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More than Meets the Eye: Investigating Imagery Type, Direction, and Outcome

Sanna M. Nordin and Jennifer Cumming

The effects of imagery direction on self-efficacy and performance in a dart throwing task were examined. Two imagery types were investigated: skill-based cognitive specific (CS) and confidence-based motivational general-mastery (MG-M). Seventy-five novice dart throwers were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (a) facilitative imagery, (b) debilitative imagery, or (c) control. After 2 imagery interventions, the debilitative imagery group rated their self-efficacy significantly lower than the facilitative group and performed significantly worse than either the facilitative group or the control group. Efficacy ratings remained constant across trials for the facilitative group, but decreased significantly for both the control group and the debilitative group. Performance remained constant for the facilitative and the control groups but decreased significantly for the debilitative group. Similar to Short et al. (2002), our results indicate that both CS and MG-M imagery can affect self-efficacy and performance.

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A Pragmatic Research Philosophy for Sport and Exercise Psychology

Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Artur Poczwardowski, and Peter Hager

A pragmatic research philosophy is introduced that embraces mixed-method approaches to applied research questions. With its origins in the work of Peirce (1984), James (1907), Dewey (1931), and contemporary support from Rorty (1982, 1990,1991), pragmatism emphasizes the practical problems experienced by people, the research questions posited, and the consequences of inquiry. As a way to highlight applications of pragmatism in sport psychology, pragmatism is compared to constructivism and positivism in terms of philosophical underpinnings and methodological applications. The pragmatic researcher is sensitive to the social, historical, and political context from which inquiry begins and considers morality, ethics, and issues of social justice to be important throughout the research process. Pragmatists often use pluralistic methods during multiphase research projects. Exemplar design types are discussed that logically cohere to a pragmatic research philosophy.

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Professional Women’s Career Experiences in Sport Psychology: A Feminist Standpoint Approach

Emily A. Roper, Leslee A. Fisher, and Craig A. Wrisberg

In 1995, Gill discussed women’s place in the history and development of sport psychology. However, no research to date has explored women’s experiences working in the field of sport psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of professional women’s career histories and experiences in sport psychology. The study was framed by qualitative research, and eight professional women working in the field of sport psychology were interviewed. Analysis of the data produced themes in the categories of (a) entrance into sport psychology, (b) women’s status in sport psychology, (c) qualified obstacles, (d) the feminist sport psychologist, and (e) supporting women in sport psychology. Differences between co-participants were also noted regarding the extent to which various themes were or were not a part of their experiences.

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The Psychology of Coaching Team Sports: A Self-Help Guide

Traci A. Statler

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Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Critical Introduction

Steve Miller

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Who Delivers Sport Psychology Services? Examining the Field Reality in Europe

Xavier Sanchez, Philippe Godin, and Fabrice De Zanet

The goal of this investigation was to gain insight into the status of applied sport psychology in Europe, using the French-speaking part of Belgium as a case study. In contrast to previous studies, which have only focused on official scientific membership lists, the present survey examined the delivery of sport psychology services independent of practitioners’ educational background, membership, level of certification, and/or the topics addressed within their practice. Results revealed that degree-holding psychologists and people without any credentials coexist. Practitioners highlighted the need for informing the world of sport about applied sport psychology, developing specific training programs in sport psychology, and certifying people working as sport psychologists. Similar research across Europe, considering any professional delivering sport psychology services, is necessary to develop a more comprehensive picture of the subject.

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Volume 18 (2004): Issue 4 (Dec 2004)

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Applied Sport Psychology Supervision: A Survey of Students and Professionals

Jack C. Watson II, Samuel J. Zizzi, Edward F. Etzel, and John R. Lubker

The applied sport psychology supervision experiences of student and professional members of AAASP (N = 313) were surveyed. The results revealed that of those who provide applied sport psychology consultation, students were more likely than professionals to receive supervision and to receive weekly supervision. However, both groups received equal amounts of supervision and had case management as the primary component of their supervision. AAASP professional members providing supervision were more likely to hold certified consultant and licensure status than those who did not provide supervision. Only 22.4% of professionals reported providing applied sport psychology supervision, 75.9% of whom had little or no training in supervision. No differences were found in the amount, type, and quality of supervision provided to students from physical education/sport science programs and those in psychology programs.

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Coaches’ and Athletes’ Perceptions of Efficacy-Enhancing Techniques

Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Nicholas D. Myers, and Deborah L. Feltz

Previous research has offered insight into coaches’ perceptions of various efficacy-enhancing techniques but not athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ techniques. The purpose of the present research was to compare coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy enhancing techniques. Male (n = 29) and female (n = 49) baseball, basketball, softball, and soccer coaches and teams were surveyed from Division II and III collegiate programs. Results found that the strategies that coaches perceived they used most, as well as were the most effective, were instruction-drilling, acting confident themselves, and encouraging positive talk. Athletes had similar perceptions to their coaches regarding coaches’ use and effectiveness of efficacy techniques. However, closer examination revealed coaches’ and athletes’ mean perceptions of these techniques to vary among levels of congruence and incongruence. Exploratory analyses were also conducted on coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions by gender.

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The Environment, Structure, and Interaction Process of Elite Same-Sex Dyadic Sport Teams

Tamara L. Wickwire, Gordon A. Bloom, and Todd M. Loughead

The purpose of this study was to examine elite same-sex dyadic sport teams. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with elite beach volleyball athletes. The results of the analysis revealed three higher-order categories: (a) sport environment, which included elements related to participation in beach volleyball such as challenges and comparisons between partnerships and other sports; (b) dyad structure and composition, which included individual and relationship elements that created a sense of balance in the partnership; and (c) dyadic interaction process, which focused on developing communication and cohesion in the partnership and working toward an ideal state where interaction was efficient and effective. The results of the study extend group dynamics literature by studying the dyad as a separate group entity and by revealing information specific to this group of athletes.