Black women student-athlete activists at a historically white institution of higher education represent a group with unique lived experiences framed by intersecting identities. As student-activists, they are at risk for adverse mental health concerns associated with the emotional toils of fighting for racial justice. As Black female student-athletes at a historically white institution, they are also at risk for isolation. Acknowledging that race, class, and gender consistently intersect in sport is a necessary prerequisite for better mental health treatment, and for understanding Black women in sport and society. The purpose of this report is to identify the target groups’ needs from their perspectives as Black women student-athlete activists, for the purposes of understanding and serving them better. We present interviews with six Black female student-athlete activists at a historically white institution of higher education and three recommendations for sport psychology consultants positioned to be their allies.
I Would Not Trade It for the World: Black Women Student-Athletes, Activism, and Allyship in 2020–2021
DeAnne Davis Brooks and Rob Knox
The Prevalence of Emotional Exhaustion in Professional and Semiprofessional Coaches
Erik Lundkvist, Henrik Gustafsson, Daniel Madigan, Sören Hjälm, and Anton Kalén
The present study examined levels of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout, in Swedish professional and semiprofessional sport coaches in comparison to the normative values specified in the Maslach Burnout Inventory manual, and to the clinical cutoffs developed by Kleijweg, Verbraak, and Van Dijk. The sample contained 318 Swedish coaches (M age = 42.7 years, 12% female) working at least 50% full time away from both team (60%) and individual (40%) sports. Our study shows that, in general, coaches in this sample experience lower average levels of exhaustion than normative samples both regarding the Maslach Burnout Inventory and clinical cutoffs. Two groups of coaches did, however, stand out. Coaches living in single households as well as coaches working part time had higher risk of severe levels of emotional exhaustion. These results place coach exhaustion levels in relation to other occupations and highlight that in this sample, the coaching profession does not stand out as more emotionally exhausting than other occupations.
Development and Initial Evaluation of the Athlete Eating Psychopathology Observation Questionnaire for Sport Professionals
Sebastian S. Sandgren, Emma Haycraft, and Carolyn R. Plateau
Eating psychopathology symptoms are common in athletes; however, it is unknown which symptoms are detected and to what extent by sport professionals. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a self-report questionnaire to explore which features of eating psychopathology in athletes are detected by sport professionals, and how observation of these symptoms might vary. Thirty-one questions were developed and 232 sport professionals (56% male) participated in the study. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a 20-item, five-factor solution (Negative Affect, Dieting Practices, Fear of Eating in Social Contexts, Bingeing and Purging, and Compulsive Exercise). Participants most frequently reported observing athletes’ dieting practices, while symptoms of a fear of eating in social contexts were observed least frequently. This study has developed and preliminarily tested the Athlete Eating Psychopathology Observation Questionnaire (AEPOQ), which now requires further validation. The findings provide important directions for education initiatives with sport professionals regarding identification of eating psychopathology symptoms.
“Mirror, Mirror, Am I as My Coach Sees Me?”: Discrepancy Between Athlete Self-Appraisals and Reflected Appraisals of Their Coach, and Relations With Athlete Burnout
David Trouilloud, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, and Valentin Roux
Using a person-centered approach, this study was conducted to identify (a) specific athlete profiles in terms of degree of discrepancy between their self-appraisals and the reflected appraisals of their coach and (b) the relations between these profiles and athlete burnout. Athletes (N = 369; M age = 21.15 years) fulfilled measures of self-appraisals, reflected appraisals of their coach, and burnout. Latent profile analysis allowed the identification of three profiles: concordance (84%), positive discrepancy (11%), and negative discrepancy (5%). Analyses revealed relationships between athletes’ profile membership and the three dimensions of burnout: emotional and physical exhaustion, sport devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment. More specifically, results indicated that athletes with a positive discrepancy profile (i.e., who rated themselves more positively than they think their coaches see them) were more at risk of burnout. This study contributes to existing research on psychosocial determinants of athlete burnout in the context of the coach–athlete relationship.
A Mixed-Method Study of Athletes’ Experiences With Mindfulness Across Stages of Readiness
Thomas O. Minkler, Sam Zizzi, Blake Costalupes, and D. Jake Follmer
Existing mindfulness literature in sport primarily focuses on manualized mindfulness protocols, while less is known about athlete experiences with mindfulness outside of interventions. The purpose of the present study was to explore student-athlete experiences with and readiness to practice mindfulness. Using convenience and snowball sampling, 205 collegiate athletes completed a mixed-method survey that assessed readiness, trait mindfulness, social support for mindfulness practice, and mindfulness’ perceived effect on performance. Participants were invited to comment on benefits, barriers, or adverse experiences during their practice. Athletes with long-term experience had significantly higher mindfulness scores than those with less experience; they also perceived that mindfulness had significantly greater effects on performance than those not practicing. Various benefits and barriers were expressed across stages of readiness, though roughly 6%–10% of participants reported an adverse effect of mindfulness practice. It is thus important for practitioners to consider readiness levels and previous experiences in implementing mindfulness interventions.
Volume 16 (2022): Issue 1 (Mar 2022): JCSP Special Issue Burnout in Sport and Performance
The Prevalence and Impact of Debilitative Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Long-Term Injury in Athletes
Misia Gervis, Helen Pickford, Hanna Nygârd, and Aura Goldman
Injuries, and their psychological and maladaptive behavioral consequences, are an inevitable by-product of sport participation. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and psychological corollaries of long-term injury in order to understand if these are universal experiences of long-term injured athletes. Competitive athletes (n = 187; average time spent injured =43 weeks), across a range of sports completed an online questionnaire developed to investigate the psychological and behavioral consequences of long-term injury. Results indicated that negative symptoms after injury were a universal experience and are the “normal” response to injury, not the “exception.” The most prevalent psychological consequences were rumination (97.9%), boredom (94.7%), and fear of reinjury (93.6%). Furthermore, indicators of suicidal ideation were reported by more than 50% of participants. Factor analysis revealed a six-factor model: (a) self-sabotaging behavior, (b) daily functioning, (c) addictive behavior, (d) clinical issues, (e) fixation on injury, and (f) compromised athletic identity. All factors significantly correlated with debilitating impact. Thus, this study calls for a change to the support of long-term injured athletes to include routine psychological care.
Collegiate Student-Athlete Psychological Distress and Counseling Utilization During COVID-19
Lindsey E. Slavin, Tess M. Palmateer, Trent A. Petrie, and E. Whitney G. Moore
The onset of COVID-19 and cancellation of collegiate sports may have exacerbated student-athletes’ psychological distress. Within a national sample of collegiate athletes (N = 5,755; 66.7% women), we determined how gender and race related to rates of depression, stress, and counseling use at the beginning of the pandemic (April/May 2020). Overall, 26.5% (n = 1,526) and 10.6% (n = 612) endorsed clinical levels of depression and stress, respectively; 25.1% (n = 1,443) and 69.7% (n = 4,014) reported subclinical levels. Few athletes (2.3%–17.1%) reported counseling use before or after the onset of COVID-19; those who did reported higher levels of depression and stress than those who never sought services. The female athletes reported higher rates of depression, stress, and counseling use than the male athletes. There were no race effects. Athletic departments must address their student-athletes’ psychological distress by facilitating a higher use of mental health services.
Barriers and Facilitators to Help-Seeking for Mental Health Difficulties Among Professional Jockeys in Ireland
Lewis King, SarahJane Cullen, Jean McArdle, Adrian McGoldrick, Jennifer Pugh, Giles Warrington, and Ciara Losty
A large proportion of jockeys report symptoms associated with mental health difficulties (MHDs), yet most do not seek help from professional mental health support services. Due to the paucity of literature in this field, this study sought to explore jockeys’ barriers to, and facilitators of, help-seeking for MHDs. Twelve jockeys participated in semistructured interviews, subsequently analyzed via reflexive thematic analysis. Barriers to help-seeking included the negative perceptions of others (stigma and career implications), cultural norms (masculinity and self-reliance), and low mental health literacy (not knowing where to seek help, minimization of MHDs, negative perceptions of treatment, and recognizing symptoms). Facilitators to help-seeking included education (exposure to psychological support at a younger age), social support (from professionals, jockeys, family, and friends), and media campaigns (high-profile disclosures from jockeys). Findings are consistent with barrier and facilitator studies among general and athletic populations. Applied recommendations and future research considerations are presented throughout the manuscript.
An Independent Examination of the Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement Protocol in National Collegiate Athletic Association Swimming and Diving
Jason Kostrna and Aaron D’Addario
The mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) protocol is designed to enhance mindfulness, emotional regulation, and attentional awareness and control. The MSPE consists of trainer led group sessions teaching the concepts of mindfulness through discussion and meditation practice. However, little research has tested the MSPE protocol’s adaptability and generalizability to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I teams and practitioners independent of the MSPE protocol’s creators. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of an adapted MSPE protocol. The adapted MSPE protocol was delivered to a NCAA Division I team while a second team participated as a potentially equivalent control group. Both teams completed measures of attentional control, flow, rumination, and mindful attention as primary outcome variables. Results revealed significant decreases in rumination and trait anxiety, as well as improvements in concentration control and focusing ability compared with the control group. Findings support the external validity of the MSPE protocol to adapt to independent practitioners and a previously unstudied combination of sport and level of competition.