are essential for decision making regarding the safety of training and testing in youths. Purpose: To document the extent to which AEs, resulting from intervention studies targeting muscle strengthening training (MST) in youth, are reported by researchers. Methods: Electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched for English peer-reviewed articles published before April 2018. Inclusion criteria were: (1) average age <16 years, (2) use of MST, (3) statement(s) linked to the presence/absence of AEs, and (4) randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs. Risk of reporting bias for AEs followed recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: One hundred and ninety-one full-text articles were screened. One hundred and thirty met all MST criteria, out of which only 44 (33.8%; n = 1278, age = 12.1 [1.1] y) included a statement as to the presence/absence of adverse events. The 86 other studies (66.2%) included no such statement. Of the reporting 44 studies, 18 (40.1%) indicated one or more adverse events. Of the 93 reported adverse events, 55 (59.1%) were linked to training or testing. Conclusions: Most MST studies in youth do not report presence/absence of adverse events, and when reported, adverse events are not well defined.

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Mobile Electroencephalography Reveals Differences in Cortical Processing During Exercises With Lower and Higher Cognitive Demands in Preadolescent Children

Linda Becker, Daniel Büchel, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne, and Jochen Baumeister

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine whether cortical activity changes during exercise with increasing cognitive demands in preadolescent children. Method: Twenty healthy children (8.75 [0.91] y) performed one movement game, which was conducted with lower and higher cognitive demands. During a baseline measurement and both exercise conditions, cortical activity was recorded using a 64-channel electroencephalographic system, and heart rate was assessed. Ratings of perceived excertion and perceived cognitive engagement were examined after each condition. To analyze power spectral density in the theta, alpha-1, and alpha-2 frequency bands, an adaptive mixture independent component analysis was used to determine the spatiotemporal sources of cortical activity, and brain components were clustered to identify spatial clusters. Results: One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed significant main effects for condition on theta in the prefrontal cluster, on alpha-1 in the prefrontal, central, bilateral motor, bilateral parieto-occipital, and occipital clusters, and on alpha-2 in the left motor, central, and left parieto-occipital clusters. Compared with the lower cognitive demand exercise, cortical activity was significantly higher in theta power in the prefrontal cluster and in alpha-1 power in the occipital cluster during the higher cognitive demand exercise. Conclusion: The present study shows that exercise complexity seems to influence cortical processing as it increased with increasing cognitive demands.

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Physical Activity Levels and Adiposity in Ambulant Children and Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy Compared With Their Typically Developing Peers

Leticia Janzen, Clodagh M. Toomey, Laura K. Brunton, Elizabeth G. Condliffe, Shane Esau, Adam Kirton, Carolyn A. Emery, and Gregor Kuntze

Purpose: This study assessed physical activity (PA) and body composition of ambulatory children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and their typically developing peers. Methods: Participants included youth with CP (ages 8–18 y and Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I–III) and their typically developing peers. Outcomes included PA (actigraphy) and fat/lean mass index (FMI/LMI; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Statistical analyses included linear mixed effects models with Bonferroni adjustment. Fixed effects were study group (CP and typically developing); random effects were participant clusters (sex and age). Exploratory analyses included association of body composition and PA, GMFCS level, and CP involvement (unilateral and bilateral). Results: Seventy-eight participants (CP: n = 40, girls: n = 29; GMFCS I: n = 20; GMFCS II: n = 14; GMFCS III: n = 6) met inclusion criteria. Individuals with CP had lower moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA; β = −12.5; 98.3% confidence interval, −22.6 to −2.5 min; P = .004) and lower LMI (β = −1.1; 97.5% confidence interval, −2.1 to −0.0 kg/m2; P = .020). Exploratory analyses indicated increased LMI with greater MVPA (P = .001), reduced MVPA for GMFCS II (P = .005) and III (P = .001), increased sedentary time for GMFCS III (P = .006), and greater fat mass index with unilateral motor impairment (P = .026). Conclusions: The findings contribute to the knowledge base of increasing MVPA and LMI deficits with the greater functional impact of CP. Associations of increasing LMI with greater MVPA support efforts targeting enhanced PA participation to promote independent mobility.

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Volume 35 (2023): Issue 1 (Feb 2023)

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Identifying Risk Profiles for Nonadherence to the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth 6 Months Into the COVID-19 Pandemic

Michelle D. Guerrero, Sarah Moore, Guy Faulkner, Karen C. Roberts, Raktim Mitra, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Mark S. Tremblay

Purpose: The purposes of the current study were to identify risk profiles for nonadherence among children and youth (5–17 y) at the 6-month mark of the COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss similarities and differences between risk profiles identified in the current study and those identified at the 1-month mark of the pandemic. Methods: Data were part of a nationally representative sample of 1143 parents (M age = 43.07 y, SD = 8.16) of children and youth (5–17 y) living in Canada. Survey data were collected in October 2020. Results: Results showed that 3.8% met all movement behavior recommendations, 16.2% met the physical activity recommendation, 27% met the screen time recommendation, and 63.8% met the sleep recommendation. Characteristics associated with nonadherence to all movement behaviors included low parental perceived capability to restrict screen time and decreased overall time spent outdoors. Characteristics associated with nonadherence to the physical activity and screen time recommendations included youth (12–17 y), low parental perceived capability to restrict screen time, decreased time spent outdoors, and increased screen time. Conclusion: Results emphasized the importance of parental perceived capability to restrict screen time and children’s and youth’s outdoor time and showed that pandemic-related factors have impacted children and youth differently.

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Reliability of Fitness Assessments in Children With Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

Ashley C. Almarjawi, Kemi E. Wright, Brett D. Buist, John Cairney, Tony T. Ton, and Bonnie J. Furzer

Purpose: Examine the reliability of field-based fitness assessments in school-aged children with emotional or behavioral difficulties (EBD). Understanding the impact of fitness on physical activity participation for children with EBD is limited by our ability to reliably measure it. Methods: Fifteen children aged 7–12 years with EBD completed 7 assessments—standing broad jump, overhead throw, grip strength, isometric plank hold, isometric wall squat, unilateral heel raise, and modified 6-minute walk test—in a random order on 2 separate occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to evaluate reliability. Results: ICCs ranged from .65 to .99 representing moderate to excellent reliability for all assessments. Shorter assessments requiring less attention and behavior regulation tended to demonstrate higher ICC values while assessments with greater attention or behavioral regulation demands tended to have lower ICC values. Conclusion: Results demonstrate varied reliability for fitness tests in children with EBD. Practitioners can use grip strength and standing broad jump assessments with confidence. Other assessments have good reliability but greater variability indicating they may be a challenge for some children with EBD.

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Associations Among Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance in Children Exposed In Utero to Maternal Obesity With and Without Gestational Diabetes

Bethany A. Moore, Makenzie L. Callahan, Samantha L. Martin, Alysha Everett, W. Timothy Garvey, and Paula Chandler-Laney

Purpose: Investigate whether obesity risk and current weight status are independently associated with physical activity (PA) and whether PA is associated with adiposity and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) among children with high versus low obesity risk based on in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; high risk) or without GDM (overweight/obesity; high risk) or maternal normal weight without GDM (low risk). Method: Secondary analysis of data from children born to women with overweight/obesity and GDM, overweight/obesity without GDM, or normal weight without GDM. PA was assessed with accelerometry, percentage of body fat derived from anthropometrics, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance calculated from glucose and insulin. Results: Among 4- to 10-year-old children (N = 163), analyses of covariance showed that children with a current BMI ≥85th percentile had less vigorous PA than those with BMI <85th percentile, but in utero exposure was not an independent predictor of PA. In linear regression modeling, moderate to vigorous PA was inversely associated with percentage of body fat and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance independent of age, Tanner stage, and accelerometer wear time, with stronger associations in high-risk groups. Conclusions: Children’s PA is related to current weight status but not underlying risk for obesity but may be especially important to reduce obesity and insulin resistance in high-risk children.

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Does Regular Exercise Impact the Lung Function of Healthy Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Fernanda Balbinot, Felipe César de Almeida Claudino, Pedro Kazlauckas Lucas, Ana Paula Donadello Martins, Eliana M. Wendland, and Margaret W. Gerbase

Purpose: To assess the quality of the available evidence on the effect of exercise for the improvement of lung function in healthy children and adolescents. Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies examining the effects of regular exercise on spirometric parameters of healthy children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Results: Within the exercise groups, there were significant improvements in forced vital capacity (mean difference: 0.17 L; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.26; P < .05) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (mean difference: 0.14 L; 95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.22; P < .05). Results were consistent across different age groups and duration of interventions. In the between-group analysis, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak expiratory flow were higher in the exercise group compared with the nonexercise group, but the differences did not reach statistical relevance. There was significant statistical heterogeneity between studies. Conclusion: Regular exercise has the potential to improve lung function parameters in healthy children and adolescents; however, the small number of studies and the heterogeneity between them raise concern about the quality of the currently available evidence. These findings bring to attention the need for well-designed trials addressing this important public health issue.

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Aqua-Plyometric Exercises-Induced Changes in Muscle Strength, Bone Mineral Properties, and Physical Fitness in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A 12-Week, Randomized Controlled Trial

Ragab K. Elnaggar and Mahmoud S. Elfakharany

Purpose: To determine whether a 12-week, lower body-targeted aqua-plyometric (AquaPlyo) exercise program could improve muscle strength, bone mineral properties, and physical fitness in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was adopted and included 48 patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (age: 12–18 y). Patients were assigned to undergo either AquaPlyo exercises (AquaPlyo group, n = 24) or standard exercises (control group, n = 24). The outcome measures were assessed pretreatment and posttreatment and included concentric quadriceps peak torque, bone mineral properties (areal bone mineral density [BMD], volumetric BMD, bone mineral content, and BMD Z score), and physical fitness. Results: A significant posttreatment increase in the concentric quadriceps peak torque was detected in the AquaPlyo group compared with the control group (either at an angular velocity of 90°/s [right side: P = .016, left side: P = .025] or 180°/s [right side: P = .007, left side: P = .029]). Besides, a considerably greater improvement in the areal BMD (P = .0006), volumetric BMD (P = .027), bone mineral content (P = .002), and BMD Z score (P = .0004) was observed in the AquaPlyo group. Moreover, a remarkably greater rise in the physical fitness (P < .001) was revealed in the AquaPlyo group. Conclusion: AquaPlyo training can efficiently enhance muscle strength, improve bone mineral properties, and boost physical fitness in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Arterial Structure in 18-Year-Old Males Is Dependent on Physical Activity at 12 Years and Cumulative Cardiorespiratory Fitness From Puberty to Late Adolescence

Juta Kraav, Reeli Tamme, Liina Remmel, Evelin Mäestu, Maksim Zagura, Jaak Jürimäe, and Vallo Tillmann

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term effect of body composition, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) from puberty on arterial health in late adolescent males. Methods: The cumulative burden of physical activity (measured with accelerometer), CRF (VO2peak0.82), and body composition (body mass index, fat mass, and fat percentage) from puberty to late adolescence (sum of 4 time points from 12 to 18 y) was assessed in 102 males. Additional analysis on the first (T1) and last (T4) time points was performed. Intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) as dependent variables were measured at T4 and analyzed in multivariable regression models adjusted for known risk factors including maturation, blood pressure, and smoking habits. Results: T1 and cumulative body composition measures were independently associated with IMT, while cumulative (β = −0.011, P = .036) and T4 (β = −0.0.031, P = .001) CRF revealed independent associations with IMT. Individuals with moderate to vigorous physical activity >60 minutes per day at T1 showed relationship (β = −1.091, P = .026) with IMT independently of late adolescent physical activity. No significant relationship was present for arterial function. Conclusion: Arterial structure in adolescent males is associated with physical activity at 12 years while relationship with CRF can be seen in late adolescence and cumulatively from puberty to late adolescence.