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Are Preference and Tolerance Measured With the PRETIE-Q (Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire) Relevant Constructs for Understanding Exercise Intensity in Physical Activity? A Scoping Review

Filipe Santos and Diogo Teixeira

Individual preference and tolerance can be seen as relevant traits for the understanding of the relationship between exercise intensity and behavioral outcomes. To better understand that relationship, this scoping review aimed to analyze preference for, and tolerance of, exercise intensity constructs in physical activity settings by verifying the contextual utility and feasibility of the subscales in the multiple settings of their application, the interpretation of the subscales, associations with other variables, and the reported limitations of the subscales’ use. The search was conducted through PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and B-on databases. Inclusion criteria were healthy individuals including athletes, experimental and nonexperimental studies written in English based on the assessment of subjective intensity in exercise; studies including the variables tolerance and/or preference. Exclusion criteria were instrument validation studies with no concurrent data, gray literature, and systematic reviews. Thirty-six studies published between 2005 and 2022 were analyzed. Results indicate that both constructs appear to be useful and feasible in various physical activity settings. No relevant limitations were reported for its use. Preference and tolerance constructs assessed with the PRETIE-Q (Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire) seem to offer a simple but useful understanding of the individual relation with exercise intensity in several physical activity–related outcomes.

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Renewable Energy Source Diffusion in Professional Sport Facilities

Liz Wanless, Chad Seifried, and Tim Kellison

Professional sport facility sustainability initiatives offer sport organizations an opportunity to demonstrate congruence with societal concern for the environment, an effort that also affects stadia revenue generation. Guided by diffusion of innovations theory, this study harnessed diffusion modeling and logistic regression to determine how quickly renewable energy source adoption is diffusing across 175 professional sport stadia in the United States and Canada and the factors catalyzing early renewable energy source adoption. Results revealed 86 (49%) facilities adopted at least one type of renewable energy source, with solar emerging as the predominant technology adopted (68 total adoptions). Full diffusion for renewable source adoption was predicted for 2061 (p = .0094, q = 0.1404, root mean square error = 3.25, mean absolute error = 2.51), while not all renewable energy sources were predicted to fully diffuse (wind; p = .0117, q = −0.0710, root mean square error = .853, mean absolute error = 0.675). New stadia construction during the time of adoption, facility type, and geographical social systems emerged as significant factors catalyzing adoption in the early majority.

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Escape Narratives and Regional Identity: A Case Study of the Story of Joe Burrow

Michael Clay Carey and Betsy Emmons

This case study analyzes the news media’s framing of National Football League (NFL) quarterback Joe Burrow and his background during the 2019 football season, from the announcement of Burrow as a Heisman trophy finalist to the aftermath of his selection as the first overall pick in the 2020 NFL draft. With his heightened visibility on the field, Burrow’s background was increasingly of interest to football fans and sports journalists. It was not Burrow’s fairly “typical” family background as the child of a football coach in a nuclear family that received the most attention, but the Appalachian town of Athens, OH, where Burrow was a high school student, that became an important narrative. Emerging theme analysis suggests that sports journalists often extended idealized narratives to frame Burrow as an overcomer of a systemic cultural background with which he did not immediately identify. That narrative often utilized stereotypical representations of rural Appalachia as a place dominated by cultural poverty, highlighted representations of engrained hopelessness and lack of agency in the region, and reinforced problematic understandings of the nature of structural poverty and the ways it may be effectively challenged. The research addresses gaps in the literature about the college student-athlete in nuanced conversations about race and class in athlete-to-career narratives and notes the ways an athlete may call on such mediated tropes to extend a narrative for possible community or self-benefit.

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An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Black Women Diversity and Inclusion Leaders in Sport Organizations

Ajhanai C.I. Keaton

Athletic Diversity and Inclusion Officers (ADIOs) are novel leadership positions in sport tasked with creating and sustaining diverse, inclusive, and equitable athletic departments. Interestingly, Black women have assumed many of the Division I ADIO positions. Thus, they seek to lead inclusionary efforts in an organizational field with sustained issues of gender and racial exclusion. This hermeneutic phenomenological study applied a Black feminist lens to examine what it means to be a Black woman ADIO who leads diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives in gendered and racialized Division I collegiate athletic departments. This study has three themes: (a) the ADIO position elicits the Strong Black Woman stereotype, inducing emotional fatigue; (b) Black women ADIOs are positioned as athletic departments’ conscience, often interpreting substantive and symbolic diversity, equity, and inclusion practices; and (c) Black women ADIOs center their perception of affirmative prescriptions of Black womanhood in an attempt to withstand the adverse realities of ADIO leadership.

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Interview With Sohyun Cho, Two-Time Captain of South Korea’s FIFA Women’s World Cup Team

Kyuhyun Choi, Ju Young Lee, and Alex Gang

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A Case-Study Examination of the Apologia and Antapologia of U.S. Track and Field Athlete Shelby Houlihan

Robert Hoffman, Chris Corr, and Christina L.L. Martin

In June 2021, U.S. Track and Field athlete Shelby Houlihan announced that she had tested positive for the performance-enhancing drug nandrolone and would not be competing in the upcoming Olympic trials. Maintaining her innocence, Houlihan engaged in numerous defense strategies claiming that a contaminated pork burrito accounted for the positive test. Given the unique nature of Houlihan’s defense, the present case study sought to examine both Houlihan’s use of apologia to defend herself against doping allegations and the antapologia (i.e., response) to Houlihan’s attempts at image repair. Analysis of Houlihan’s apologia suggests that despite her status as a relatively unknown female athlete, the use of social media facilitated the implementation of image-repair tactics typically used by more recognizable athletes and other public figures. The investigation of antapologia implies both a new approach to antapologia and that less recognizable athletes’ attempts at image repair are taken less seriously.

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Social Justice and Equity Imperatives—A Call to Action

Karen L. Francis and Kim C. Graber

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Effect of Core Muscle Training on Balance and Agility in Athletes: A Systematic Review

Saidan Shetty, Y.V. Raghava Neelapala, and Prateek Srivastava

The objective of this review was to systematically summarize the existing literature on the effect of core muscle training on measures of balance and agility in athletes. A search was conducted to identify the eligible articles on core muscle training, balance, agility, and athletes in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database that were published from inception to April 15, 2022. The literature search retrieved 3,299 articles, of which 17 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria of the review. Two reviewers independently performed study selection and assessed the quality of included studies using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and a third reviewer was consulted in case of disagreements. The quality of the studies was mixed. Core muscle training can be used to target balance and agility in athletes. Furthermore, core training of variable frequency, intensity, and type can be incorporated in athletic programs to improve balance and agility.

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Program Directing as Critical Praxis: Efforts to Embed Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Justice Values Into an Athletic Leadership Master’s Program

Jill Kochanek

Inclusive learning environments are necessary for all students to thrive. Such environments require that teachers and students engage in a critical praxis: iterative reflection and action that attend to social identity, power/privilege, and oppression for social justice promotion. In this conceptual paper, I overview my efforts as a program director to engage in a critical praxis and embed diversity, inclusion, and equity values into the fabric of an athletic leadership master’s program at a teaching-focused college. Strategic efforts described include creating a mission statement, conducting a needs assessment, developing a curriculum to promote critical capacity building in tandem with supporting sport–social justice student research, and recruitment of students with minoritized identities and nontraditional backgrounds. I conclude with future directions aimed at ensuring that graduate students have an inclusive and empowering educational experience that helps them develop as inclusive, equity-minded leaders.

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Volume 31 (2023): Issue 2 (Oct 2023)