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Asmaa M. Elbandrawy, Sara G. Mahmoud, Mohamed F. AboElinin, and Amel M. Yousef

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of aerobic walking exercise on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) among postmenopausal women. Thirty females diagnosed with SUI participated in the research. Participants were assigned randomly into two groups: The usual care group (UC) and the UC plus aerobic walking exercise (TMT) group. The UC group performed pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training only, while the TMT group performed PFM training in addition to aerobic exercise. Myomed biofeedback was used to assess the PFM strength both before and after a 12-week period. The Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale was utilized to assess changes in incontinence severity symptoms after intervention. Findings revealed a significant increase in PFM strength in both UC and TMT groups (p = .011 and p = .010, respectively) and a significant reduction in their Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale (p = .011 and p = .001, respectively) after the end of the 12 weeks of the training program. In addition, there was a more significant increase in PFM strength in the TMT group than in the UC group (p = .010) and a more significant decrease in Revised Urinary Incontinence Scale (p = .011) after 12 weeks of the training program. This study concluded that aerobic walking exercise with PFM training is more effective than PFM training only in increasing PFM strength and improving symptoms of SUI in postmenopausal women with SUI.

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Lindsey R. Turbyfill, Logan J. Hatley, and Alan R. Needle

Clinical Scenario: The impact of concussion in baseball athletes is far reaching although typically less studied than collision sports. The neuromotor sequelae of these injuries can have lasting effects on the high level of coordination needed in baseball skills. In professional athletes, the long-term effects of concussion combined with the high demands for performance can potentially shorten athletes’ careers. Clinical Question: Do Major League Baseball players who have had a concussion compared with those with no history of concussions have decreased batting performance after they return to full participation? Summary of Key Findings: Seven articles meeting criteria for level 2 evidence were identified in this critically appraised topic. Four of 7 studies found deficits in batting performance following concussion. However, the 3 studies that did not identify differences lacked a comparative control group. Clinical Bottom Line: Evidence supports a relationship between concussion and decreased batting performance. This suggests there is a demand for screening and rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving sport-specific neuromotor and coordination skills in these individuals. Strength of Recommendation: Collectively, the body of evidence included to answer the clinical question aligns with the strength of recommendation of B.

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Brendan SueSee, Shane Pill, Michael Davies, and John Williams

Purpose: In response to the limitations with what has been termed a “traditional” Physical Education method, in the last decade Models-Based Practice (MBP) has emerged as an alternative. However, these limitations were recognized by Mosston in 1966 and from which The Spectrum of Teaching Styles (The Spectrum) was presented as a means toward a more obvious educative focus in Physical Education. We propose that The Spectrum provides a bridge between the hope and happening of MBP suggested by Casey and colleagues. Method: Using a qualitative narrative approach, we construct a fictional discussion between two academics (one from a country with centralized, mandated curriculum and one without) through which to navigate the mythical island of quality Physical Education in order to analytically frame The Spectrum and the “happening” of teacher’s implementation of MBP. Use of a fictional dialogue as a qualitative instrument enabled us to be provocative through the posing of questions in a novel fashion. Results: We suggest adopting a nonversus perspective reorients the view of model fidelity and, The Spectrum provides the “how” or micropedagogies to close the gap between the “hope” and the “happening.” Conclusion: This conversation is timely considering reservations about the successfulness of “second-generation” MBP exist in the literature and evidence of the continuation of the historically common Physical Education method despite its well-recognized limitations.

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Isabela Roque Marçal, Bianca Fernandes, Vanessa Teixeira do Amaral, Renato Lopes Pelaquim, and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

We aimed to analyze the usefulness of the 6–20 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale for prescribing and self-regulating high-intensity interval (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous (MICE) aerobic exercise performed in a heated swimming pool (32 °C). Fifteen older individuals (65 ± 3 years) treated for hypertension underwent a symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test to determine their heart rate at anaerobic threshold, and respiratory compensation point. On different days, participants were randomized to HIIE (walking/jogging between 11 and 17 of RPE; 25 min) and MICE (walking at 11–13 of RPE; 30 min). Heart rate during the low-intensity intervals of HIIE and MICE remained below the graded exercise test’s heart rate at anaerobic threshold (−7 ± 18 bpm/−16 ± 15 bpm) and respiratory compensation point (−18 ± 18 bpm/−30 ± 16 bpm), respectively, and maintained in the aerobic training zone during the high-intensity intervals of HIIE (+8 ± 18 bpm/−4 ± 19 bpm). The RPE scale at 15–17 is a useful tool for prescribing and self-regulating heated water-based HIIE and may have important implications for water-based exercise in older individuals with hypertension.

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Paige E. Rice, Kiisa Nishikawa, Kevin A. Zwetsloot, Amelia S. Bruce, Caroline D. Guthrie, and Sophia Nimphius

The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate whether ankle joint stretch-shortening cycle performance, isometric and isokinetic plantarflexion strength, and maximal Achilles tendon force and elongation differ between dancers, endurance runners, and untrained controls. To differentiate between dancers, endurance runners, and controls, the authors measured maximal Achilles tendon force and elongation during isometric ramp contractions with ultrasonic imaging, maximal isometric and isokinetic plantarflexion strength with dynamometry, and stretch-shortening cycle function during countermovement hopping and 30-cm drop hopping with a custom-designed sled. The Achilles tendon of dancers elongated significantly (P ≤ .05) more than runners and controls. Dancers were significantly stronger than controls during isometric contractions at different ankle angles. Concentric and eccentric strength during isokinetic contractions at 60°·s−1 and 120°·s−1 was significantly higher in dancers and runners than controls. Dancers hopped significantly higher than runners and controls during hopping tasks. Dancers also possessed significantly greater countermovement hop relative peak power, drop hop relative impulse, and drop hop relative peak power than controls. Finally, dancers reached significantly greater velocities during countermovement hops than runners and controls. Our findings suggest dancing and running require or likely enhance plantarflexion strength. Furthermore, dancing appears to require and enhance ankle joint stretch-shortening cycle performance and tendon elongation.

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Daniel R.F. Martin, Alessandro Quartiroli, and Christopher R.D. Wagstaff

Scholars have noted the importance of helping professionals’ work experiences through the exploration of Professional Quality of Life. Due to the unique experiences of sport psychology professionals, a sport psychology specific equivalent of the construct, the Sport Psychology Professional Quality of Life (SP-PQL), has recently been developed based on the experience of senior and experienced sport psychology professionals, yet researchers have not accounted for the experiences of neophytes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 neophyte sport psychology professionals with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of how they conceptualize, experience, and manage their SP-PQL. The data offer novel insights regarding neophyte’s conceptualizations of SP-PQL as well as the barriers and facilitators toward their SP-PQL. We conclude that greater emphasis on SP-PQL is required within British sport psychology development pathways, outlining considerations for educators, such as the provision of educational resources and curricula to better inform and support future neophyte’s SP-PQL.

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Gráinne Hayes, Kieran Dowd, Ciaran MacDonncha, and Alan Donnely

Background: Multiple activity monitors are utilized for the estimation of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth. Due to differing methodological approaches, results are not comparable when developing thresholds for the determination of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. This study aimed to develop and validate count-to-activity thresholds for 1.5, 3, and 6 metabolic equivalents of task in five of the most commonly used activity monitors in adolescent research. Methods: Fifty-two participants (mean age = 16.1 [0.78] years) selected and performed activities of daily living while wearing a COSMED K4b2 and five activity monitors; ActiGraph GT1M, ActiGraph wGT3X-BT, activPAL3 micro, activPAL, and GENEActiv. Receiver-operating-characteristic analysis was used to examine the area under the curve and to define count-to-activity thresholds for the vertical axis (all monitors) and the sum of the vector magnitude (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT and activPAL3 micro) for 15 s (all monitors) and 60 s (ActiGraph monitors) epochs. Results: All developed count-to-activity thresholds demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity. When cross-validated in an independent group (N = 20), high levels of sensitivity and specificity generally remained (≥73.1%, intensity and monitor dependent). Conclusions: This study provides researchers with the opportunity to analyze and cross-compare data from different studies that have not employed the same motion sensors.

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Xiyao Sun, Stephanie A. Adams, Chuchu Li, Josephine N. Booth, Judy Robertson, and Samantha Fawkner

Purpose: Using wearable monitoring devices is increasingly ubiquitous, including among young people. However, there is limited evidence of the validity of devices which are aimed at children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of Fitbit Ace and Moki monitors in healthy young adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 17 young adolescents (ages 11–13 y) ambulating between 3 different walking conditions (incidental [∼6 min], controlled, and treadmill [each 3 min], while wearing wrist-worn devices [Fitbit Ace, Moki] on each wrist [left and right, respectively]). Data from the devices were compared with observer counts (criterion). Bland–Altman plots and mean absolute percentage errors were computed. Results: Analyses identified that the Fitbit Ace showed higher levels of bias across conditions compared with the Moki device: (mean difference [SD]; Fitbit Ace: 30.0 [38.0], 3.0 [13.0], and 13.0 [23.0] steps and Moki: 1.0 [19.0], 4.0 [16.0], and 6.0 [14.0] steps, incidental, controlled, and treadmill, respectively). Mean absolute percentage errors ranged from 3.1% to 9.5% for the Fitbit Ace and 3.0% to 4.0% for the Moki device. Conclusion: The Fitbit Ace and Moki devices might not provide acceptable validity under all walking conditions, but the Moki provides more accurate estimates of incidental walking and might therefore be a good choice for free-living research or school-based interventions.

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Alessandro Piras, Matthew A. Timmis, Aurelio Trofè, and Milena Raffi

We investigated gaze behavior of expert goalkeepers during the prediction of penalty kicks in different spatiotemporal constraints: penalties taken from 11 and 6 m. From 11 m, goalkeepers were more successful in predicting ball direction, with longer movement time initiation and a visual strategy with more fixations and greater saccade rates than penalties from 6 m, where they exhibited fewer fixations with higher microsaccade rates. As long as the opponent’s distance is large and time pressure low, gaze can be frequently shifted between the kicker’s body and the ball, due to the low cost of saccades. Conversely, when the objects are close, there is increased reliance on foveal and parafoveal information. In conclusion, when the spatiotemporal constraint is less severe, goalkeepers adopt a visual strategy with more fixations and small saccades. When the spatiotemporal constraint is more severe, they rely on peripheral vision to monitor kickers’ movements through the use of microsaccades.