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Team Consultation Following an Athlete’s Suicide: A Crisis Intervention Model

Kathleen J. Buchko

This article presents a three-phase model that can guide sport psychologists assisting in crisis intervention with athletes in the weeks following a major trauma. The model employs a systems theory framework within which therapeutic tasks that facilitate recovery from trauma are offered. The unique role of the sport psychologist in post-traumatic care of athletes is discussed. The model’s utility is illustrated via retrospective application to the author’s work with a team that experienced the suicide of one of its veteran members.

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Volume 19 (2005): Issue 2 (Jun 2005)

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Coach 54: Golf Fundamentals for the Future

Glen Albaugh

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Communication Within Sport Teams: Jungian Preferences and Group Dynamics

Mark R. Beauchamp, Alan Maclachlan, and Andrew M. Lothian

Contemporary group dynamics theorists and practitioners consistently highlight the importance of effective communication in facilitating successful team functioning (cf. Carron & Hausenblas, 1998). In this review paper, we explore how an understanding of Jungian preferences (cf. Jung, 1921/1971a) can provide an important theory-driven framework for those concerned with group dynamics in sport. As a basis for improved interaction, this model suggests that in order to effectively “adapt and connect” with other team members, one must first develop an acute understanding of self as well as the patterns of preferences that characterize those with whom one interacts. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical structure of this model and explain how the model can inform group dynamics interventions in sport.

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The Effect of a Life Development Intervention on Sports Career Transition Adjustment

David Lavallee

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a life development intervention on career transition adjustment in retired professional athletes. Intervention (n = 32) and control groups (n = 39) were recruited for this study, both of which contained recently retired male professional soccer players. Data were collected on measures of career termination adjustment and coping with transitions, and the intervention group also participated in a life development intervention package. Results revealed significant postintervention treatment group differences on career transition adjustment in favor of the life development intervention, while significant within-group differences on career transition adjustment over time were also achieved for the intervention group. Results are discussed in relation to the personal and developmental costs of pursuing performance excellence.

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Effects of Hypnosis on Flow States and Cycling Performance

Pete Lindsay, Ian Maynard, and Owen Thomas

Using a single-subject multiple baseline design, combined with assessments of participants’ internal experience (Wollman, 1986), the efficacy of a hypnotic intervention on flow state and competitive cycling performance was assessed in three elite cyclists. Intervention involved relaxation, imagery, hypnotic induction, hypnotic regression, and the conditioning of an unconscious trigger associated with the emotions of past peak performance. Ecologically valid performance measures were collected from British Cycling Federation (BCF) races, and the intensity of flow was assessed using Jackson and Marsh’s (1996) Flow State Scale (FSS). Results indicated that the number of BCF points gained per race was positively influenced in one participant, sporadically influenced in the second participant, and not influenced in the third participant. FSS scores during the intervention phase increased for one participant. These findings suggest that hypnotic interventions may improve elite competitive cycling performance and increase the feelings and cognitions associated with flow.

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Exploring Sport and Exercise Psychology (2nd ed.)

Lavon Williams

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Ice Hockey Players’ Legitimacy of Aggression and Professionalization of Attitudes

Amanda Visek and Jack Watson

The purpose of this investigation was to examine male ice hockey players’ (N = 85) perceived legitimacy of aggression and professionalization of attitudes across developmental age and competitive level. Findings were analyzed within the complementary conceptual frameworks of social learning theory, professionalization of attitudes, and moral reasoning. Ice hockey players completed a modified, sport-specific version of the Sport Behavior Inventory and a modified version of the Context Modified Webb scale. Results of the investigation revealed that as players increased in age and competitive level, perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior increased, and their attitudes about sport became increasingly professionalized. Based on the conceptual framework in which the results are interpreted, intervention services by sport psychology practitioners are explored that are aimed at the athlete, the organization, and influential others.

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A Phenomenological Analysis of Coping Effectiveness in Golf

Adam R. Nicholls, Nicholas L. Holt, and Remco C.J. Polman

The purpose of this study was to examine instances when international agegroup golfers coped effectively and ineffectively with performance-related stressors during competition. Eighteen male Irish international golfers (M age = 17 years) participated in semistructured interviews pertaining to their coping experiences during golf competition. Data were thematically analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003). Strategies associated with effective coping were rationalizing, reappraising, blocking, positive self-talk, following a routine, breathing exercises, physical relaxation, and seeking on-course social support. Alternatively, different types of coping responses (trying too hard, speeding up, routine changes, negative thoughts, lack of coping) were associated with ineffective coping. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

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The process of Adult Exercise Adherence: Self-Perceptions and Competence

Diane E. Whaley and Agnes F. Schrider

What constitutes an effective exercise program for older adults remains elusive. For example, little is known regarding the role of current and future-oriented self-perceptions. Nineteen physically active male and female adults (M = 68.9 years) were interviewed, and assessments of functional ability (Rikli & Jones, 1999) and possible selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986) were given at baseline and 10 weeks. Hoped-for selves centered on remaining healthy and independent, while feared selves focused on avoiding dependence and negative health outcomes. Exercise was facilitated through the expertise and guidance of the staff and the positive outcomes exercisers perceived. Results support Markus, Cross, and Wurf’s (1990) model of effective performance. Intervention strategies that can help exercisers identify and develop possible selves that promote sustained exercise behavior will be discussed.