Physical education (PE) plays a central role in children’s and young people’s holistic development, enabling cognitive, psychomotor, and affective development while boosting healthy lifestyles and socialization. Children equipped with developed motor abilities, such as muscular strength and power, will be better prepared to learn motor performance skills and sustain the demands of learning and playing games and sports. A scientific literature search was conducted in January 2021 to identify all relevant controlled studies from January 2000 to 2021 on PE interventions and strategies based on resistance training to achieve PE outcomes. The review showed that exposure to resistance exercises in PE lessons might be beneficial for primary school students’ general physical fitness, motor performance skills proficiency, and learning diversified sport skills. Interventions that include muscular strength and power development can support adequate muscular fitness and motor performance skill proficiency to achieve primary school PE outcomes.
Empowering Primary School Students, Potential Benefits of Resistance Training Movement Activities in Physical Education: Narrative Review
Andrew Sortwell, Daniel A. Marinho, Jorge Knijnik, and Ricardo Ferraz
Aristotle’s Conception of Arete and the Meaning of Records in Sport
Gregg Twietmeyer and Tyler G. Johnson
The modern sports world is currently obsessed with records, data, statistics, and/or the objective measurement of human performance. A primary message originating from this trend—manifesting in youth, club, interscholastic, intercollegiate, and professional sport—is that breaking records and improving one’s statistical output is the main objective of sport. In this article, we argue for why a predominant focus on records, stats, and winning is self-limiting and thereby misses the mark of what sport and sporting performance are. It is human beings who play sports rather than mere physical mechanical objects. Furthermore, we propose an arete-based philosophical perspective—taken directly from the ancient Greeks and particularly Aristotle—for how we ought to conceptualize and pursue sport. An arete-based philosophy captures the true essence of what sport is about by rooting it in what is “good and beautiful” (kalokagathia as the Greeks called it). Arete or “virtue” is, for Aristotle, about the cultivation of human excellence. Excellence, however, is not myopically reduced to “being the best,” “achieving fame or honor,” or “winning.” Instead, arete aims at cultivating the skills, both kinesthetic and moral, that lead to a good life. Elite performance, no matter how impressive, is never more than one small aspect of such a life. Character matters too, which means human excellence is never reducible to the measurable. After articulating this Aristotelian philosophy of sport, we then conclude the article by offering five recommendations for how teachers, coaches, and leaders of sport organizations can improve the culture of sport. Physical educators and coaches would be wise to take this Aristotelian conception of arete to heart.
Sport, Activism, and Ethics: Historiographical Perspectives
Athletes have long been activists, but the historical presentation and understanding of that activism is complex, constantly shifting, and wrought with contradictions and paradoxes. In this article, I call attention to facts and narratives around social justice, including how kinesiology and its subdisciplines embrace and afford opportunities to women and racial and ethnic minorities and casts them in their visions for the future. Neither raw statistics of (under- or over-) representation nor promises of a brighter future are likely to have any impact or contribute to understanding until they are presented in coherent narratives that include, or are preferably created by, affected voices. Only when kinesiology is producing a critical volume of these narratives can it truly claim to be contributing to social justice.
Addressing Literature Gaps in Online Learning and Adapted Physical Education: A Scoping Review
Scott W.T. McNamara, Melissa Bittner, Heather Katz, and Kelly Hangauer
The coronavirus pandemic required teachers to abruptly turn to online settings to deliver instruction. Unfortunately, evidence-based guidance for online instruction in the field of physical education is lacking, specifically for students with disabilities. Therefore, this scoping review sought to identify peer-reviewed literature addressing online learning in K–12 adapted physical education settings. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist was used to guide this scoping review. A database search was conducted for relevant articles, and a data charting process was completed to identify articles meeting inclusion criteria. Five articles were determined to be within the scope of this review (one research article and four commentary articles). This scoping review highlighted a lack of literature pertaining to online learning in K–12 adapted physical education. Considering the likelihood of online learning becoming increasingly relevant, more concerted efforts are needed to investigate trends in these settings to determine best practices and how students with disabilities experience adapted physical education within an online setting.
Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding Competitive Activities: An Examination Through Social Media
Eve Bernstein, Ingrid Johnson, Tess Armstrong, and Ulana Lysniak
This study investigated physical education Facebook social media platforms to analyze comments by in-service teachers regarding their perceptions and experiences using competitive activities during secondary physical education classes. The last 5 years’ worth of initial postings and successive comments by a member and group members were examined. The community of practice framework guided this study. Data were compared with appropriate practice in sport. Over 745 lines of data, teachers’ responses were analyzed using NVivo (version 10.0). The first theme focused on the real game and the athlete. The second theme discussed separating genders; this theme had two subthemes, including (a) skill and gender: coed is great if you have skill and (b) gender-specific activities. The third theme focused on inappropriate activities, toughening up students, and that keeping score is fun. Results indicated teachers’ shared and conflicted perceptions that involved skill and gender during competitive activities.
Volume 11 (2022): Issue 1 (Feb 2022): Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology‘s 2021 Meeting: Kinesiology‘s Social Justice Imperative
Human Movement: In Search of Borderlands Between Philosophy and Physics
Scott Kretchmar and Mark L. Latash
In this essay, we adopt a theory of behavior developed by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty in an attempt to find common ground between philosophy and physics. We look for ways to reconcile matter with meaning, physical motion with the principles of ethics, body with mind. We proceed in three steps, first by providing a review of Merleau-Ponty’s theory; second by showing how ethical behavior is constrained and shaped by factors found in physics, chemistry, and biology; and, finally, by describing how physical motion is affected by factors that transcend the laws of classical physics. For the latter purpose, we accept a theory of parametric control of movements with spatial referent coordinates. Our purpose is not to solve specific problems of motor control or moral decision making but, rather, to test a general theoretical scheme that carries a number of practical implications for both research and education, including the need for collaboration between and among diverse research subdisciplines in kinesiology.
Taking Steps Toward Health Equity Through Physical Activity
NiCole R. Keith
Health equity will be achieved when all demographics have a fair opportunity be healthy. This essay describes the possibility of achieving health equity through physical activity. It presents the social ecological model of physical activity and describes how both microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors influence one’s ability to participate. There is then a description of watershed moments in American history that negatively influenced the ability of certain demographics to be active today. It then describes groups participating in less physical activity when compared to others. Several public health and political science models are then suggested with specific examples of how they have been implemented in the past to improve health or physical activity. The essay ends by describing the need to build the physical activity evidence among vulnerable populations that tend to be underrepresented in research and explains best practices in engaging these populations in investigative work.
Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative
Bradley J. Cardinal
Kinesiology is a field focused on physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life. But do all people have equal opportunities to access and experience physical activity? Do physical activity settings allow people to freely express themselves? Are the benefits of physical activity universally shared by all people? If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then these questions demand not only our immediate attention, but also our collective action. During the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting, September 22–24, 2021, these questions and others were explored through presentations devoted to the theme “Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative.” This essay overviews the meeting, its purpose, and the organizers and introduces the 11 thematic papers in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 2021 Meeting: Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative” issue, plus a 12th essay commemorating the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting.
The National Academy of Kinesiology: Its Founding, Focus, and Future
Bradley J. Cardinal
This essay commemorates the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting, even though the first meeting of fellows of an “[American] Academy of Physical Education” occurred in 1904, some 118 years ago. Clark W. Hetherington, Robert Tait McKenzie, William Burdick, Thomas A. Storey, and Jay B. Nash met in October 1926 to reignite the Academy of yesteryear. On December 31, 1930, just 14 months and 1 week into the Great Depression, they and 24 others formally launched what the Academy has become today. “Clearly, they were a bold, hearty, and optimistic group. Their determination, inspiration, and perspiration remain guiding lights for us to this day!” This essay aims to demystify and humanize the Academy by sharing stories of how it was formed and how it continues to inform all those working in kinesiology and related fields through its distinguished Fellows, one of whom is a Nobel Laureate.