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The Influence of Athletic Identity, Passion, and Perceptions of Severity of Concussions on Athletes’ Willingness to Report Concussion Symptoms

Eric M. Martin, Megan Byrd, Adriana Amador, Emma Ridenhour, and Carolena Charalambous

Context: The influence of several psychological characteristics on the willingness of athletes to report concussion behaviors has not been well explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand how athletic identity and sport passion predicted participants’ willingness to report symptoms above what was explained by athlete demographics, concussion knowledge, and perceived seriousness of concussions. Design: The study was cross-sectional. Methods: Three-hundred and twenty-two male and female high school and club sport athletes completed survey measures of concussion knowledge, athletic identity, harmonious and obsessive passion, and degree to which athletes indicated they would report concussions and concussion symptoms. Results: Athletes scored moderately high on their knowledge of symptoms and other concussion information (mean = 16.21; ± = 2.88) and above the midpoint on their attitudes and behaviors toward reporting concussion symptoms (mean = 3.64; ± = 0.70). There were no differences between gender, t(299) = −.78, P = .44, and previous concussion education, t(296) = 1.93, P = .06, related to concussion knowledge. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that after entering athlete demographics, concussion knowledge, and perceived seriousness of concussions, of the 3 psychological variables in the final stage of the model, only obsessive passion was a significant predictor of athlete’s attitudes to report a concussion. Conclusions: Perceived seriousness of concussion, perceived threat to long-term health, and obsessive passion were the strongest predictors of athlete’s willingness to report concussions. Athletes who did not believe concussions posed a threat to their current or future health, and those that held an obsessive passion for sport were most at risk for not reporting concussions. Future research should continue to investigate the relationship between reporting behaviors and psychological factors.

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Effect of Bridge Exercise Duration on Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Gluteus Maximus Activation

Eleftherios Kellis, Athanasios Konstantopoulos, and Athanasios Ellinoudis

Context: Bridge exercises are extensively used in trunk-strengthening programs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bridging duration on lateral abdominal muscle thickness and gluteus maximus activation. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Twenty-five young males participated in this study. Transversus abdominal (TrA), external and internal oblique ultrasound thickness, gluteus maximus electromyographic activation, and sacral tilt angle were simultaneously measured for every second during 30-second bridging exercise. The contraction thickness ratio and root mean squared signal (normalized to maximum isometric contraction signal) during 6 exercise durations (from 0 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 s) were also calculated and compared using analysis of variance designs. Results: TrA and internal oblique contraction thickness ratio and gluteus maximus root mean squared increased during the first 8 to 10 seconds and remained elevated until the end of the 30-second exercise (P < .05). External oblique contraction thickness ratio declined during exercise (P < .05). Five-second bridging showed less TrA thickness and anteroposterior and mediolateral sacral tilt angle and a lower anteroposterior tilt variability compared with bridges, which lasted more than 10 seconds (P < .05). Conclusions: Bridge exercises longer than 10 seconds may be better for promoting TrA recruitment than bridges of shorter duration. Clinicians and exercise specialists could adjust the duration of bridge exercise based on the aims of the exercise program.

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Single-Leg Squat Test in the Clinical Setting Does Not Discriminate Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome From Asymptomatic Individuals

Letícia Almeida de Oliveira, Viviane Bortoluzzi Frasson, Anna Torresan, Marco Aurélio Vaz, and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

Context: Laboratorial 3-dimensional kinematic analyses have shown changes in the single-leg squat’s (SLS) pattern of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). However, it is unknown whether clinicians are able to detect these changes using 2-dimensional kinematics. Objective: To compare the frontal plane 2-dimensional kinematics of patients with FAIS and asymptomatic individuals in the SLS test performed in a clinical setting. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Physical therapy clinic. Participants: Twenty men with bilateral FAIS and 20 asymptomatic men. Main Outcome Measures: Two-dimensional kinematic analysis was collected in the frontal plane during the execution of the SLS test. The outcomes were squat depth, pelvic drop (pelvis angle relative to the horizontal plane), hip adduction (femur angle relative to the pelvis), and knee valgus (femur angle relative to the tibia). Results: Most and least painful limbs of patients with FAIS had squat depth (9.8% [2.9%] and 9.5% [3.1%] of height), pelvic drop (4.2° [3.9°] and 3.7° [4.2°]), hip adduction (74.9° [5.8°] and 75.9° [5.7°]), and knee valgus (4.0° [11.0°] and 5.0° [9.9°]) similar to asymptomatic individuals (9.0% [2.3%], 4.8° [2.6°], 73.7° [4.9°], and −1.7° [8.5°]; P > .05 for all). Conclusion: The frontal plane 2-dimensional kinematic analysis of the SLS test in the clinical setting is not able to distinguish patients with FAIS from asymptomatic individuals.

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Effectiveness of 448-kHz Capacitive Resistive Monopolar Radiofrequency Therapy After Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage to Restore Muscle Strength and Contractile Parameters

Boštjan Šimunič, Monika Doles, Robi Kelc, and Andrej Švent

Context: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is prevalent especially in sports and rehabilitation. It causes loss in skeletal muscle function and soreness. As there are no firm preventive strategies, we aimed to evaluate the preventive efficacy of nonthermal 448-kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF) therapy after eccentric bouts of EIMD response in knee flexors. Design: Twenty-nine healthy males (age: 25.2 [4.6] y) were randomized in control group (CG; n = 15) and experimental group (EG; n = 14) where EG followed 5 daily 448-kHz CRMRF therapies. All assessments were performed at baseline and post EIMD (EIMD + 1, EIMD + 2, EIMD + 5, and EIMD + 9 d). We measured tensiomyography of biceps femoris and semitendinosus to calculate contraction time, the maximal displacement and the radial velocity of contraction, unilateral isometric knee flexors maximal voluntary contraction torque, and rate of torque development in first 100 milliseconds. Results: Maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development in first 100 milliseconds decreased more in CG than in EG and recovered only in EG. Biceps femoris contraction time increased only in CG (without recovery), whereas in semitendinosus contraction time increased in EG (only at EIMD + 1) and in CG (without recovery). In both muscles, tensiomyographic maximal displacement decreased in EG (in EIMD + 1 and EIMD + 2) and in CG (without recovery). Furthermore, in both muscles, radial velocity of contraction decreased in EG (from EIMD + 1 until EIMD + 5) and in CG (without recovery). Conclusion: The study shows beneficial effect of CRMRF therapy after inducing EIMD in skeletal muscle strength and contractile parameters in knee flexors.

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College Soccer Student-Athletes Demonstrate Differences in Self-Reported Athlete Health When Grouped by Match Volume

Brett S. Pexa, Justin P. Waxman, Audrey E. Westbrook, and Kevin R. Ford

Context: Physical changes following activity are well documented, but there is limited information about self-reported outcomes around competitive matches. High training volumes and poor recovery could predispose athletes to overuse injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in daily athlete health measures before, during, and after the day of each match in high- and low-volume groups. Design: Prospective cohort. Methods: Fifty-five soccer athletes (age: 19.8 [1.2] y, 26 males, 29 females) provided daily measures of readiness, physical fatigue, mental stress, sleep quality, and soreness intensity match days, days 1 (D01) and 2 (D02) following matches, and standard practice days. Participants were grouped into high volume and low volume, based off the minutes played during the season. Results: Soreness increased, readiness decreased, and fatigue increased on D01 compared with match days (P < .008) in the high-volume group. Between groups, the high-volume group demonstrated higher soreness on D01 and D02, lower readiness on D01 and D02, and lower fatigue on D01, compared with the low-volume group (P < .008). Conclusions: Soccer athletes demonstrate significant changes in self-reported athlete health variables around competitive matches. These changes are similar to physical outcomes, potentially indicating that the athlete health variables may be used to track athlete recovery from competition, potentially limiting the impact of overuse injuries.

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Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the University of Wisconsin Running Injury and Recovery Index in Turkish Runners

Elif Turgut, Mesut Burak Tascan, Ezgi Nur Can, Ismail Bayram, Evan O. Nelson, and Bryan Heiderscheit

Context: The University of Wisconsin Running Injury and Recovery Index (UWRI) was developed to evaluate the key elements that runners use to self-assess their own running ability following common running-related injuries. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the UWRI and to evaluate the psychometric properties of its Turkish version (UWRI-Tr) in runners. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: The study included 129 runners. The UWRI-Tr, the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, the Hip Outcome Score, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure were applied for the validation purposes. Internal consistency, reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity of the UWRI-Tr were tested. Results: The test–retest reliability of the UWRI-Tr was excellent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .85 and a Cronbach α value of .84. There was a small to strong correlation among the UWRI-Tr and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (r = .278), Oswestry Disability Index (r = −.744), Hip Outcome Score (r = .684), The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (r = .758), and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (r = .498 and .767), indicating that its construct validity was appropriate for use with Turkish runners. Conclusions: The UWRI-Tr was shown to be a valid and reliable tool to use in clinical and research settings as a sport-specific measurement tool.

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Current Technologies and Practices to Assess External Training Load in Paralympic Sport: A Systematic Review

Eduardo Stieler, Marco T. de Mello, Ingrid L.B. Lôbo, Dawit A. Gonçalves, Renan Resende, André G. Andrade, Thiago F. Lourenço, Anselmo A.C. Silva, Henrique A. Andrade, Renato Guerreiro, and Andressa Silva

Context: Knowing the methods to assess the external load in Paralympic sports can help multidisciplinary teams rely on scientific evidence to better prescribe and monitor the athlete’s development, improving sports performance and reducing the risk of injury/illness of Paralympic athletes. Objectives: This review aimed to systematically explore the current practices of quantifying the external load in Paralympic sports and provide an overview of the methods and techniques used. Evidence Acquisition: A search in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO was carried out until November 2022. The measures of interest were objective methods for quantifying the external load of training or competition. The inclusion criteria for the studies were as follows: (1) peer-reviewed article; (2) the population were Paralympic athletes; (3) evaluated during training or competition; (4) reported at least one external load measure; and (5) published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. Evidence Synthesis: Of the 1961 articles found, 22 were included because they met the criteria, and 8 methods were identified to quantify the external load in training or competition in 8 Paralympic sports. The methods varied according to the characteristics of the Paralympic sports. To date, the devices used included an internal radiofrequency-based tracking system (wheelchair rugby) a miniaturized data logger (wheelchair tennis, basketball, and rugby); a linear position transducer (powerlifting and wheelchair basketball); a camera (swimming, goalball, and wheelchair rugby); a global positioning system (wheelchair tennis); heart rate monitors that assess external load variables in set (paracycling and swimming) and an electronic timer (swimming). Conclusions: Different objective methods were identified to assess the external load in Paralympic sports. However, few studies showed the validity and reliability of these methods. Further studies are needed to compare different methods of external load quantification in other Paralympic sports.

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The Influence of Athletic Identity on Mental Health Symptoms During Retirement From Sport

Kylie Roberts, Kiersten Kuhlman, Megan Byrd, and Tamerah Hunt

Clinical Scenario: Athletic identity (AI) can be defined as, “the degree to which an individual identifies with an athlete role, and the values, and social networks associated with that identity,” and can pose a problem when athletes do not explore themselves outside of sport. This lack of identity development beyond athletics has the potential to lead to the development of a high AI. High AI in athletes can have positive effects in areas such as performance, however, high AI may also pose negative consequences. The development of such an identity can limit the adaptive responses to substantial life changes such as retirement from sport. This inability to adapt may thereby contribute to mental health problems during the transition. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between athletic identity and mental health symptoms so clinicians may provide support to enable positive outcomes after retirement from sport. Clinical Question: What is the influence of athletic identity on mental health symptoms in athletes retiring from sports? Summary of Key Findings: (1) High athletic identity contributes to increased mental health symptoms following retirement. (2) Athletic identity had no relationship to mental health symptoms during the preretirement phase of an athlete’s career Clinical Bottom Line: The findings suggest that there is high-quality evidence to support that AI has no relationship with mental health symptoms during the preretirement phase and that athletes with high AI are more likely to experience mental health symptoms during their transition out of or retirement from sport. Strength of Recommendation: The grade of B is recommended by the Strength of Recommendation taxonomy for consistent, limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence that high AI has a strong relationship to mental health symptoms following retirement in athletes.

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Intervention of Refractory Arthrofibrosis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Case Report

Ling Zhang, Shuai Fan, and Bin Cai

Objectives: Although nonsurgical and surgical management of knee arthrofibrosis has been reported in the literature, there is little information on the effect of procedural treatment modalities of refractory arthrofibrosis on clinical outcomes. The purpose of this case report is to describe the intervention of refractory knee arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and investigate long-term clinical outcomes after procedural intervention. Methods: A 27-year-old male presented with decreased range of motion (ROM), patellar mobility, strength, and knee joint function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of his left knee. After failed conservative management, the patient underwent manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) to release scar tissue. Following MUA, the emphasis of comprehensive physiotherapy was on decreasing inflammation, relieving pain, and maintaining patellar mobility while increasing knee joint ROM and strength. Knee ROM, patellofemoral motion, gait, and quadriceps recruitment were measured 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after MUA. Results: At 2-year follow-up after MUA, the patient continued to present with decreased ROM and quadriceps strength compared to the contralateral knee, but had returned to a running program and reported knee joint dysfunction no longer interfered with his daily activities. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates signs and symptoms that could indicate knee arthrofibrosis and introduces procedural intervention for refractory arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

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Sensorimotor or Balance Training to Increase Knee-Extensor and Knee-Flexor Maximal Strength in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Critically Appraised Topic

Martin Alfuth and Elena Vieten

Clinical Scenario: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a complex progressive synovial joint disease that results in impaired muscle function, including a considerable loss of maximal strength and power. Exercise therapies, such as sensorimotor or balance training and resistance training, are frequently used to improve muscle function, mobility, and quality of life, but their impact on maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA is not well understood. Focused Clinical Question: Does sensorimotor or balance training improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength compared with strength training or no intervention in patients with KOA? Summary of Key Findings: Results from 4 fair- to good-quality randomized controlled/clinical trials (level 1b) revealed inconsistent grade B evidence regarding the effect of sensorimotor or balance training to improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA. Two studies, one good-quality study and one fair-quality study, showed significant strength improvements, and 2 good-quality studies demonstrated no significant strength enhancements. Clinical Bottom Line: Sensorimotor or balance training may be useful to improve maximal strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients with KOA; however, it seems that this depends on a training duration of at least 8 weeks and the use of unstable devices to induce destabilization of patients’ balance, initiating neuromuscular adaptations. Strength of Recommendation: Due to inconsistent evidence (grade B), the true effect of sensorimotor or balance training to improve knee-extensor and knee-flexor maximal muscle strength in patients with KOA remains unclear and needs to be further investigated.