Title IX specifies that “no person” shall be subjected to discrimination on the basis of sex. Yet, advocacy groups and state legislators have debated transgender girls’ and women’s right to participate in sports teams consistent with their gender identity. Such entities employ misguided research about testosterone’s role in sports, assert that transgender girls displace cisgender girls in sports, and weaponize gender verification against transgender girls. Title IX’s original intent catalyzes access for all young people in sports, regardless of gender identity. A review of the historical underpinnings of the regulatory policy driving Title IX’s implementation, leading up to the Biden administration’s current efforts to assess Title IX’s application to sports, underscores the path to the truest implementation of Title IX. The regulatory mechanisms establishing Title IX implementation compel maximization of sport opportunities for all girls and women, which includes trans girls and women.
Brian P. Soebbing, Chad S. Seifried, and Patrick Tutka
The novelty effect has a long history in sport facility research with most research examining new facility construction. The present study explores the impact of renovated facilities, specifically the novelty effect, as it pertains to revenue and secondarily attendance. Within, we also explore four different renovation types as classified by the U.S. National Registry of Historic Places to look at any individual impact or revelation using institutions participating in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. Results from ordinary least squares and Tobit estimations from a sample period covering 1993 through 2017 conclude a novelty effect associated with renovations does exist for attendance. However, the effect is shorter in duration and delayed by a few seasons based upon the type of renovation. As for revenues, we find some positive impact on revenues. Those impacts are delayed are on based on certain types of renovation.
Katherine Sveinson and Larena Hoeber
Sport team licensed merchandise plays an important role in sport fan experiences. Existing work has explored how consumers perceive these items, motivation and consumption habits, and intent to purchase. Extending upon the performative sport fandom framework, this study explores the marketing messages of sport fan merchandise, and the resulting implied gendered and fan performances. Employing a multimodal critical discourse analysis, we analyzed the top 20 T-shirts for men and women for five National College Athletic Association institutions on their official ecommerce sites. By examining the text descriptions, visual images, and messages perceived when combining text and visuals, we found that the marketing messages of clothing items rely heavily on traditional discourses of femininity and masculinity, placing gender performances as more relevant to fan performances for women. Atypical designs suggest alternative gender and fan performances but continue to indicate that gender identity is central to clothing appearance and messaging to consumers.
Dian Listiarini, Wara Kushartanti, and Novita Intan Arovah
While the role of exercise in managing obesity has been suggested, little is known about the effect of caffeine supplementation in the exercise program on body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), and cholesterol. This research compared the effect of aerobic exercise with and without caffeine on BMI, %BF, and cholesterol level in obese Asian women. Twenty-seven participants were randomly allocated into three groups, which were an aerobic exercise without caffeine (A; n = 9), an aerobic exercise with 3 mg/body weight—caffeine (AC; n = 9), and a control group (C; n = 9). The exercise was a 45-min exercise training at 60%–75% maximum heart rate conducted three times weekly for 8 weeks. The mixed-method repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of treatments and time (i.e., pretest and posttest) on the outcome measures, followed by simple effect analyses with Bonferroni correction. While there was a significant improvement in BMI and %BF from the pretest to posttest, this was superseded by a time-by-treatment interaction effect. For the time-by-treatment interaction, the cholesterol levels in the A and AC groups were significantly lower than in C, suggesting that the benefit of the exercise program is most evident in controlling cholesterol. In conclusion, the 3 mg/kg body weight caffeine does not appear to provide additional benefit in the 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session in improving BMI, %BF, and cholesterol among obese Asian women. Further research with higher caffeine dosage and larger and more heterogenous sample sizes is recommended to confirm the findings.