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Professional Dancers Describe Their Imagery: Where, When, What, Why, and How

Sanna M. Nordin and Jennifer Cumming

In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 male and female professional dancers from several dance forms. Interviews were primarily based in the 4 Ws framework (Munroe, Giacobbi, Jr., Hall, & Weinberg, 2000), which meant exploring Where, When, Why, and What dancers image. A dimension describing How the dancers employed imagery also emerged. What refers to imagery content, and emerged from two categories: Imagery Types and Imagery Characteristics. Why represents the reason an image is employed and emerged from five categories: Cognitive Reasons, Motivational Reasons, Artistic Reasons, Healing Reasons, and No reason - Triggered Imagery. There were also large individual differences reported regarding What images were used and Why. Many new insights were gained, including several imagery types and reasons not commonly discussed in sport and exercise.

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The Relationship between Efficacy Beliefs and Imagery Use in Coaches

Sandra E. Short, Matthew Smiley, and Lindsay Ross-Stewart

This study examined the relationship between coaching efficacy and imagery use. Eighty-nine coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale and a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. Results showed significant positive correlations among the coaching efficacy subscales and imagery functions. Regression analyses showed that the significant predictor for game strategy efficacy was CG imagery. Predictors for motivation efficacy included career record and MG-M imagery. MG-M imagery and total years of coaching were the significant predictors for total efficacy scores and character building efficacy. The only significant predictor for teaching technique efficacy was CS. The results replicate and extend the relationships found between efficacy and imagery for athletes and show that imagery also may be an effective strategy to build and maintain coaching efficacy.

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Rethinking Aggression and Violence in Sport

Vanessa R. Shannon

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Self-Determination Theory: A Case Study of Evidence-Based Coaching

Clifford J. Mallett

The coach is central to the development of expertise in sport (Bloom, 1985) and is subsequently key to facilitating adaptive forms of motivation to enhance the quality of sport performance (Mallett & Hanrahan, 2004). In designing optimal training environments that are sensitive to the underlying motives of athletes, the coach requires an in-depth understanding of motivation. This paper reports on the application of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to coaching elite athletes. Specifically, the application of SDT to designing an autonomy-supportive motivational climate is outlined, which was used in preparing Australia’s two men’s relay teams for the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.

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Sport Psychology Library: Triathlon

Karen Cogan

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Using a Case Formulation Approach in Sport Psychology Consulting

Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore

Providing effective sport psychology services requires practitioners to conceptualize the unique issues and concerns of each individual athlete. However, collecting information on the athlete, understanding the athlete’s issues and needs, and determining how to best assist the athlete can be a complex process. Thus, this article outlines a case formulation approach to help the sport psychology consultant assess the athlete, organize and conceptualize assessment data, classify the athlete’s issues, and choose interventions that directly target those factors that are impeding the athlete’s progress in athletics or other life domains. Two case examples are provided to illustrate the case formulation process.

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Volume 19 (2005): Issue 3 (Sep 2005)

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Athlete-Counseling Competencies for U.S. Psychologists Working with Athletes

D. Gant Ward, Scott D. Sandstedt, Richard H. Cox, and Niels C. Beck

The purpose of this investigation was to identify several essential counseling competencies for psychologists working with athletes. U.S. experts judged 17 athlete-counseling competencies to be essential for ethical psychotherapy practice with athlete clients. Implications for this first set of specific athletecounseling competencies include (a) helping psychologists and students not trained in athlete-counseling and/or sport psychology identify areas in which they need further education, training, or experiences in order to competently work with athlete clients; (b) further defining the specialty of athletecounseling; and (c) assisting athlete clients, as well as non-athlete clients, in distinguishing among available psychological services. Suggestions for future athlete-counseling competency research were also presented.

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Expectancy Information and Coach Effectiveness in Intercollegiate Basketball

Andrea J. Becker and Gloria B. Solomon

The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of information coaches use to develop expectations for athlete ability. Results revealed that Division I head basketball coaches (n = 70) rely predominately on psychological factors when evaluating athletes (n = 186). There were no significant differences between the sources of information used by successful and less successful coaches. A significant degree of congruence was discovered between coach and athlete perceptions of the evaluation criteria used on successful teams, but not on less successful teams. Athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s evaluation criteria served to predict team success. It was determined that differences in team success are more dependent on the coach’s ability to communicate expectations than the actual criteria used to form expectations.

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Mood State Response to Massage and Subsequent Exercise Performance

Dominic Micklewright, Murray Griffin, Valerie Gladwell, and Ralph Beneke

A within subjects experimental design (N = 16) was used where participants performed a 30-s Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT) after 30-min rest and after 30-min back massage. Mood State was measured before and after each intervention and after the WAnTs. No significant change in mood was detected following rest or massage. However, WAnT performance was better following massage compared to rest. Mood disturbance increased following the WAnT in both the rest and massage conditions. The results suggest that preperformance massage had no effect on mood state yet seemed to facilitate enhanced WAnT performance. The relationship between massage and anaerobic performance remains unclear, however is almost certainly mediated by preperformance psychological factors other than mood state.