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Examining the Knowledge and Training of Secondary School Physical Educators Providing Strength and Conditioning Programming

Ben D. Kern, David Bellar, and Wesley J. Wilson

Purpose: The purpose was to examine secondary physical education teachers’ strength and conditioning (SC) knowledge and evaluate associations between SC teaching role, professional preparation, and development. Method: A knowledge survey was developed/validated and distributed to 2,189 middle/high school teachers, with 605 providing complete data. Results: Seventy-five percent of participants reported serving an SC-related teaching role, and mean SC knowledge was 6.77 correct out of 15 (45%). Participants with SC certification, who taught an SC unit/course, who supervised an SC sport program, and who taught in high school performed significantly better. Physical education teacher education preparation, including exercise physiology and weightlifting activity courses, was a significant predictor of SC knowledge. Professional development, such as SC online coursework, meeting with SC professionals, and reading SC publications, was also a significant predictor. Conclusion: To support physical education teachers’ SC knowledge, physical education teacher education programs should include SC-related course offerings, and school administrators should consider offering professional development to physical education teachers who serve in SC roles.

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School–University Partnered Before-School Physical Activity Program: Experiences of Preservice Teachers, Program Facilitators, and Students

Tan Leng Goh

Purpose: Considering the lack of practical Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) experiences within Physical Education (PE) Teacher Education, the study’s purpose was to examine the experiences of PE preservice teachers, a PE teacher, and the university faculty who implemented a CSPAP, and the students who participated in the program. Method: An 8-week before-school program was implemented in a middle school from Fall 2018 to Spring 2022. One hundred three preservice teachers assisted in implementing the program as part of coursework. Data were gathered through preservice teachers’ journals and focus group discussions, interviews with the university faculty and PE teacher, and students’ surveys. Results: Data were inductively analyzed, and themes were expand preservice teachers’ view beyond PE, benefits for preservice teachers and students, and future opportunities. Discussion/Conclusion: Incorporating CSPAPs into PE Teacher Education curriculum through school–university partnerships can provide practical experiences for preservice teachers to build competency in implementing CSPAPs in schools.

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Adopting Instructional Models in Physical Education: The Influence of Occupational Socialization

Paul R. Malinowski, Ben D. Kern, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: To examine the contextual and personal factors that influence teachers’ reported adoption of one or more instructional models (IMs). Methods: Participants (n = 25) were interviewed that reported adopting Sport Education; Teaching Games for Understanding; Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility; and/or Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids in their K-12 curriculum. Results: Viewed through the lens of occupational socialization theory and utilizing constant comparison methodology, the interview data were analyzed and three major themes, each with related subthemes, were developed: (a) IM adoption depends on context and socialization, (b) socializing agents influence IM adherence, and (c) IM implementation is selective. Discussion/Conclusions: Teachers vary in their rationale for adopting one or more IMs, and adherence is frequently a result of principal and student encouragement. Future efforts to disseminate IMs should consider pathways to adoption identified in this study, including teaching conventions, department supervisors, and teaching colleagues.

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The Effect of Classroom-Based Physical Activity Elements on Academic Performance in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

Yongjin Xu, Nan Lin, Chunchun Wu, Xu Wen, Fei Zhong, Kehong Yu, Li Shu, and Cong Huang

Purpose: We investigated the effects of classroom-based physical activity (CBPA) interventions on academic performance and assessed the impact of different CBPA elements on academic performance. Methods: Relevant experimental studies in four databases were searched from their inception to September 2022. Random effects models were used to compute standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 13 studies were included. CBPA interventions could improve academic performance in children and adolescents (SMD = 0.17, p = .02). For the CBPA elements, low frequency (no more than three times per week; SMD = 0.19, p = .01), moderate intensity (SMD = 0.19, p = .01), long time (more than 20 min in each intervention; SMD = 0.14, p = .05), integrated physical activity (SMD = 0.18, p = .04), no more than 400 metabolic equivalents of energy-min/week (SMD = 0.33, p = .001), and more than 8-week interventions (SMD = 0.19, p = .04) tended to improve academic performance. Conclusions: CBPA may improve academic performance in children and adolescents. CBPA elements also have an impact on academic performance.

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The Ableist Underpinning of Normative Motor Assessments in Adapted Physical Education

Martin Giese, Justin A. Haegele, and Anthony J. Maher

Background: Normative motor skill assessments occupy a privileged position in physical education scholarship and practice. So much so, in fact, they manifest as commonsense cultural arrangements in most movement contexts, including adapted physical education. The proliferation of such tools has generally been uncontested, until now. Purpose: We argue that normative motor skill assessments have ableist underpinnings and consequently may do more to subordinate, rather than empower disabled children. More specifically, we suggest that normative motor assessment tools and criteria, perhaps unintentionally, highlight what is perceived to be wrong, bad, and faulty about the ways disabled bodies look and move, thus reinforcing ableist norms and values relating to ability. Conclusions: We end by encouraging adapted physical education scholars and practitioners to critically reflect on ableist notions of ability, particularly as they relate to movement competence, and to work with disabled children because of their embodied experiences to co-design assessments that are more meaningful to disabled children.

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“From a Learning Perspective, It’s a Better Way for Them to Learn”: Impact of an Education Program on Two Youth Soccer Coaches’ Perspectives and Practices

Colin S. Barnes and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To describe the following: (a) the impact of a progressive coach education program (CEP) on two grassroots youth soccer coaches’ perspectives and practices, and (b) the factors that helped and hindered the CEP’s effectiveness. Methods: Occupational socialization theory framed the study. Andros and Christian were observed during the CEP and pre- and post-CEP while coaching practices and games. Data were collected with four qualitative techniques and two systematic observation instruments. Qualitative data were reduced to themes by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. Descriptive statistics were computed for the categories in the systematic observation instruments. Findings: The CEP had a significant impact on Andros and a negligible one on Christian. The two coaches’ occupational socialization helped explain these differential effects. Conclusions: The study suggests that CEPs should have a greater impact on coaches if they are relatively lengthy, include follow-up support, and coach educators are aware of coaches’ acculturation and organizational socialization.

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Evaluating the Feasibility of the Education, Movement, and Understanding (EMU) Program: A Primary School-Based Physical Education Program Integrating Indigenous Games Alongside Numeracy and Literacy Skills

Narelle Eather, Nicholas Riley, Mark Babic, Andrew Bennie, John Maynard, and Philip J. Morgan

Purpose : The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a 16-lesson integrated physical education program focusing on Indigenous games: Education, Movement, and Understanding (EMU). Method: The study aligned with current physical education, English, and mathematics syllabi and involved 105 children (9–12 years) from two primary schools (Awabakal Country, Australia; 2020). Children participated in sixteen 45–60 min EMU lessons over 8 weeks, with feasibility and preliminary efficacy outcomes assessed via mixed methods. Results: EMU was delivered successfully by the research team, with excellent student and teacher evaluations (M = 4.36–5.0 across 20 items). Improvements resulted for children’s cardiorespiratory fitness (d = 0.37, p = .001), enjoyment of sport (d = 0.27, p = .024), physical self-perceptions (d = 0.27, p = .043), and academic achievement (spelling d = 0.91, addition d = 0.40, subtraction d = 0.53, and division d = 0.68). No significant changes in well-being or multiplication scores resulted. Conclusion: Our results provide support for the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of EMU as a beneficial and enjoyable integrated primary school physical education program.

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Volume 42 (2023): Issue 2 (Apr 2023)

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Encouraging Students to Co-Construct and Co- and Self-Regulate Their Learning Within a Cooperative Learning Environment in Physical Education

André Moura, Ann MacPhail, Amândio Graça, and Paula Batista

Purpose : Improving students’ learning is dependent on students’ participation, meaningfulness, and value of the teaching–learning process. This study explores students’ learning experiences when undertaking the role of co-constructors and co- and self-regulators in a cooperative learning environment. Methods : The study included 110 school students aged between 15 and 18 years from four physical education preservice teachers’ classes. Data were collected through student focus group interviews, a postteaching units’ survey, students’ class reflections, and the researcher’s field notes. Results/Discussion : Data report that (a) having access to learning goals and assessment criteria was essential for the co-construction and co- and self-regulation processes, (b) there is a positive reciprocal relationship between students’ involvement in co-construction and co- and self-regulations, and (c) co-construction and co- and self-regulations were strengthened by students’ involvement in cooperative learning and vice versa.

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The Relationship and Effect Among Physical Literacy Attributes in University Physical Education During the Pandemic Quarantine Period

Siu Ming Choi, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, Elean Fung Lin Leung, and Cindy Sit

Purpose: This prospective cohort study investigated the impact of online and hybrid teaching of university-required physical education on students’ physical literacy-related correlates. To avoid the widespread pandemic, the university decided to offer courses online through video conferencing or via a hybrid mode. When compared with face-to-face instruction, these formats may intensely affect students’ physical literacy journey during early adulthood. Methods: A group of 1,738 students (42% males and 58% females) aged 18.52 (±1.29) responded to a three-phase online survey in various courses. Results: The structural equation modeling determined that motivation and physical activity levels were negatively related to physical competence and knowledge and understanding. Further repeated-measure analyses recognized the interaction effect of amotivation. Results indicated that participants in the online teaching mode may experience a learning predicament over those in the hybrid one. Conclusion: Practically, the physical literacy teaching strategies in nurturing motivation and physical competence should be reinforced.