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Colin M. Wierts, Bruno D. Zumbo, Ryan E. Rhodes, Guy Faulkner, and Mark R. Beauchamp

This two-part study examined Dweck’s psychological needs model in relation to exercise-related well-being and particularly focused on the basic need for optimal predictability and compound needs for identity and meaning. In Part 1 (N = 559), using exploratory factor analysis, scores derived from items assessing optimal predictability (prediction of affect and instrumental utility in exercise) were empirically distinct from scores derived from items assessing competence, relatedness, and autonomy. In Part 2, participants from Part 1 (N = 403) completed measures of exercise-related well-being 4 weeks after baseline assessment. Prediction of affect was the most consistent predictor of subsequent exercise-related well-being. An implication of these findings is that optimal predictability (primarily prediction of affect) represents a unique experience that may be necessary for thriving in the context of exercise. Prediction of affect should be targeted in experimental designs to further understand its relationship with exercise-related well-being.

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Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry

To better understand exercise-related cognitive errors (ECEs) from a dual processing perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine their relationship to two automatic exercise processes. It was hypothesized that ECEs would account for more variance than automatic processes in predicting intentions, that ECEs would interact with automatic processes to predict intentions, and that exercise schema would distinguish between different levels of ECEs. Adults (N = 136, M age = 29 years, 42.6% women) completed a cross-sectional study and responded to three survey measures (ECEs, exercise self-schema, and exercise intentions) and two computerized implicit tasks (the approach/avoid task and single-category Implicit Association Test). ECEs were not correlated with the two implicit measures; however, ECEs moderated the relationship between approach tendency toward exercise stimuli and exercise intentions. Exercise self-schema were differentiated by ECE level. This study expands our knowledge of ECEs by examining their relationship to different automatic and reflective processes.

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Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry

To better understand exercise-related cognitive errors (ECEs) from a dual processing perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine their relationship to two automatic exercise processes. It was hypothesized that ECEs would account for more variance than automatic processes in predicting intentions, that ECEs would interact with automatic processes to predict intentions, and that exercise schema would distinguish between different levels of ECEs. Adults (N = 136, M age = 29 years, 42.6% women) completed a cross-sectional study and responded to three survey measures (ECEs, exercise self-schema, and exercise intentions) and two computerized implicit tasks (the approach/avoid task and single-category Implicit Association Test). ECEs were not correlated with the two implicit measures; however, ECEs moderated the relationship between approach tendency toward exercise stimuli and exercise intentions. Exercise self-schema were differentiated by ECE level. This study expands our knowledge of ECEs by examining their relationship to different automatic and reflective processes.

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Ian Ju Liang, Oliver J. Perkin, Polly M. McGuigan, Dylan Thompson, and Max J. Western

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered, home-based exercise programs on physical function and well-being in self-isolating older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a four-arm randomized controlled trial, 63 participants (aged 65 years and older) were allocated to one of three home-based daily (2 × 10-min) exercise interventions (exercise snacking, tai chi snacking, and combination) or control (UK National Health Service Web pages). Functional assessments were conducted via video call at baseline and 4-week follow-up. A web-based survey assessed the acceptability of each exercise program and secondary psychological/well-being outcomes. Ecological momentary assessment data, collected in Weeks 1 and 4, explored feeling states as antecedents and consequences of exercise. All intervention groups saw increased physical function at follow-up and displayed good adherence with exercise snacking considered the most acceptable program. Multilevel models revealed reciprocal associations between feelings of energy and exercise engagement. Further studies are needed with larger, more diverse demographic samples.

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Timothy D. Lee and Heather Carnahan

The authors reflect on the dire state of motor learning at the time of Brooks’s book and consider reasons why research was resurrected in the 1980s and flourished in the ensuing years. In so doing, they provide an overview of the various research topics that have been studied, discuss the influence of motor learning on other fields of study, and consider the future of motor learning research both within and outside the academic study of kinesiology.

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Sari Aaltonen, Teemu Palviainen, Richard J. Rose, Urho M. Kujala, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen

Background: Both genetic and environmental influences have been shown to contribute to the association between physical activity and overall academic performance. The authors examined whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) shares genetic and environmental variances between spelling, essay writing, reading aloud, reading comprehension, and mathematics in early adolescence. Moreover, they investigated whether genetic polymorphisms associated with physical activity behavior affect these academic skills. Methods: Participants were 12-year-old Finnish twins (n = 4356–4370 twins/academic skill, 49% girls). Academic skills were assessed by teachers, and LTPA was self-reported. Polygenic scores for physical activity behavior were constructed from the UK Biobank. Quantitative genetic modeling and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: The trait correlations between LTPA and academic skills were significant but weak (r = .05–.08). The highest trait correlation was found between LTPA and mathematics. A significant genetic correlation was revealed between LTPA and essay writing (r A = .14). Regarding polygenic scores of physical activity, the highest correlations were found with reading comprehension, spelling, and essay writing, but these results only approached statistical significance (P values = .09–.15). Conclusions: The authors’ results suggest that reading and writing are the academic skills that most likely share a common genetic background with LTPA.

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Melissa A. Jones, Kara Whitaker, McKenzie Wallace, and Bethany Barone Gibbs

Background: Sedentary behavior (SED) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) have important implications for health; however, little is known about predictors of these behaviors during pregnancy. Methods: This cohort study measured SED (activPAL) and MVPA (GT3X) in each trimester of pregnancy. Univariate associations of demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy health-related factors with SED or MVPA were calculated. Associations with P < .10 were included in stepwise linear regression models to determine independent predictors in each trimester. Results: Pregnant women (n = 127) were age 31.0 (4.9) years and 78% white. In regression models across trimesters, fewer children ≤ age 5 in the household (P < .04) and primarily sitting job activity (P < .008) were related to higher SED and use of assisted reproductive technology (P < .05) was associated with higher MVPA. In at least one trimester, younger age was related to higher SED (P = .014); no history of pregnancy loss (P < .04), being married (P = .003), employed (P < .004, full time or student), white race (P = .006), and higher education (P = .010) were associated with higher MVPA. Conclusions: Predictors of SED in pregnancy were more consistent, and differed from predictors of MVPA. These findings may help identify women at risk of high SED or low MVPA, though future research in larger samples is needed.

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Huda Al Siyabi, Ruth M. Mabry, Amal Al Siyabi, Moosa Al Subhi, and Karen Milton

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Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, and Shijun Zhu

The purpose of this study was to test the impact of function-focused care on adverse outcomes in assisted living. This was a randomized trial including 85 settings. The age of the 794 recruited participants was 89.48 (SD = 7.43) years, the majority was female (n = 561, 71%) and White (n = 771, 97%). The percentage of residents in the treatment group experiencing a fall decreased at 12 months from 26% to 20% and the control group increased from 24% to 25%, p = .02. A greater percentage of residents in the treatment group transferred to nursing facilities at 4 months (4–1% in control vs. 4–5% in treatment, p = .02) and 12 months (4–2% in control and 4–7% in treatment, p = .01). There was no treatment effect on emergency room or hospital transfers. The findings support the safety of function-focused care related to falls and need for hospital transfers.

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Joshua Gold and Joseph Ciorciari

Effective anticipation skills in sporting cognition have been shown to facilitate expertise in sports. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown to improve motor and cognitive functioning. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the assistive effects of tDCS on the action observer network in both novice and expert gamers during an occlusion task, as well as the related electroencephalographic spectral power response. Twenty-three novice and 23 expert video gamers received either sham or active tDCS with a right parietal anode and left frontal cathode. Only experts demonstrated a significant improvement in predicting ball direction for the overall and early occlusions after tDCS. Spectral power results revealed significant changes in theta, high-gamma, and delta frequencies. The findings indicate that tDCS was able to modulate anticipatory behavior and cortical activity in experts compared with novice participants, suggesting a facilitatory role for tDCS to improve anticipatory effects and assist as a neurocognitive training technique.