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You Haven’t Taught Until They Have Learned: John Wooden’s Teaching Principles and Practices.

Gordon Bloom

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Volume 20 (2006): Issue 1 (Mar 2006)

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Analysis of Affect-Related Performance Zones: An Idiographic Method Using Physiological and Introspective Data

William A. Edmonds, Derek T.Y. Mann, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Chris M. Janelle

An exploratory investigation is reported to test the utility of Kamata, Tenenbaum, and Hanin’s (2002) probabilistic model in determining individual affect-related performance zones (IAPZs) in a simulated car-racing task. Three males completed five separate time-trials of a simulated racing task by which self-reported affective states (i.e., arousal and pleasure) and physiological measures of arousal (i.e., heart rate and skin conductance) were integrated with performance and measured throughout each trial. Results revealed each performer maintained unique IAPZs for each of the perceived and physiological measures in terms of the probability and range of achieving each zone. The practical applications of this approach are discussed.

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Changes in Perceived Stress and Recovery during Heavy Training in Highly Trained Male Rowers

Jarek Mäestu, Jaak Jürimäe, Kairi Kreegipuu, and Toivo Jürimäe

The aims were to assess (a) the usefulness of RESTQ-Sport in the process of training monitoring and (b) whether a change in psychological parameters is reflected by similar changes in specific biochemical parameters. The high volume training period, in general, caused increases in stress scales and decreases in recovery scales of the RESTQ-Sport, while during recovery period, stress levels declined. Cortisol was not changed during the study period, but significant increases in creatine kinase activity were found during the high training period compared to reference period. The results of the present study demonstrate that changes in training volume were reflected by changes in the RESTQ-Sport scales. A close relationship was found between cortisol and creatine kinase activity and subjective ratings of stress and recovery.

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Contextual Influences on Moral Functioning of Male Youth Footballers

Maria Kavussanu and Christopher M. Spray

This study examined the network of relationships among moral atmosphere, perceived performance motivational climate, and moral functioning of male youth football players. Participants were 325 footballers recruited from 24 teams of a youth football league. They responded to scenarios describing cheating and aggressive behaviors likely to occur during a football game by indicating their moral judgment, intention, and behavior, which represented moral functioning. The moral atmosphere of the team and participants’ perceptions of the team’s performance motivational climate were also measured. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of an atmosphere condoning cheating and aggressive behaviors were associated with views that a performance motivational climate is salient in the team, while both moral atmosphere and perceived performance climate corresponded to low levels of moral functioning in football. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike conduct from sport.

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A Grounded Theory of Elite Male Table Tennis Players’ Activity during Matches

Carole Sève, Germain Poizat, Jacques Saury, and Marc Durand

This article describes the main features of a collaborative project involving researchers, coaches, and elite table tennis players. The project was carried out between 1997 and 2002 with funding from the French Ministry of Youth and Sports, in response to a request by French Table Tennis Team coaches to improve the training of table tennis players. Matches were videotaped during international meets and followed by interviews during which the players described and commented on their activity as they viewed the tapes. A grounded theory of players’ activity emerged from the data collected and the ensuing theoretical issues that were raised. The findings on table tennis players’ activity pointed to a new direction for training proposals, for example the organization of reflexive practices during training.

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Group Dynamics in Sport (3rd ed.)

Noah Gentner

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Imagery in Sport

Eva V. Monsma

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The Process of the Redondo Beach Sport Psychology Consulting Think Tank

Artur Poczwardowski and Larry Lauer

Think tanks are small, cooperative learning groups that have the potential for unique learning outcomes. Addressing the “art” component of sport psychology service delivery via think tanks allows deep professional and personal exploration and meaningful exchange. In this article, we describe Dr. Ken Ravizza’s think tank organized in Redondo Beach, California, November 20-22, 2003. Ten established sport psychology professionals, 14 young professionals/graduate students, and 9 experienced coaches met to share important lessons from applying sport psychology in competitive settings. In this report written as “anecdotal reflection,” we provide an in-depth account of the process of the Redondo think tank to allow potential replications by those seeking ongoing professional growth and the advancement of applied sport psychology. Additionally, recommendations on how to rigorously study future think tanks are offered.

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Using Hypnosis, Technique Refinement, and Self-Modeling to Enhance Self-Efficacy: A Case Study in Cricket

Jamie B. Barker and Marc V. Jones

The present paper reports the impact of hypnosis, technique refinement, and selfmodeling on the self-efficacy levels of a cricket leg-spin bowler. A single-subject (A-B) design was employed with the collection of 8 baseline data points and 16 post-intervention data points that included 8 data points collected 7 months after the intervention. The intervention comprised three aspects. Aspect one focused on using hypnosis and self-hypnosis to increase self-efficacy. Aspect two was based around refining the bowler’s technique, focusing on the run-up, head position, and follow-through. Aspect three focused on self-modeling through the use of an edited videotape. The results revealed a significant difference between pre and post-intervention self-efficacy levels. This positive change was maintained in the long-term follow-up data. Also an increase in bowling performance was noted across the intervention. A number of consultancy issues are presented surrounding the use of hypnosis as part of a multimodal intervention.