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Cuma Uz, Ebru Umay, Ibrahim Gundogdu, Hamid Amini, Fatma B. Uz, Ozlem Erol, Dilek Unalan, Fatma Y. Korkmaz, and Mohsen Akbarpour

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive measures can reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate predisease physical activity and current functional capacity in patients with and without the presence of pneumonia and oxygen requirement in Turkish survivors of COVID-19. Methods: Among the COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital, 100 patients were selected. Data about predisease physical activity (by short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire), oxygen requirement and presence of pneumonia, and current functional capacity (by the 6-min walking test) were collected. Continuous and categorical variables were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and χ 2 test, respectively (P < .05). Results: The predisease physical activity levels and current functional capacity of patients with pneumonia and oxygen requirement were significantly lower than patients without pneumonia and oxygen requirement (P < .05). However, there was no significant difference between males and females (P > 0.05). Pneumonia and oxygen requirement was more common in the older adults (P < .05). Also, a significant correlation was found between age with predisease physical activity (r = .530, P = .000) and current functional capacity (r = −.346, P = .000) and predisease physical activity level with current functional capacity (r = .523, P = .001). Conclusion: The physical activity level may be related to the severity of COVID-19 disease.

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

This study investigated the relationship between reappraisal and suppression with depression and mental well-being among university athletes. It was hypothesized reappraisal would associate with lower depression and greater mental well-being, whereas suppression would associate with greater depression and reduced mental well-being. Employing a cross-sectional design, 427 participants (M age = 20.18, SD = 1.52; 188 males and 239 females) completed questionnaires assessing mental health and strategy use. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed reappraisal was positively associated, and suppression negatively associated with mental well-being, ΔR 2 = 4.8%, ΔF(2, 422) = 17.01, p ≤ .001; suppression, β = −0.08, p = .028; reappraisal, β = 0.21, p ≤ .001, but neither were associated with depression, ΔR 2 = 0.4%, ΔF(2, 422) = 1.33, p = .267; suppression, β = 0.06, p = .114; reappraisal, β = 0.03, p = .525. Results highlight reappraisal as correlated with mental well-being in student-athletes, and therefore, reappraisal could be beneficial for managing stress in sport. Reappraisal may implicate how well-being is promoted through sport, but future experimental research is needed to confirm causal relationships.

Open access

Malorie Polster, Erin E. Dooley, Kate Olscamp, Katrina L. Piercy, and April Oh

Background: Dissemination of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (Guidelines) is needed, but how individuals respond to the Guidelines is not well understood. This surveillance study describes US adults’ reported responses to and information sources for hearing about the Guidelines and explores relationships between how respondents heard about the Guidelines and their reported response(s). Methods: Data were analyzed from the population-based 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey 5 Cycle 3. Population-weighted proportions of response were calculated. Among those who had heard about the Guidelines, binary logistic regressions examined associations between the reported response(s) and the information source and number of sources reported. Results: The analytical sample included 5047 adults. Nearly 65% of US adults reported hearing about the Guidelines, and 29% reported a behavioral response (eg, increased physical activity). Hearing about the Guidelines through health professionals (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval, 1.45–3.65) or social media (adjusted odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.96) (vs other sources) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity. Hearing from multiple sources (vs one source) was associated with reporting increasing physical activity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.18–3.31). Conclusion: Findings suggest dissemination of the Guidelines across multiple channels may promote greater changes in physical activity.

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André O. Werneck, Luciana L. Barboza, Raphael H.O. Araújo, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Giseli N. Damacena, Célia L. Szwarcwald, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: The authors analyzed time trends and sociodemographic inequalities in different physical activity and sedentary behavior domains between 2003 and 2019. Methods: A secondary analysis of data from 5 cross-sectional Brazilian epidemiological surveys (World Health Survey—2003, National Household Sample Survey—2008/2015, and Brazilian Health Survey—2013/2019) conducted among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adults. The authors used data on different domains of physical activity (leisure, commute, total transport, and total physical activity) and sedentary behavior (TV viewing and other types of screens) that were available in the different surveys. Gender, age group, country region, ethnicity, type of area and city, and quintiles of income and educational achievement were used as sociodemographic correlates. Results: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity increased over time (2008: 7.0% vs 2019: 26.5%). There was also an increased trend of social inequality in leisure-time physical activity. A trend of reduction was observed for active commuting (2008: 35.0% vs 2019: 21.8%), while total transport physical activity was stable (2013: 49.5% vs 2019: 49.6%). Directions of findings were opposite for sedentary behavior, with reduced trend for >3 hours per day of TV viewing (2008: 34.8% vs 2019: 21.8%) and increased trend for >3 hours per day of other types of screen time (2008: 6.4% vs 2019: 22.2%). Conclusion: A positive trend exists in leisure-time physical activity, but there was also an increase in social inequalities for physical activity in Brazil.

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Anna Hall, Madisen Hillebrant-Openshaw, Sierra Baca-Zeff, and Irene van Woerden

The amount of physical activity reported using accelerometry can vary depending on the method used. This study examined variability in four different methods of calculating moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among older adults, as well as lifestyle correlates of physical activity. The MVPA data were captured (n = 111; M age = 70.3 years, SD age = 6.3) using waist-worn ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors and examined using 10-min bouted versus sporadic methods, and with cut points calibrated to older and younger adults. The sample, on average, did not meet national guidelines of 150 min/week of MVPA when using bouted methods, irrespective of cut point used. This was not the case for sporadic MVPA. More physical activity was reported for participants with two or more physical hobbies, but no association with social behavior was found. These results demonstrate the wide variability possible in reporting methods for accelerometry data and their relation to adherence rates for national health recommendations.

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Philip Sullivan and Laura Tennant

Intercollegiate student-athletes appear to be a high-risk population with respect to mental health. Student athletic therapists are one of the groups with whom these athletes may be comfortable disclosing concerns. The current study investigated the relationship between mental health literacy and mental health referral efficacy in a sample of intercollegiate student therapists. One hundred and eleven student athletic therapists (81 female, 29 male, 1 nondiscloure) competed a revised version of the multicomponent mental health literacy measure and a four-item measure of mental health referral efficacy. T tests revealed statistically significant differences in mental health literacy by gender and personal history, and a multiple linear regression revealed a significant model predicting referral efficacy from mental health literacy. There are several implications of these results, particularly when working with a high-risk population of student-athletes.

Open access

Andreas Kuettel, Natalie Durand-Bush, and Carsten H. Larsen

The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate gender differences in mental health among Danish youth soccer players, (b) to discover the mental health profiles of the players, and (c) to explore how career progression and mental health are related. A total of 239 Danish youth elite soccer players (M = 16.85, SD = 1.09) completed an online questionnaire assessing mental well-being, depression, anxiety, along with other background variables. Female players scored significantly lower on mental well-being and had four times higher odds of expressing symptoms of anxiety and depression than males. Athletes’ mental health profiles showed that most athletes experience low depression while having moderate mental well-being. Depression, anxiety, and stress scores generally increased when progressing in age, indicating that the junior–senior transition poses distinct challenges to players’ mental health, especially for female players. Different strategies to foster players’ mental health depending on their mental health profiles are proposed.

Open access

Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, Georgios Gioftsos, Georgios Georgoudis, and Maria Papandreou

Adherence to exercise rehabilitation has been shown to be an important factor that may influence successful treatment. In professional athletes, a significant reduction in exercise adherence delays recovery. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to and facilitators of exercise rehabilitation adherence in injured volleyball athletes. Eight professional volleyball athletes were recruited, and qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews. All athletes had completed their rehabilitation program after they had suffered a musculoskeletal injury. All data were analyzed using thematic analysis after the investigators ensured that saturation had been reached. Pain was identified as a significant barrier to exercise adherence by all athletes. The provision of social support, including mental, practical, and task related, also had a significant positive impact. The athletes’ ability to develop the necessary coping strategies and confidence on performing exercises at home was also mentioned as a factor that affected exercise adherence, although less often.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion, and Patrick Gaudreau

Athletes can respond to positive experiences in sport by engaging in savoring—that is, by attempting to prolong or amplify their positive feelings. In this research, the authors tested if savoring was predicted by levels of harmonious or obsessive passion for sport and if savoring was associated with symptoms of burnout. In Study 1 (n = 499), the authors found that savoring was positively associated with harmonious passion and negatively associated with obsessive passion. In addition, savoring predicted lower levels of burnout and played an indirect role in the relationship between both passion types and burnout. The authors replicated these findings in Study 2 (n = 298), with collegiate-level athletes, prospectively, over the course of a season. Overall, athletes with strong levels of harmonious passion appear to be most likely to engage in savoring, a response that may protect them from experiencing higher levels of burnout.

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Christine E. Pacewicz and Alan L. Smith

Interpersonal exchanges may contribute to athletes’ motivational and well-being experiences through their contribution to athletes’ feelings of loneliness. Loneliness is understudied in sport, yet it is potentially salient in connecting social relationships with motivational processes and well-being of athletes. The purpose of the current research was to examine (a) the association of aspects of teammate relationships with athletes’ perceptions of burnout and engagement and (b) whether loneliness explained these associations. Adolescent athletes (N = 279) completed established measures of teammate relationships, loneliness, burnout, and engagement. The mediational model was invariant between boys and girls. Loneliness mediated the relationship of social support (β = −0.14, 0.10), corumination (β = 0.09, −0.06), and appraisal of peer rejection (β = 0.11, −0.08) with burnout and engagement, respectively. Continued examination of athletes’ loneliness will extend understanding of athletes’ motivational and well-being experiences and inform the promotion of adaptive sport experiences.