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Exploring Sport and Exercise Psychology (2nd ed.)

Lavon Williams

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Ice Hockey Players’ Legitimacy of Aggression and Professionalization of Attitudes

Amanda Visek and Jack Watson

The purpose of this investigation was to examine male ice hockey players’ (N = 85) perceived legitimacy of aggression and professionalization of attitudes across developmental age and competitive level. Findings were analyzed within the complementary conceptual frameworks of social learning theory, professionalization of attitudes, and moral reasoning. Ice hockey players completed a modified, sport-specific version of the Sport Behavior Inventory and a modified version of the Context Modified Webb scale. Results of the investigation revealed that as players increased in age and competitive level, perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior increased, and their attitudes about sport became increasingly professionalized. Based on the conceptual framework in which the results are interpreted, intervention services by sport psychology practitioners are explored that are aimed at the athlete, the organization, and influential others.

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A Phenomenological Analysis of Coping Effectiveness in Golf

Adam R. Nicholls, Nicholas L. Holt, and Remco C.J. Polman

The purpose of this study was to examine instances when international agegroup golfers coped effectively and ineffectively with performance-related stressors during competition. Eighteen male Irish international golfers (M age = 17 years) participated in semistructured interviews pertaining to their coping experiences during golf competition. Data were thematically analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003). Strategies associated with effective coping were rationalizing, reappraising, blocking, positive self-talk, following a routine, breathing exercises, physical relaxation, and seeking on-course social support. Alternatively, different types of coping responses (trying too hard, speeding up, routine changes, negative thoughts, lack of coping) were associated with ineffective coping. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

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The process of Adult Exercise Adherence: Self-Perceptions and Competence

Diane E. Whaley and Agnes F. Schrider

What constitutes an effective exercise program for older adults remains elusive. For example, little is known regarding the role of current and future-oriented self-perceptions. Nineteen physically active male and female adults (M = 68.9 years) were interviewed, and assessments of functional ability (Rikli & Jones, 1999) and possible selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986) were given at baseline and 10 weeks. Hoped-for selves centered on remaining healthy and independent, while feared selves focused on avoiding dependence and negative health outcomes. Exercise was facilitated through the expertise and guidance of the staff and the positive outcomes exercisers perceived. Results support Markus, Cross, and Wurf’s (1990) model of effective performance. Intervention strategies that can help exercisers identify and develop possible selves that promote sustained exercise behavior will be discussed.

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Training Accurate and Coherent Decision Making in Rugby Union Referees

Duncan R.D. Mascarenhas, Dave Collins, Patrick W. Mortimer, and Bob Morris

The purpose of this investigation was to pilot a video-based training program designed to develop referees’ shared mental models. A group of English Rugby Football Union (RFU) national referees, divided into a control group (n = 15) and experimental group (n = 41) made their immediate decisions on pre and posttests of 10 video clips taken from real game referee perspective recordings. Over a six-week period the experimental group studied training tapes consisting of 5 sets of 5 tackles, in each case with an expert providing his interpretation of the correct decision. The lowest ranked referees on the national panel significantly improved their percentage of correct decisions, becoming 17.43% more accurate in their decisions at the posttest. These results suggest that such shared mental model training is an appropriate method for improving referee performance.

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Volume 19 (2005): Issue 1 (Mar 2005)

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Focused for Fastpitch: 80 Drills to Play and Get Sharp

Cara Hoyt

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Focused for Fastpitch: 80 Drills to Play and Stay Sharp

Jeff Janssen

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A Framework for Developing Contextual Intelligence (CI)

Charles H. Brown, Dan Gould, and Sandra Foster

This article reviews the emerging concept of Contextual Intelligence (CI) and its relevance to sport psychology. Interviews with expert performance consultants suggest that CI is a key factor in successful consultations. Although CI has often been considered a tacit process learned indirectly through experience, systems theory and institutional research offer models for assessing organizations and developing contextual “maps.” By having a framework and language for assessing context, sport psychologists can more effectively develop contextually intelligent and culturally appropriate interventions. The authors offer a framework for assessing context and developing contextual “maps.” Specific guidelines and principles for designing contextually intelligent interventions are provided.

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A Framework for Planning Youth Sport Programs That Foster Psychosocial Development

Albert J. Petitpas, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Tiffany Jones

Although there is considerable interest in the use of sport as a vehicle to promote psychosocial development in youth, little is known about the specific content or implementation strategies that are likely to account for positive outcomes. In this article, a brief review of current literature and a working definition of youth development through sport are provided to lay a foundation for a framework for planning youth sport programs that are structured to promote psychosocial development in participants. The components of the framework are outlined and suggestions for research, evaluation, and program development are offered.