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Kelly L. Simonton, Karen L. Gaudreault, and Caitlin Olive

Purpose: Marginality and isolation have been found to negatively impact physical educators. Despite a significant body of research, few studies have included important personal attributes like teacher emotions. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of teacher marginality, isolation, and emotions (enjoyment, anger, and anxiety) with intrapersonal job beliefs (turnover intention, perceived accomplishment, and organizational commitment). Methods: Physical educators (N = 227; 51% female) from the United States participated in the study. Results: Experienced teachers reported higher enjoyment, those with less experience reported more anger, and teachers in urban and secondary schools reported higher turnover intention. Hierarchical regression showed emotions add significant variance in relationships with job beliefs, and the interaction between marginality and emotions may help explain teacher perceptions and agency. Discussion/Conclusion: Marginality and teacher emotions, together, impact teacher well-being and job beliefs. Emotions warrant further investigation and may provide mechanisms to understand reactions to marginality and coping.

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Hongying Wang, Bo Shen, and Jin Bo

Purpose: With the belief that situational interest (SI) can be characterized as being triggered and maintained, the authors conducted this study to identify the underlying structure of SI and to develop a new measurement in physical education. Method: There were 558 students from two urban high schools in Shanghai, China, who served as participants. The authors developed the Situational Interest Inventory-Physical Education through three systematic stages. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results: An exploratory factor analysis provided preliminary support, with a model comprising three components: triggered SI, maintained SI feeling, and maintained SI value. The three-component model was further corroborated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Its predictive validity was supported with significant correlations to in-class engagement. Conclusion: The findings lend initial evidence to the theoretical mechanism of interest development. Clarifying how SI is related to the mode of teachers’ instruction and learning content may help design effective motivational strategies and nurture long-term individual interest.

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Noah M.A. d’Unienville, Maximillian J. Nelson, Clint R. Bellenger, Henry T. Blake, and Jonathan D. Buckley

Purpose: To prescribe training loads to improve performance, one must know how an athlete is responding to loading. The maximal rate of heart-rate increase (rHRI) during the transition from rest to exercise is linearly related to changes in endurance exercise performance and can be used to infer how athletes are responding to changes in training load. Relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance. Methods: Eighteen recreational strength and power athletes (13 male and 5 female) were tested on a cycle ergometer for rHRI, 6-second peak power output, anaerobic capacity (30-s average power), and blood lactate concentration prior to (PRE), and 1 (POST1) and 3 (POST3) hours after fatiguing high-intensity interval cycling. Results: Compared with PRE, rHRI was slower at POST1 (effect size [ES] = −0.38, P = .045) but not POST3 (ES = −0.36, P = .11). PPO was not changed at POST1 (ES = −0.12, P = .19) but reduced at POST3 (ES = −0.52, P = .01). Anaerobic capacity was reduced at POST1 (ES = −1.24, P < .001) and POST3 (ES = −0.83, P < .001), and blood lactate concentration was increased at POST1 (ES = 1.73, P < .001) but not at POST3 (ES = 0.75, P = .11). rHRI was positively related to PPO (B = 0.19, P = .03) and anaerobic capacity (B = 0.14, P = .005) and inversely related to blood lactate concentration (B = −0.22, P = .04). Conclusions: rHRI is linearly related to acute changes in anaerobic exercise performance and may indicate how athletes are responding to training to guide the application of training loads.

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST, VOLUME 8, ISSUE 3

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Andrew P. Friesen

There has been an implied direct connection between the scholarly literature and applied practice. However, the sport and exercise psychology community is lacking an empirical account of what practitioners believe to have been the most impactful scholarly writings to their applied practice. The purpose of this study was to survey applied practitioners of their perceived most impactful scholarly writings to their professional practice. Surveys were returned from 532 participants solicited from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology membership, who were asked to identify their perceived most impactful book and journal article to their practice. Frequency statistics were calculated and presented for topic, type, title, author(s), year published, and journal. A total of 143 different books and 188 different articles across 84 different journals were reported. Implications for applied practice, teaching sport and exercise psychology, and research are presented.

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Niki Tsangaridou, Mikaela Pieroua, Ermis Kyriakides, and Charalambos Y. Charalambous

Purpose: To examine early childhood teachers’ practices of teaching physical education. Method: Eleven early childhood educators participated in the study. Data were collected using two systematic observation instruments, a modified version of the Task Structure System and the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness. Three 40-min lessons were observed for each teacher. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The findings showed that most childhood educators more often employed certain generic, rather than content-specific, practices in their physical education lessons. Application, structuring, and questioning were observed in most lessons, while skill demonstration, emphasis on critical elements, and congruent and specific feedback were not frequently observed. Additionally, the generic practices of orientation and modeling were observed in only a few lessons. Conclusions: By investigating and understanding the practices that early childhood teachers employ during physical education lessons, teacher educators can support teachers in ways that provide more meaningful experiences for children.

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Thomas W. Jones, Andrew D. Govus, Alfred Buskqvist, Erik P. Andersson, and Kerry McGawley

Purpose: To provide a descriptive analysis of the warm-up (WU) strategies employed by cross-country skiers prior to distance and sprint competitions at a national championship and to compare the skiers’ planned and executed WUs prior to the respective competitions. Methods: Twenty-one national- and international-level skiers (11 women and 10 men) submitted WU plans prior to the distance and sprint competitions, and after the competitions, reported any deviations from the plans. Skiers used personal monitors to record heart rate (HR) during WU, races, and cooldown. Quantitative statistical analyses were conducted on WU durations, durations in HR-derived intensity zones, and WU loads. Qualitative analyses were conducted on skiers’ WU plans and their reasons for deviating from the plans. Results: Skiers’ planned WUs were similar in content and planned time in HR-derived intensity zones for both the distance and sprint competitions. However, 45% of the women and 20% of the men reported that their WU was not carried out as planned, with reasons detailed as being due to incorrect intensities and running out of time. WU activities including skiing across variable terrain, muscle-potentiating exercises, and heat-maintenance strategies were missing from the skiers’ planned routines. Conclusions: Skiers favored a long, traditional WU approach for both the sprint and distance events, performing less high-intensity and more moderate-intensity exercise during their WUs than planned. In addition, elements likely relevant to successful performance in cross-country skiing were missing from WU plans.

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Carolina Casado-Robles, Jesús Viciana, Santiago Guijarro-Romero, and Daniel Mayorga-Vega

Purpose: To examine the effect of two physical education–based alternated teaching units on students’ environmental knowledge for practicing out-of-school physical activity (PA), perceived autonomy support, self-determined and controlled motivation toward PA, intention to be physically active, self-reported and objective PA levels, and sedentary behavior. Method: A sample of 179 students (94 females) aged 13–15 years old was cluster randomly assigned to the innovative group (two alternated teaching units for practicing PA, with one lesson inside and one outside the school grounds) or the traditional group (a teaching unit for practicing PA, solely inside the school center). Results: The alternated teaching units improved students’ knowledge of their environment for practicing PA, perceived autonomy, autonomous motivation, intention to be physically active, and self-reported PA during the whole week (p < .05). Discussion/Conclusion: The innovative program improved students’ knowledge about their environment for practicing PA and self-reported PA but did not improve objectively measured PA levels.

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Jerome Koral, Marie Fanget, Laurianne Imbert, Thibault Besson, Djahid Kennouche, Audrey Parent, Clément Foschia, Jérémy Rossi, and Guillaume Y. Millet

Purpose: Fatigue has previously been investigated in trail running by comparing maximal isometric force before and after the race. Isometric contractions may not entirely reflect fatigue-induced changes, and therefore dynamic evaluation is warranted. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the decrement of maximal isometric force versus maximal power, force, and velocity after trail running races ranging from 40 to 170 km. Methods: Nineteen trail runners completed races shorter than 60 km, and 21 runners completed races longer than 100 km. Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVCs) of knee extensors and plantar flexors and maximal 7-second sprints on a cycle ergometer were performed before and after the event. Results: Maximal power output (P max; −14% [11%], P < .001), theoretical maximum force (F 0; −11% [14%], P < .001), and theoretical maximum velocity (−3% [8%], P = .037) decreased significantly after both races. All dynamic parameters but theoretical maximum velocity decreased more after races longer than 100 km than races shorter than 60 km (P < .05). Although the changes in IMVCs were significantly correlated (P < .05) with the changes in F 0 and P max, reductions in IMVCs for knee extensors (−29% [16%], P < .001) and plantar flexors (−26% [13%], P < .001) were larger (P < .001) than the reduction in P max and F 0. Conclusions: After a trail running race, reductions in isometric versus dynamic forces were correlated, yet they are not interchangeable because the losses in isometric force were 2 to 3 times greater than the reductions in P max and F 0. This study also shows that the effect of race distance on fatigue measured in isometric mode is true when measured in dynamic mode.

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Daniela M. Susnara, Matthew Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

Purpose: To examine the impact of an out-of-school swimming program on children and youth from one underserved community. Method: Participants were 200 children and youth who attended the out-of-school swimming program during two consecutive summers. The theoretical framework employed drew from previous research on socialization. A mixed-methods design involved participants’ aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety being assessed at the beginning and end of each summer. These data were examined through descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative methods employed were nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, and focus groups. Standard interpretive methods were employed to analyze the data these techniques yielded. Findings: Participants improved their aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety. They moved from being concerned for their safety to being confident in their aquatic ability and knowledge. The key socialization agents responsible for this shift were the instructors. Conclusion: The study suggests that an out-of-school swimming program taught by well-trained instructors can be effective.