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Start to Move: Measuring the Feasibility of a Teacher-Led Digital Fundamental Movement Skills Assessment Tool

Tom van Rossum, Lawrence Foweather, Spencer Hayes, and David Morley

Purpose : This study evaluated the feasibility of the “Start to Move” (S2M) digital assessment of children’s fundamental movement skills being implemented by primary school teachers within PE lessons. Methods: Nine primary school teachers in the United Kingdom trialed S2M weekly over a 6-week period. Posttrial surveys and interviews were used to ascertain responses. Results: Feasibility was measured using seven dimensions of Bowen et al. framework; acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, integration, and expansion. Acceptance and demand of S2M was high with participants feeling that its contents aligned to the PE curriculum. Participants were able to implement S2M with PE lessons without assistance and stated that they would continue to use it within their teaching. They felt S2M would enhance their teaching and would recommend it to other teachers. Discussion/Conclusion: S2M is feasible for primary teachers to implement within PE lessons and has the potential to heighten the use of assessment for learning within PE in primary schools.

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Test–Retest Reliability of Running Economy and Metabolic and Cardiorespiratory Parameters During a Multistage Incremental Treadmill Test in Male Middle- and Long-Distance Runners

Aidan J. Brady, Mark Roantree, and Brendan Egan

This study investigated the test–retest reliability of running economy (RE) and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters related to endurance running performance using a multistage incremental treadmill test. On two occasions separated by 21–28 days, 12 male middle- and long-distance runners ran at 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 km/hr for 8 min each stage, immediately followed by a ramp test to volitional exhaustion. Carbohydrate (10% maltodextrin solution) was consumed before and during the test to provide ∼1 g/min of exercise. RE, minute ventilation ( V ˙ E ), oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ), carbon dioxide production ( V ˙ CO 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood glucose and lactate concentrations were recorded for each stage and at volitional exhaustion. Time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) during the ramp test were also recorded. Absolute reliability, calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV) between repeated measures, ranged from 2.3% to 3.1% for RE, whereas relative reliability, calculated as the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), ranged from .42 to .79. V ˙ E , V ˙ O 2 , V ˙ O 2 peak , V ˙ CO 2 , RER, and HR had a CV of 1.1%–4.3% across all stages. TTE and RPE had a CV of 7.2% and 2.3%–10.8%, respectively, while glucose and lactate had a CV of 4.0%–17.8%. All other parameters, except for blood glucose, were demonstrated to have good-to-excellent relative reliability assessed by ICC. Measures of RE, V ˙ O 2 peak , and TTE were reliable during this two-phase multistage incremental treadmill test in a cohort of trained and highly trained male middle- and long-distance runners.

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Velocity–Load Jump Testing Predicts Acceleration Performance in Elite Speed Skaters: But Does Movement Specificity Matter?

Matthew Zukowski, Walter Herzog, and Matthew J. Jordan

Purpose: In this study, we compared the influence of movement specificity during velocity–load jump testing to predict on-ice acceleration performance in elite speed skaters. Methods: Elite long-track speed skaters (N = 27) performed velocity–load testing with 3 external loads during unilateral horizontal jumping, lateral jumping, and bilateral vertical countermovement jumping. For the unilateral tests, external load conditions were set to 10 N, 7.5% and 15% of external load relative to body weight. For the countermovement jumping, load conditions were body weight and 30% and 60% of external load relative to body weight. On-ice performance measures were obtained during maximal 50-m accelerations from a standing start, including maximal skating speed, maximal acceleration capacity, and maximum horizontal power. The 100-m split time from a 500-m race was also obtained. Regularized regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of on-ice acceleration performance. In addition to regularized regression coefficients, Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated for all variables retained by the model to assess interrelationships between single predictors and on-ice performance measures. Results: The countermovement jump with 30% of body mass demonstrated the strongest association with maximal skating speed, maximum horizontal power, and 100-m time (regularized regression coefficient = .16−.49, r = .84−.97, P < .001). Horizontal jump with 15% of body mass was the strongest predictor of maximal acceleration capacity performance (regularized regression coefficient = .08, r = .83, P < .001). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that mechanical specificity rather than movement specificity was more relevant for predicting on-ice acceleration performance.

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Comparative Effects of Advanced Footwear Technology in Track Spikes and Road-Racing Shoes on Running Economy

Dustin P. Joubert, Garrett M. Oehlert, Eric J. Jones, and Geoffrey T. Burns

Purpose: Determine the effects of advanced footwear technology (AFT) in track spikes and road-racing shoes on running economy (RE). Methods: Four racing shoes (3 AFT and 1 control) and 3 track spikes (2 AFT and 1 control) were tested in 9 male distance runners on 2 visits. Shoes were tested in a random sequence over 5-minute trials on visit 1 (7 trials at 16 km·h−1; 5-min rest between trials) and in the reverse/mirrored order on visit 2. Metabolic data were collected and averaged across visits. Results: There were significant differences across footwear conditions for oxygen consumption (F = 13.046; P < .001) and energy expenditure (F = 14.710; P < .001). Oxygen consumption (in milliliters per kilogram per minute) in both the first AFT spike (49.1 [1.7]; P < .001; d z  = 2.1) and the other AFT spike (49.3 [1.7]; P < .001; d z  = 1.7) was significantly lower than the control spike (50.2 [1.6]), which represented a 2.1% (1.0%) and 1.8% (1.0%) improvement in RE, respectively, for the AFT spikes. When comparing the subjects’ most economic shoe by oxygen consumption (49.0 [1.5]) against their most economic spike (49.0 [1.8]), there were no statistical differences (P = .82). Similar statistical conclusions were made when comparing energy expenditure (in watts per kilogram). Conclusions: AFT track spikes improved RE ∼2% relative to a traditional spike. Despite their heavier mass, AFT shoes resulted in similar RE as AFT spikes. This could make the AFT shoe an attractive option for longer track races, particularly in National Collegiate Athletic Association and high school athletics, where there are no stack-height rules.

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Pacing Strategies in Elite Individual-Medley Swimmers: A Decision-Tree Approach

Chin-Kuei Yang, Yu-Chia Hsu, and Chen-Kang Chang

Purpose: This study aimed to examine pacing strategies and identify the stroke that has the most significant impact on overall performance in men’s and women’s 200-m and 400-m individual-medley events from 2000 to 2021. Methods: The time in each lap and overall race was retrieved from the World Aquatics website. The standardized time for each stroke in individual medley was calculated by dividing the actual time by a reference time specific to each stroke. The reference time was derived from the respective laps in single-stroke finals in the 2017 World Swimming Championships. The decision-tree method was used for analysis. The dependent variables were qualified or nonqualified in heats and semifinals, and winning medals in finals. The independent variables were the ratio of standardized time in each stroke to the sum of standardized time in all 4 strokes. Results: Swimmers who spent a higher ratio of standardized time in the butterfly stroke (>0.236–0.245) are associated with a higher likelihood of winning medals or qualifying for the next stage in most men’s and women’s 200-m and 400-m individual medley. Butterfly exhibited the highest normalized importance that distinguished medalists from nonmedalists in the finals. The front-crawl stroke is the second most important determinant in medalists in men’s and women’s 200-m individual medley, whereas backstroke and breaststroke were the second most important in men’s and women’s 400-m individual medley, respectively. Conclusion: Individual-medley swimmers who were excellent in butterfly and conserved energy in butterfly had a higher likelihood of success.

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Adapted Physical Activity Across the Life Span

Paul R. Malinowski, Paul H. Warner, and Wesley J. Wilson,

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Energetics of a World-Tour Female Road Cyclist During a Multistage Race (Tour de France Femmes)

Jose L. Areta, Emily Meehan, Georgie Howe, and Leanne M. Redman

Despite the increased popularity of female elite road cycling, research to inform the fueling requirements of these endurance athletes is lacking. In this case study, we report for the first time the energetics of a female world-tour cyclist competing in the 2023 Tour de France Femmes, an 8-day race of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The 29-year-old athlete presented with oligomenorrhea and low T3 before the race. Total daily energy expenditure assessed with the doubly labeled water technique was 7,572 kcal/day (∼4.3 physical activity levels), among the highest reported in the literature to date for a female. Crank-based mean maximal power was consistent with female world-tour cyclists (5 min, mean 342 W, 4.8 W/kg; 20 min 289 W, 4.1 W/kg). The average daily energy intake measured with the remote food photography method (Stage Days 1–7) was 5,246 kcal and carbohydrate intake was 13.7 g/kg (range 9.7–15.9 g/kg), and 84 g/hr during stages, and an average fat intake of 15% of daily energy intake. An estimated 2,326 kcal/day energy deficit was evidenced in a 2.2 kg decrease in body mass. Notwithstanding the high carbohydrate intake, the athlete was unable to match the energy requirements of the competition. Despite signs of energy deficiency preexisting (oligomenorrhea and low T3), and other further developing during the race (weight loss), performance was in line with that of other world-tour cyclists and a best personal performance was recorded for the last stage. This case study emphasizes the need for further research to inform energy requirements for female athletes’ optimal performance and health.

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Special Olympics: Inclusion Debates and Equity in Sport, 1st Edition

Wonjun Choi and Sophia D. Min

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Physical Education Access in U.S. Public Schools: A Multistate, Multiregion Study

Ben D. Kern, Wesley J. Wilson, Chad Killian, Hans van der Mars, Kelly Simonton, David Woo, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: Our purpose was to gather and evaluate accurate, up-to-date information on physical education (PE) policy implementation across multiple U.S. states and regions. Methods: A U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy questionnaire was developed and completed by 4,845 public-school PE teachers from 25 U.S. states. The U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy assessed PE quantity (days per week and minutes per week), class sizes by grade level, and practices that limit PE access. Descriptive statistics and correlations of PE minutes per week with class size were calculated in aggregate and individually by state. Results: Aggregate PE quantities in elementary, middle school, high school, and for students with disabilities were well below the recommendations (150 min/week elementary and 225 min/week secondary) and varied between states. Average students/class varied by state, and significant positive correlations between weekly PE minutes and students/PE class were observed. Discussion: PE access is limited across the United States, and stronger commitment to PE policy and policy implementation is needed.

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Skimmed, Lactose-Free Milk Ingestion Postexercise: Rehydration Effectiveness and Gastrointestinal Disturbances Versus Water and a Sports Drink in Physically Active People

Luis F. Aragón-Vargas, Julián C. Garzón-Mosquera, and Johnny A. Montoya-Arroyo

Postexercise hydration is fundamental to replace fluid loss from sweat. This study evaluated rehydration and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for each of three beverages: water (W), sports drink (SD), and skimmed, lactose-free milk (SLM) after moderate-intensity cycling in the heat. Sixteen college students completed three exercise sessions each to lose ≈2% of their body mass. They drank 150% of body mass loss of the drink assigned in randomized order; net fluid balance, diuresis, and GI symptoms were measured and followed up for 3 hr after completion of fluid intake. SLM showed higher fluid retention (∼69%) versus W (∼40%; p < .001); SD (∼56%) was not different from SLM or W (p > .05). Net fluid balance was higher for SLM (−0.26 kg) and SD (−0.42 kg) than W (−0.67 kg) after 3 hr (p < .001), resulting from a significantly lower diuresis with SLM. Reported GI disturbances were mild and showed no difference among drinks (p > .05) despite ingestion of W (1,992 ± 425 ml), SD (1,999 ± 429 ml), and SLM (1,993 ± 426 ml) in 90 min. In conclusion, SLM was more effective than W for postexercise rehydration, showing greater fluid retention for the 3-hr follow-up and presenting with low-intensity GI symptoms similar to those with W and SD. These results confirm that SLM is an effective option for hydration after exercise in the heat.