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Sport Psychology Library: Triathlon

Karen Cogan

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Using a Case Formulation Approach in Sport Psychology Consulting

Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore

Providing effective sport psychology services requires practitioners to conceptualize the unique issues and concerns of each individual athlete. However, collecting information on the athlete, understanding the athlete’s issues and needs, and determining how to best assist the athlete can be a complex process. Thus, this article outlines a case formulation approach to help the sport psychology consultant assess the athlete, organize and conceptualize assessment data, classify the athlete’s issues, and choose interventions that directly target those factors that are impeding the athlete’s progress in athletics or other life domains. Two case examples are provided to illustrate the case formulation process.

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Volume 19 (2005): Issue 3 (Sep 2005)

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Athlete-Counseling Competencies for U.S. Psychologists Working with Athletes

D. Gant Ward, Scott D. Sandstedt, Richard H. Cox, and Niels C. Beck

The purpose of this investigation was to identify several essential counseling competencies for psychologists working with athletes. U.S. experts judged 17 athlete-counseling competencies to be essential for ethical psychotherapy practice with athlete clients. Implications for this first set of specific athletecounseling competencies include (a) helping psychologists and students not trained in athlete-counseling and/or sport psychology identify areas in which they need further education, training, or experiences in order to competently work with athlete clients; (b) further defining the specialty of athletecounseling; and (c) assisting athlete clients, as well as non-athlete clients, in distinguishing among available psychological services. Suggestions for future athlete-counseling competency research were also presented.

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Expectancy Information and Coach Effectiveness in Intercollegiate Basketball

Andrea J. Becker and Gloria B. Solomon

The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of information coaches use to develop expectations for athlete ability. Results revealed that Division I head basketball coaches (n = 70) rely predominately on psychological factors when evaluating athletes (n = 186). There were no significant differences between the sources of information used by successful and less successful coaches. A significant degree of congruence was discovered between coach and athlete perceptions of the evaluation criteria used on successful teams, but not on less successful teams. Athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s evaluation criteria served to predict team success. It was determined that differences in team success are more dependent on the coach’s ability to communicate expectations than the actual criteria used to form expectations.

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Mood State Response to Massage and Subsequent Exercise Performance

Dominic Micklewright, Murray Griffin, Valerie Gladwell, and Ralph Beneke

A within subjects experimental design (N = 16) was used where participants performed a 30-s Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT) after 30-min rest and after 30-min back massage. Mood State was measured before and after each intervention and after the WAnTs. No significant change in mood was detected following rest or massage. However, WAnT performance was better following massage compared to rest. Mood disturbance increased following the WAnT in both the rest and massage conditions. The results suggest that preperformance massage had no effect on mood state yet seemed to facilitate enhanced WAnT performance. The relationship between massage and anaerobic performance remains unclear, however is almost certainly mediated by preperformance psychological factors other than mood state.

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A Note from the Editor

Ian W. Maynard

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Professional Judgment and Decision Making: The Role of Intention for Impact

Amanda Martindale and Dave Collins

The field of applied sport psychology has recognized the growing consensus that professional autonomy and discretion brings with it the need to train, regulate, and evaluate practice (Evetts, 2001). However, research into how practitioners’ professional judgment is formed and the decision-making processes involved has not received concurrent attention. This paper illustrates some of the possible outcomes and implications for applied sport psychologists from consideration of Professional Judgment and Decision Making (PJDM) research in other fields such as medicine and teaching and in parallel disciplines such as clinical and counseling psychology. Investigation into the nature of decision content and how the crucial “intention for impact” (Hill, 1992) is formulated carries implications for the assessment, reflective practice, and professional development and training of applied sport psychologists. Future directions in PJDM research are suggested and a call is made for practitioners to be open to involvement in research of this nature.

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Social Networks in Sport: Parental Influence on the Coach-Athlete Relationship

Sophia Jowett and Melina Timson-Katchis

The study aims to explore the nature of influences that parents exert on the quality of the dyadic coach-athlete relationship. A conceptual model was proposed as a guiding framework for the study. The proposed model incorporates Sprecher, Felmlee, Orbuch, and Willets’ (2002) notion of social networks and Jowett and Cockerill’s (2002) conceptualization of coach-athlete relationships. Fifteen participants from five coach-athleteparent triads were interviewed, and content analysis revealed that athletes’ parents (a “psychologically significant” network member) provided a range of information, opportunities, and extensive emotional support, all of which influenced the quality of the coach-athlete relationship as defined by closeness, commitment, and complementarity. Results are discussed based on previous relevant research along with recommendations for future research directions and practical applications.

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The Sport Psych Handbook

Jessyca Arthur and Leonard Zaichkowsky