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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Volume 11 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Volume 43 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Postactivation Performance Enhancement With Maximal Isometric Contraction on Power-Clean Performance Across Multiple Sets

Danny Lum, Keng Yang Ong, and Michael H. Haischer

Purpose: This study investigated the postactivation performance-enhancement effect of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) at the starting position on power-clean performance over a series of contrast sets. Methods: Eighteen male (age: 31 [3.7] y, body mass: 76.8 [9.1] kg, height: 175.0 [5.2] cm) and 2 female (age: 27.5 [3.5] y, body mass: 53.3.8 [2.0] kg, height: 158.5 [4.9] cm) resistance-trained individuals performed a contrast postactivation performance-enhancement protocol (isometric contrast training condition [ISO]) consisting of 3 sets of 3 MVICs alternated with 3 power cleans, with an intracontrast rest period of 1 minute. A control protocol consisted of 3 sets of 3 power cleans were performed in a separate session. Barbell velocity during the power clean was measured as an indicator of performance. Results: A significant time effect was observed for both mean velocity (MV; P < .001) and peak velocity (PV; P = .008). Time × group (P = .415–.444) and group (P = .158–.210) effects showed no significant difference for either MV or PV. However, differences in MV and PV between the corresponding sets of ISO and control condition exceeded the minimum worthwhile change, showing a small to moderate effect (MV: d = 0.38–0.50, PV: d = 0.35–0.50) in favor of ISO. There was no significant difference in rating of perceived exertion between conditions (P = .385, d = 0.22). Conclusion: Power-clean performance was potentiated after 1 minute of rest following 3 repetitions of MVIC across 3 sets. Furthermore, the ISO protocol did not result in greater perception of exertion. These results indicate that coaches may incorporate MVICs as the postactivation performance-enhancement stimulus during contrast training involving the power-clean exercise.

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Teachers’ Perspectives of Enacting Student Voice in Primary Physical Education

Cassandra Iannucci, Cameron van der Smee, and Melissa Parker

Purpose: Broadly speaking, student voice can be defined as initiatives that involve consultation of, feedback from, and engagement with students regarding their own education. This study’s aim was to explore teachers’ experiences and perceptions of enacting student voice in primary physical education. Method: Participants included six primary school health and physical education specialist teachers within Victoria, Australia. Data were collected via six rich and detailed one-on-one semistructured interviews. Results: Three main themes include: (a) “same-same but different” highlighting participants’ varying conceptualizations and enactment of student voice, (b) “language matters” emphasizing the importance of language used when discussing and implementing student voice, and (c) “barriers and challenges to implementation” capturing participants’ experience and limiting factors to the enactment of student voice practices. Discussion/Conclusion: Grounded in education for transformation and patterns of partnership theories, the discussion focuses on the disassociation between teachers’ perceived understanding and enactment and the implications for students resulting from the misalignment.

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The Inclusion of Preplanned and Random and Unanticipated/Unexpected Events During Strength Training Improves the Ability to Repeat High-Intensity Efforts Under Uncertainty

Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, Javier Raya-González, and Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

Purpose: To compare the effects of unilateral flywheel training (FT), using a rotational conical pulley, including multidirectional movements with either preplanned or random unanticipated/unexpected executions on functional performance in football players. Methods: A total of 32 young male football players were randomly assigned to an FT program including preplanned unilateral multidirectional movements (PTG, n = 11), an FT executing the same unilateral movements through random (ie, right or left leg) unanticipated (ie, verbal or visual cue) or unexpected (ie, moment where the cue was provided) situations (UTG, n = 11), or a control group (n = 10) that followed their football training routine. FT consisted of 1 set × 5–12 repetitions of 4 exercises performed once a week for 10 weeks. Intermittent endurance performance, repeated unilateral and bilateral jumping ability, change-of-direction (COD) ability, linear sprint velocity, preplanned repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and uncertainty RSA (RSA-RANDOM) were assessed preintervention and postintervention. Results: Significant improvements were found in RSA-RANDOM performance (P < .05, effect size [ES] range: UTG [1.83–2.16], PTG [0.69–0.73]) and COD (P < .05, ES: UTG = 1.34, PTG = 0.98]) in both training groups. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in intermittent endurance performance (P = .016, ES = 0.37) and sprinting (P = .006, ES = 0.45) in UTG. No changes in any variable were found in the control group. No significant between-groups differences (P > .05) were reported between UTG and PTG, while differences were observed to the control group in unilateral jumping ability, COD, and RSA-RANDOM for UTG, and in RSA-RANDOM for PTG. Conclusions: A 10-week unilateral FT improved RSA-RANDOM and COD ability in youth football players, so both preplanned and unexpected situations should be included on strength training.

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Repeated-Sprint Training With Blood-Flow Restriction Improves Repeated-Sprint Ability Similarly to Unrestricted Training at Reduced External Loads

James R. Mckee, Olivier Girard, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Daniel J. Hiscock, Kristen De Marco, and Brendan R. Scott

Purpose: This study examined performance and physiological adaptations following 3 weeks of repeated-sprint training (RST) with blood-flow restriction (BFR) or without (non-BFR). Methods: Twenty-six semiprofessional and amateur adult male team-sport players were assessed for repeated-sprint ability, anaerobic capacity, leg lean mass, neuromuscular function, and maximal aerobic capacity before and after RST. Participants completed 9 cycling RST sessions (3 sets of 5–7 × 5-s sprints, 25-s passive recovery, 3-min rest) over a 3-week period with BFR or non-BFR. Results: During RST sessions, the BFR group demonstrated lower mean power output compared with non-BFR (−14.5%; g = 1.48; P = .001). Significant improvements (P < .05) in mean and peak power output during repeated-sprint ability (+4.1%; g = 0.42, and + 2.2%; g = 0.25, respectively) and anaerobic capacity (+4.8%; g = 0.47, and + 4.7%; g = 0.32, respectively) tests, leg lean mass (+2.0%; g = 0.16), and peak aerobic power (+3.3%; g = 0.25) were observed from pretesting to posttesting without any between-groups differences. No significant changes (P > .05) were observed for maximal isometric voluntary contraction and maximal aerobic capacity. Peak rate of force development decreased (P = .003) in both groups following RST (−14.6%; g = 0.65), without any between-groups differences. Conclusions: Repeated-sprint ability, anaerobic capacity, leg lean mass, and peak aerobic power improved following 3 weeks of RST; however, the addition of BFR did not further enhance adaptations. Interestingly, comparable improvements were achieved between groups despite lower external loads experienced during RST sessions with BFR.

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Kinetic Analysis, Potentiation, and Fatigue During Vertical and Horizontal Plyometric Training: An In-Depth Investigation Into Session Volume

Casey M. Watkins, Nicholas D. Gill, Michael R. McGuigan, Ed Maunder, Alyssa-Joy Spence, Paul Downes, Jono Neville, and Adam G. Storey

Despite previous support for plyometric training, optimal dosing strategies remain unclear. Purpose: To investigate vertical and horizontal jump kinetic performance following a low-volume plyometric stimulus with progressively increased session jump volume. Methods: Sixteen academy rugby players (20.0 [2.0] y; 103.0 [17.6] kg; 184.3 [5.5] cm) volunteered for this study. Vertical and horizontal jump sessions were conducted 1 week apart and consisted of a 40-jump low-volume plyometric stimulus using 4 exercises, after which volume was progressively increased to 200 jumps, using countermovement jump (CMJ) for vertical sessions and horizontal broad jump (HBJ) for horizontal sessions. Jump performance was assessed via force-plate analysis at baseline (PRE-0), following the low-volume plyometric stimulus (P-40), and every subsequent 10 jumps until the end of the session (P-50, P-60, P-70, ... P-200). Results: The low-volume stimulus was effective in potentiating HBJ (2% to 5%) but not CMJ (0% to −7%) performance (P < .001). The HBJ performance enhancements were maintained throughout the entire high-volume session, while CMJ realized small but significant decrements (−5% to −7%) in jump height P-50 to P-80 before recovering to presession values. Moreover, increases in eccentric impulse (5% to 24%; P < .001) in both sessions were associated with decreased or maintained concentric impulse, indicating a breakdown in performance-augmenting mechanisms and less effective power transfer concentrically after moderate volumes. Conclusion: Practitioners should consider kinetic differences between HBJ and CMJ with increasing volume to better inform and understand session dosing strategies.