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Athanasios Kolovelonis and Marios Goudas

Three experiments examined students’ calibration in physical education in relation to task characteristics. Participants in the 3 experiments were 388 students. Calibration accuracy and bias were calculated based on students’ predicted and actual performance in tests including variations of a sport task (basketball shooting) and tasks from different sports (basketball and soccer). An overconfidence effect was found in all experiments, and evidence regarding the hard–easy effect emerged. High compared with low performers were more accurate, and some variations with respect to gender also emerged. The magnitude of calibration error was similar across tasks, whereas approximately half of the students were consistent in the direction of calibration (most of them were overestimators). Results are discussed with reference to theoretical and empirical evidence associated with performance calibration and self-regulated learning in physical education. Methodological issues, practical implications, and future directions are also discussed.

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Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan and Christopher Wichman

Background: Most rural adults do not meet current guidelines for physical activity (PA). A 12-week feasibility study tested the effectiveness of using the 5A’s model for PA counseling on rural adults’ PA behaviors. Methods: Inactive rural adults recruited from a primary care clinic were randomized to an intervention (n = 30) or control (n = 29) group. All subjects wore a Fitbit to track steps and active minutes. The intervention group completed action plans to improve self-regulatory PA strategies and received weekly motivational text messages to improve PA behaviors. Theory of planned behavior constructs and self-regulatory strategies of planning, goal setting, and tracking (steps and active minutes) were measured with both groups. The control group received the Fitbit only. Results: All individuals became more physically active; however, no significant differences between groups in active minutes or steps were found. All subjects, regardless of group, increased steps (P > .05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups on any of the theoretical variables. Conclusions: It is vitally important to continue to find ways to make PA a priority to improve the overall health and well-being of rural adults. Future research warrants adjusting the intervention dose and strategies to increase PA that can be maintained long term.

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Katie Teller, Mark Abbey-Lambertz, Nasira Sharma, Alan Waite, Scott Ickes and Jason A. Mendoza

Background: The walking school bus (WSB) is a promising intervention to increase walking to school and physical activity in school-age children. The aim of this qualitative study was to assess parent perceptions of a WSB program that was part of a randomized controlled trial to inform future programs. Methods: The authors interviewed 45 parents whose children had participated in a WSB program in the Seattle area, in which third- and fifth-grade students walked to/from school with adult chaperones along a set route. The authors performed a qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts and coded interview segments into 4 broad categories as follows: facilitators, barriers, general positive sentiments, and proposals. Results: Most parents spoke of the benefits of the WSB program; in particular, parents frequently applauded exercise/physical health benefits. Of the barriers, the most frequently cited was time, with work schedule and commute changes leading some families to walk less frequently. Conclusions: Most parents voiced support for the WSB program as a means to improve child health, to learn pedestrian safety, and to interact with positive adult role models. Parents made several suggestions to improve the program, including better recruitment methods, logistical improvements, and a platform for communicating with other parents.

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Christina E. Miyawaki, Rebecca L. Mauldin and Carolyn R. Carman

Exercise is important for older adults in order to prevent falls and live safer, healthier lives. Visual impairment is a risk factor for falling. Older adults tend to visit optometrists frequently; however, assessing patients’ physical exercise levels is not a routine practice for optometrists. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for optometrists’ referrals to exercise programs. This study used a mixed-method, cross-sectional design. In focus groups, optometry patients (N = 42) discussed the acceptability of an optometrist’s prescription for exercise programs. The vast majority of optometry patients (90%) indicated that they would follow such a prescription for exercise from their optometrists. Texas optometrists (N = 268) were surveyed about the potential for exercise program prescriptions, and 97% indicated a willingness to prescribe exercise programs to their patients. The results suggest that there is an opportunity for community–clinical partnerships to prevent falls and to improve the health of older patients.

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a method of collecting behavioral data in real time. The purpose of this study was to examine EMA compliance, identify factors predicting compliance, assess criterion validity of, and reactivity to, using EMA in a workplace intervention study. Methods: Forty-five adults (91.1% female, 39.7 [9.6] y) were recruited for a workplace standing desk intervention. Participants received 5 surveys each day for 5 workdays via smartphone application. EMA items assessed current position (sitting/standing/stepping). EMA responses were time matched to objectively measured time in each position before and after each prompt. Multilevel logistic regression models estimated factors influencing EMA response. Cohen kappa measured interrater agreement between EMA-reported and device-measured position. Reactivity was assessed by comparing objectively measured sitting/standing/stepping in the 15 minutes before and after each EMA prompt using multilevel repeated-measures models. Results: Participants answered 81.4% of EMA prompts. Differences in compliance differed by position. There was substantial agreement between EMA-reported and device-measured position (κ = .713; P < .001). Following the EMA prompt, participants sat 0.87 minutes more than before the prompt (P < .01). Conclusion: The use of EMA is a valid assessment of position when used in an intervention to reduce occupational sitting and did not appear to disrupt sitting in favor of the targeted outcome.

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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

Background: To investigate the geographical distribution of physical activity (PA) prevalence among adults aged 15–64 years old across Iran provinces using geographic maps. Methods: Data from 4 consecutive national surveys conducted between 2007 and 2010 were pooled to determine the geographical distribution. Prevalence of low PA with 95% confidence interval was estimated by sociodemographic subpopulations over provinces using complex survey design. Results: In total, 119,560 participants (49.9% females) were included in the analyses. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.5 (14.3) years. The prevalence of the low PA in the pooled 2007–2010 was 35.8% (95% confidence interval, 34.1–37.6). The 3 provinces with the highest prevalence of low PA were Sistan and Baluchestan, Yazd, and Hormozgan. The results of hot spot analysis showed that the Kerman province was a hot spot, and Ilam, Kermanshah, Hamedan, and Markazi were cold spots for low PA. Ilam, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Mazandaran had the highest total PA volume (metabolic equivalent minutes per week). Hot spot analysis showed that Ilam and Khuzestan provinces were hot spots for the total PA volume. Conclusions: The regions with low and high PA are predominately situated in the near center/southeast and west, respectively.

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Lisa A. Kihl and Vicki Schull

The meaning and nature of athlete representation in sport governance is broad and goes beyond formalistic delegate models and voting rights accounts. This article explores the meaning and nature of representation in the context of intercollegiate sport governance. Interviews were conducted with intercollegiate athlete representatives and athlete representative administrative advisors to gain an understanding of how and why athlete representatives carried out their roles. Findings revealed that the meaning and motivations of athlete representation were based on the institutionalized deliberative democratic governance system. Representation meant standing and acting for the power of the athlete voice and having the capacity to generate the athlete voice into legislation and decision making. The performative role of representatives involved self-accountability, where they accepted responsibility to engage in a deliberative process of collective decision making. Implications for practice and future research on athlete representation in a deliberative democratic sport governance system are presented.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

Background: Combined exercise (CE) has been recommended for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (ILWHA) under antiretroviral therapy. However, depending on the intensity and duration, physical exercise may occasionally increase inflammatory parameters and reduce immunological responses that if not reversed, cause health injury specifically in this population. Information about immunological and hormonal responses after CE in ILWHA has not been completely elucidated. Therefore, the aim is to verify the acute effects of CE on cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A, and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines over 24 hours in ILWHA. Methods: Noninfected individuals and ILWHA undergone 5 sessions of CE prior to the acute assessment session. Seventy-two hours after the last session, the subjects were submitted to one session of CE (aerobic exercise: 25 min at 60–70% reserve heart rate and resistance exercise: 3 sets of 15 maximum repetitions of 6 exercises). Saliva samples were collected before, immediately, 6 and 24 hours after CE. Results: CE reduced cortisol (6 h: 2.54 [0.58] vs 0.65 [0.22] pg·mL−1; P = .02), increased testosterone (all moments) and immunoglobulin A levels (24 h: 255.3 [44.7] vs 349.2 [41.9] μm·mL−1; P = .01) without significant difference in cytokines levels in ILWHA. Conclusion: CE modulates cortisol, testosterone, and immunoglobulin A levels without the change in immunological parameters in ILWHA.

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni and Demir Barić

Background: Protected areas are important attractions for promoting healthy life habits. Consequently, to date, a number of studies have examined the association between visitors’ characteristics and physical activities. However, little is known about the specific users inclined exclusively to have sedentary behavior during a visit. Thus, using the Alt Pirineu Natural Park (Spain) as a case study, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of sociodemographic, trip, motivational, and opinion descriptors on the likelihood of participating in sedentary behavior while visiting a protected natural area. Methods: The data used were randomly collected from visitors through an onsite structured questionnaire (N = 628). Results: Metabolic equivalent consumption was used to empirically distinguish the sedentary (22.6%) from the active (77.4%) visitor groups. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the trip and motivational descriptors explained the highest degree of the overall variation in reporting sedentary behavior. Conclusion: The study contributed to documenting the information about visitors’ behavior in protected areas, and the findings may aid park managers in developing effective management strategies for promoting and enhancing physical activity in protected natural areas.

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Sungho Cho, J. Lucy Lee, June Won and Jong Kwan (Jake) Lee

Under the federal trademark law, owners of famous sport trademarks may bring legal claims against unauthorized users of their marks under the infringement and dilution theory. Although the rationale of trademark infringement has been supported by various notions of consumer psychology and law and economics, the theory of dilution has been criticized for the lack of empirical support. This study investigated whether the junior use of major sport trademarks would have dilutive effects on the senior marks in financial terms. The study employed the contingent valuation method, a technique designed to estimate the economic values of nonpecuniary assets such as trademarks. A total of 140 subjects were exposed to dilutive information while they purchased sport brand merchandise. A series of pre- and posttests revealed that moderately famous sport trademarks suffered dilutive harm from junior use, whereas exceptionally famous marks were immune to the dilutive effects. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.