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Sumayyah B. Musa, Ryan Ellis, Brianne Chafe, Shelby L. Sturrock, Rebecca Ann Maher, Kim Cullen, and Daniel Fuller

Background : This paper examined whether the criterion validity of step count (SC), energy expenditure (EE), and heart rate (HR) varied across studies depending on the average age, body mass index (BMI), and predominant gender of participants. Methods : Data from 1536 studies examining the validity of various wearable devices were used. Separate multilevel regression models examined the associations among age, gender, and BMI with device criterion validity assessed using mean absolute percent error (MAPE) at the study level. Results : MAPE values were reported in 970 studies for SC, 328 for EE, and 238 for HR, respectively. There were several significant differences in MAPE between age, gender, and BMI categories for SC, EE, and HR. SC MAPE was significantly different for older adults compared with adults. Compared with studies among normal-weight populations, MAPE was greater among studies with overweight samples for SC, HR, and EE. Comparing studies with more women than men, MAPE was significantly greater for EE and HR. Conclusions : There are important differences in the criterion validity of commercial wearable devices across studies of varying ages, BMIs, and genders. Few studies have examined differences in error between different age groups, particularly for EE and HR.

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Helena M. Blumen, Emmeline Ayers, Cuiling Wang, Anne F. Ambrose, Oshadi Jayakody, and Joe Verghese

This randomized controlled trial (NCT03475316) examined the relative efficacy of 6 months of social ballroom dancing and treadmill walking on a composite executive function score, generated from digit symbol substitution test, flanker interference, and walking while talking tasks. Brain activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) versions of these executive function tasks were secondary outcomes. Twenty-five dementia-at-risk older adults (memory impairment screen score of ≥3 to ≤6 and/or an Alzheimer’s disease-8 Dementia Screening Interview of ≥1) were randomized in June 2019 to March 2020—16 completed the intervention before study termination due to the COVID-19 (eight in each group). Composite executive function scores improved post-intervention in both groups, but there was no evidence for between-group differences. Social dancing, however, generated greater improvements on digit symbol substitution test than treadmill walking. No intervention-related differences were observed in brain activation—although less hippocampal atrophy (tertiary) was observed following social dancing than treadmill walking. These preliminary findings are promising but need to be confirmed in future large-scale and sufficiently powered randomized controlled trials.

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Noopur Singh, Esther Sulkers, Hylke W. Van Dijk, Robbert Sanderman, and Adelita V. Ranchor

Long-term physical activity (PA) maintenance is challenging for older adults. Equipping older adults with strategies to support long-term PA maintenance can be an effective way to tackle this problem. Moreover, there is a lack of studies regarding long-term PA maintenance among older adults from non-Western settings. This qualitative research is one of the first studies conducted in an Indian context that explores the strategies developed and utilized by older adults who have successfully maintained their PA for the long term (>1 year) in their home settings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 older adults, and data were analyzed using an inductive reflexive thematic analysis approach. This article reports five strategies of PA maintenance, together comprising 13 substrategies. This study highlights the importance of using strategies to support the long-term maintenance of PA among older adults in India. However, these strategies would also be useful in other sociocultural contexts.

Open access

Alexis Lion, Anne Vuillemin, Florian Léon, Charles Delagardelle, and Aurélie van Hoye

Background: Our study investigated the effect of elite sport on physical activity (PA) practice in the general population. Methods: Structured Boolean searches were conducted across 5 electronic databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo) from January 2000 to August 2021. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if the effects of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, and elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population were measured. Results: We identified 12,563 articles and included 36 articles. Most studies investigated the effect of hosting elite sport events (n = 27), followed by elite sport success (n = 16) and elite sport role modeling (n = 3). Most studies did not observe a positive effect of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, or elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population. No evidence of a lagged effect of elite sport was observed. No evidence of elite sport effects was observed according to age range and geographical scale. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting the effect of elite sport in increasing PA or sport participation in the general population. Decision makers and policymakers should be aware of this and invest in strategies such as those recommended by the World Health Organization.

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James O. Brown, Alex Chatburn, David L. Wright, and Maarten A. Immink

Posttraining meditation has been shown to promote wakeful memory stabilization of explicit motor sequence information in learners who are experienced meditators. We investigated the effect of single-session mindfulness meditation on wakeful and sleep-dependent forms of implicit motor memory consolidation in meditation naïve adults. Immediately after training with a target implicit motor sequence, participants (N = 20, eight females, 23.9 ± 3.3 years) completed either a 10-min mindfulness meditation (N = 10) or a control listening task before exposure to task interference induced by training with a novel implicit sequence. Target sequence performance was tested following 5-hr wakeful and 15-hr postsleep periods. Bayesian inference was applied to group comparisons of mean reaction time (RT) changes across training, interference, wakeful, and postsleep timepoints. Relative to control conditions, posttraining meditation reduced RT slowing between target sequence training and interference sequence introduction (BF10 [Bayes factors] = 6.61) and supported RT performance gains over the wakeful period (BF10 = 8.34). No group differences in postsleep RT performance were evident (BF10 = 0.38). These findings illustrate that posttraining mindfulness meditation expedites wakeful, but not sleep-dependent, offline learning with implicit motor sequences. Previous meditation experience is not required to obtain wakeful consolidation gains from posttraining mindfulness meditation.

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Debbie Ann Loh, Noran Naqiah Hairi, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Devi Peramalah, Shathanapriya Kandiben, Mohd Alif Idham Abd Hamid, Awang Bulgiba, Mushtahid Salam, Mas Ayu Said, Hussein Rizal, Mahmoud Danaee, and Wan Yuen Choo

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent exercise and therapeutic lifestyle (CERgAS) intervention at improving gait speed among older people in an urban poor setting in Malaysia. A total of 249 participants were divided into the intervention (n = 163) and control (n = 86) groups. The mean (SD) age of participants was 67.83 (6.37) and consisted of 88 (35.3%) males and 161 (64.7%) females. A generalized estimating equation with an intention-to-treat analysis was used to measure gait speed at four time points, baseline (T0), 6 weeks (T1), 3 months postintervention (T2), and 6 months postintervention (T3). The results showed significant changes for time between T0 and T3 (mean difference = 0.0882, p = .001), whereas no significant association were found for group (p = .650) and interaction (p = .348) effects. A 6-week intervention is inadequate to improve gait speed. Future efforts should introduce physical activity monitoring and increase exercise duration, frequency, and intensity.

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Alexandra V. Carroll, Katherine E. Spring, Darby Winkler, Kameron Suire, and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Background: Teacher-led strategies targeting verbal prompting and demonstrated modeling can increase preschoolers’ physical activity levels; however, it is unknown which strategy promotes higher levels. The purpose of this study was to explore whether teacher verbal prompting or demonstrated modeling elicits higher levels of physical activity among preschoolers. Methods: Participants included 117 (56 females and 61 males; mean = 3.77 y) preschoolers who were observed for 3 days during regular preschool instructions. The System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions observation system assessed verbal prompting and demonstrated modeling of the teachers, and preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to measure physical activity. Results: The multivariate analysis of variance results showed a significant difference for verbal prompting (P < .001), demonstrated modeling (P = .032), light physical activity (P < .001), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; P < .001) between segments of the preschool day. A stepwise linear regression showed that preschooler’s MVPA (P = .005) and light physical activity and MVPA (P = .036) were significantly related to demonstrated modeling, but not verbal prompting. During indoor time, light physical activity and MVPA were highest during large group, work time, and morning group, where teacher demonstrated modeling occurred the most. Conclusions: Teacher demonstrated modeling had a significant relationship to preschoolers’ MVPA and light physical activity levels, while teacher verbal prompting did not.

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Shamoon S. Shahzada, Toby C.T. Mak, and Thomson W.L. Wong

The theory of reinvestment in experimental psychology suggested that automated performance could be degraded if attention was internally diverted to the process of skill execution. This study examined the role of attentional focus instructions on real-time conscious motor processing (i.e., reinvestment) during tandem walking. Thirty-six young adults (mean age = 20.94, SD = 1.43 years) participated; their electroencephalography T3–Fz coherence (i.e., real-time reinvestment) was measured during three walking conditions with different attentional focus instructions: external focus, internal focus, and control conditions. The results suggested that attentional focus instructions did not significantly affect real-time conscious motor processing during tandem walking in young adults, possibly due to the low level of motor task complexity of walking by young adults. The Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale appears to be not sensitive enough to reflect the real-time reinvestment during gait-related movements in young adults.

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Wei Guo, Andrew Leroux, Haochang Shou, Lihong Cui, Sun Jung Kang, Marie-Pierre Françoise Strippoli, Martin Preisig, Vadim Zipunnikov, and Kathleen Ries Merikangas

The Mobile Motor Activity Research Consortium for Health (mMARCH) is a collaborative network of clinical and community studies that employ common digital mobile protocols and collect common clinical and biological measures across participating studies. At a high level, a key scientific goal which spans mMARCH studies is to develop a better understanding of the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sleep (SL), and circadian rhythmicity (CR) and mental and physical health in children, adolescents, and adults. mMARCH studies employ wrist-worn accelerometry to obtain objective measures of PA/SL/CR. However, there is currently no consensus on a standard data processing pipeline for raw accelerometry data and few open-source tools which facilitate their development. The R package GGIR is the most prominent open-source software package for processing raw accelerometry data, offering great functionality and substantial user flexibility. However, even with GGIR, processing done in a harmonized and reproducible fashion across multiple analytical centers requires a nontrivial amount of expertise combined with a careful implementation. In addition, there are many statistical methods useful for analyzing PA/SL/CR patterns using accelerometry data which are implemented in non-GGIR R packages, including methods from multivariate statistics, functional data analysis, distributional data analysis, and time series analyses. To address the issues of multisite harmonization and additional feature creation, mMARCH developed a streamlined harmonized and reproducible pipeline for loading and cleaning raw accelerometry data via GGIR, merging GGIR, and non-GGIR features of PA/SL/CR together, implementing several additional data and feature quality checks, and performing multiple analyses including Joint and Individual Variation Explained, an unsupervised machine learning dimension reduction technique that identifies latent factors capturing joint across and individual to each of three domains of PA/SL/CR. The pipeline is easily modified to calculate additional features of interest, and allows for studies not affiliated with mMARCH to apply a pipeline which facilitates direct comparisons of scientific results in published work by mMARCH studies. This manuscript describes the pipeline and illustrates the use of combined GGIR and non-GGIR features by applying Joint and Individual Variation Explained to the accelerometry component of CoLaus|PsyCoLaus, one of mMARCH sites. The pipeline is publicly available via open-source R package mMARCH.AC.

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Cindy Y. Lin, Trever J. Ball, Nicole L. Gentile, Valerie F. McDonald, and Andrew T. Humbert

Background: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for many chronic conditions. This retrospective cohort study examined associations between physical activity (PA) with health care utilization (HU). Methods: A PA vital sign was recorded in clinics from January 2018 to December 2020. Patients were categorized as inactive, insufficiently active, or sufficiently active by US PA aerobic guidelines. Associations between PA vital sign and visits (inpatient admissions, emergency department, urgent care, and primary care) were estimated using population average regression by visit type. Results: 23,721 patients had at least one PA vital sign recorded, with a mean age of 47.3 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 28; 52% were female and 63% were White. Sufficiently active patients were younger, male, White, and had lower BMI than insufficiently active patients. Achieving 150 minutes per week of moderate to vigorous PA per 1000 patient years was associated with 34 fewer emergency department visits (P < .001), 19 fewer inpatient admissions (P < .001), and 38 fewer primary care visits (P < .001) compared with inactive patients. Stronger associations between lower PA and higher HU were present among those who were older or had a higher comorbidity. BMI, sex, ethnicity, and race did not modify the association between PA and HU. Conclusions: Meeting aerobic guidelines was associated with reduced HU for inpatient, primary care, and emergency department visits.