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Preservice Teachers’ Implementation of Cooperative Learning in Chinese Physical Education

Wen Xiong, Rod Philpot, Penelope W. St J. Watson, and Ben Dyson

Purpose: To explore preservice teachers’ (PSTs) implementation of cooperative learning (CL) during their school-based student-teaching after undertaking a CL course in a Chinese physical education teacher education program. Method: An interpretive qualitative case study design gathered data from eight PSTs using classroom observations, semistructured interviews, reflective journals, instructional materials, and field notes. Interactive cycling coding was used to analyze the data. Findings: The two themes, putting five key elements into practice and learning to facilitate with CL, convey how the PSTs implemented the procedures of CL and adapted CL to the contexts they were teaching in. Discussion and Conclusions: The eight PSTs appropriately implemented CL and contextualized CL practice in their classrooms. They shifted their teaching approaches away from direct instruction and toward more independent, pupil group-based tasks. This growth is particularly important in the Chinese physical education context, where policies advocate for CL yet student-centered teaching which is rarely seen in practice.

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Socializing Influences in the Careers of South Korean Female Physical Educators

Okseon Lee, Kevin Andrew Richards, Yeri Hong, and Youngjoon Kim

Purpose: Grounded in the occupational socialization theory, this study explored how gender interacted with and influenced socialization experiences in the careers of South Korean female physical educators. Specific attention was directed toward the gendered experiences that female teachers experienced and the coping strategies to navigate them. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative case study design, and the participants were 15 female secondary school physical educators. Data were collected through life story timelines, critical incident writings, and individual interviews. Results: Four themes emerged: (a) unwelcomed and invisible; (b) experiencing a physicality-driven hierarchy; (c) dual marginalization as female physical educators; and (d) retreating, masking, redefining, or leaving to cope with challenges. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings indicated that female physical educators experienced being dual-marginalized due to the interplay between gender and subject matter. In response to the challenges, some conformed to their gender role to be safe; however, other teachers employed various strategies to overcome the status quo.

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Assessing Student Ratings of Developmental Experiences in a High School Physical Education Leadership Program

Paul M. Wright, Kevin Andrews Richards, and James D. Ressler

Purpose: Although physical education (PE) leadership programs are widespread, little research has examined the PE leaders’ perceptions of these experiences. The purpose of this study was to assess student ratings of developmental experiences in a PE leadership program compared with ratings of the typical PE student experience. Method: A matched case-control study design was used to assess high school students’ (n = 186) subscale scores on the Youth Experience Survey 2.0. Data were analyzed using matched-pairs t tests, and Cohen’s d was used as a measure of effect size. Results: As hypothesized, PE leaders reported significantly higher levels of positive experiences and no significant differences on negative experiences. Discussion/Conclusions: Little is known about what happens in most PE leadership programs. Results presented here support claims that PE can support meaningful leadership development. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

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Female Undergraduate Students’ Experiences Facilitating an Out-of-School Physical Activity Program for Middle School Girls

Peter Stoepker, Duke Biber, and Jaimie McMullen

Purpose: To explore undergraduate students’ experiences leading and facilitating an out-of-school-time (OST) physical activity program for middle school girls. Method: Five female undergraduate students (N = 4 Black or African American) participated in semistructured individual interviews and submitted weekly reflections during their time leading the OST Girls Empowering Movement (program). The data were analyzed inductively by conducting systematic searches across interview transcripts and artifacts. Results: Four themes were generated, including: find something that they would like, sometimes it is hard to calm chaos, those girls cling to me, and this experience was really good for me. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the undergraduate students who facilitated the Girls Empowering Movement program experienced significant growth and learned the complexities involved in facilitating and leading an OST program. These findings have practical implications when considering physical activity leadership practices and experiences leading OST physical activity programming.

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“It’s Like Coming Out of the Cave Into the Light”: The Role of Literacy Integration in Physical Education

Corrine Wickens and Jenny Parker

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine pedagogies of teacher socialization for physical education teacher education candidates through the context of literacy integration. Method: We situated our data collection in qualitative case study methodology, emphasizing data from focus group interviews conducted during the final month of physical education teacher education candidates’ programs. Results: We demonstrate three primary insights and/or adjustments to their perceptions about literacy integration in physical education settings: (a) Literacy integration should support physical education objectives, (b) literacy integration could be easily implemented in a myriad of ways and for different age groups, and (c) literacy integration can improve student learning and outcomes. Discussion/Conclusion: Extending current teacher socialization literature, we emphasize three factors instrumental in shifting physical education teacher education candidate subjective theories and beliefs: movement-oriented literacy activities, reflection, and experiential applications.

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Preservice Teachers’ Assessment Literacy Within Models-Based Practice

Jenna Starck, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Kevin Andrew Richards

Purpose: Using the assessment literacy framework, the purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers understanding and enactment of the message system during an early field experience. Method: Six PTs employed SE seasons totaling 540 min. Seven qualitative data methods were utilized. Data analysis included deductive and inductive analysis using a thematic approach. Trustworthiness included data triangulation, peer debriefing, negative case analysis, and the maintenance of an audit trail. Results: Three main themes derived from the data included: instructional decisions were driven by the SE model and informal assessment; formal assessment was driven by the structure of SE; and high assessment value but low assessment literacy. Discussion/Conclusion: The SE model drove PTs to use formal assessment, but primarily in an evaluative manner. The PTs lacked assessment literacy, felt pressure to follow the model, did not use assessment to inform teaching, and had concerns for future assessment use.

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Quality of Life in Individuals With Disabilities Through a Student-Led Service-Learning Program: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis to Examine the Reciprocal Benefits of Service Learning

Mai Narasaki-Jara, Donald Brolsma, Katira Abdolrazagh, Kai Sun, Masahiro Yamada, Aya A. Mitani, and Taeyou Jung

Purpose: The efficacy of service learning in physical activity (PA) intervention is generally not centered around perceptions of the service recipients, posing questions when the efficacy of an intervention is crucial, such as PA in people with disabilities. The present study examined perceptions of the recipients in a student-led service-learning program through a quality of life survey and interviews. Method: Undergraduate students led a 13-week PA intervention. Before and after the intervention, people with disabilities (N = 56) completed quality of life surveys (i.e., the National Institute of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System). A face-to-face interview was conducted with N = 6. Results: All quality of life items, except for Mental Health–Anxiety, improved (p < .01). The interviews suggested that environmental factors (i.e., encouragement from students, the open space that allowed interactions) positively impacted the program. Discussion: The environment may be a key factor in the program’s success in PA intervention from the recipients’ perspective.

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Volume 42 (2023): Issue 3 (Jul 2023)

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Initiating and Sustaining a Teacher-Initiated Community of Practice as a Form of Continuing Professional Development: Internal Leaders’ Perspectives

Bomna Ko, Yun Soo Lee, and Tristan Wallhead

Background: Communities of practice (CoP) have been proposed as a promising form of continuing professional development for teachers’ learning. However, there remains limited understanding of the processes and factors that sustain teacher-initiated CoP. Purpose: This study provides a qualitative examination of a group of internal leaders’ perspectives on how a large teacher-initiated CoP in South Korea was established and sustained as an effective form of continuing professional development. Methods: Data included semistructured interviews with the internal leaders, Website artifacts, and researchers’ reflective journals, and were analyzed through inductive analysis. Results: Findings included the following: (a) shared passion for good teaching, (b) widening professional network, (c) collaboration through sharing, and (d) continuing professional development opportunities via technology. Discussion: The CoP were initiated by a group of teachers with a shared value for improving their teaching in schools and were sustained through online and offline interactions that created a safe space for sharing ideas, collaborative interactions, and learning opportunities.

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A Whole-of-School Approach to Physical Activity Promotion: The Case of One Secondary School in England

Emma Jaymes and Collin A. Webster

Purpose: Whole-of-school approaches to physical activity (PA) promotion are recommended internationally, but there remains little descriptive research detailing the implementation of such approaches, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this case study, which drew upon a social-ecological perspective, was to examine a whole-of-school approach used by one secondary school in England. Method: Participants (N = 30) included three members of the school’s senior leadership team, eight teachers, 15 students, and four parents. Data were collected during 5 months using open-ended questionnaires that all participants completed, 14 staff interviews with staff, three focus groups with students, six observations, and attendance records from various PA opportunities. Results: Thematic analysis identified five key PA opportunities and uncovered four themes in relation to these opportunities: Student Autonomy, Support from Leadership, New School, and Physical Education Time. Discussion/Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence when implementing whole-of-school PA programming.