In the current study, a 20-year span of 80 issues of articles (N = 196) in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) were examined. The authors sought to determine whether quantitative research published in APAQ, based on sample size, was underpowered, leading to the potential for false-positive results and findings that may not be reproducible. The median sample size, also known as the N-Pact Factor (NF), for all quantitative research published in APAQ was coded for correlational-type, quasi-experimental, and experimental research. The overall median sample size over the 20-year period examined was as follows: correlational type, NF = 112; quasi-experimental, NF = 40; and experimental, NF = 48. Four 5-year blocks were also analyzed to show historical trends. As the authors show, these results suggest that much of the quantitative research published in APAQ over the last 20 years was underpowered to detect small to moderate population effect sizes.
Jeffrey Martin and Drew Martin
This article tells the story of the sociology of sport over the last 4 decades. In the process, it identifies key developments and trends in the field, the questions and topics that have shaped research and the production of knowledge about sports as social phenomena, the challenges currently facing the sociology of sport, and what may happen to the field over the next 40 years.
Pamela Haibach-Beach, Melanie Perreault, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Alexandra Stribing
Children with CHARGE syndrome, an extremely complex, highly variable genetic disorder, are significantly delayed in the onset of their motor milestones in comparison with children without disabilities due to sensory and motor deficits as well as lengthy hospitalizations and reduced physical activity. Currently, the role of parents’ perceptions and participation in the motor development of their child with CHARGE is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between parents’ perceptions and their child’s motor competence, comparing parents of children with and without CHARGE syndrome. Participants included 33 children with CHARGE and 38 children without disabilities. Parents completed the Child’s Movement Skills Research parent survey and children were assessed on their gross motor skills. Parental ratings of locomotor ability and time spent participating with their child predicted the locomotor, ball skill, and total motor skill scores in the CHARGE group. Control group parents’ rating of ball scores predicted ball skill and total skill scores. The results indicate that parents may play an important role in their child with CHARGE syndrome’s motor development. Parents who are more involved with their child’s movement activities can positively influence their motor competence.
Carlos M. Arango-Paternina, Jhon F. Ramírez-Villada, Annie A. Tibaduiza-Romero, and Leonardo Rodríguez-Perdomo
The identification of social network factors associated with gait speed may offer different perspectives for improving community and clinical interventions for older adults. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of the social network of friends with gait speed. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 128 older adult women recruited in community groups of physical activity. Clinical screening, social network questions, body composition evaluation, and gait speed test were applied to the participants. Logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between characteristics of the social network of friends and high gait speed. Findings indicated that social isolation was not associated with high gait speed and that popularity and proportion of friends with high gait speed were significantly associated with high gait speed. Findings suggested that there was a relationship between social network factors and the ability to perform high gait speed.
Yuri A. Freire, Carlos A. Silva, Geovani A. D. Macêdo, Rodrigo A. V. Browne, Bruno M. de Oliveira, George Felipe C. Martins, Luiz F. Farias-Junior, Luciana C. Brito, and Eduardo C. Costa
We carried out three types of 2-hr experimental sessions with middle-aged and older adults with Type 2 diabetes in order to examine the acute effect of interrupting prolonged sitting with varying periods of standing on postprandial glycemia and blood pressure (BP): (a) prolonged sitting after breakfast; (b) standing for 10 min, 30 min after breakfast; and (c) standing for 20 min, 30 min after breakfast. Glucose and BP were assessed before and after breakfast. A generalized linear model revealed no significant differences for the incremental area under the curve of glucose between standing for 10 min, 30 min after breakfast, versus prolonged sitting after breakfast (β = –4.5 mg/dl/2 hr, 95% CI [–17.3, 8.4]) and standing for 20 min, 30 min after breakfast, versus prolonged sitting after breakfast (β = 0.9 mg/dl/2 hr, 95% CI [–11.9, 13.7]). There was no difference in area under the curve of systolic and diastolic BP among the sessions. Interrupting prolonged sitting time with 10 or 20 min of standing 30 min after breakfast does not attenuate postprandial glycemia or BP in middle-aged and older adults with Type 2 diabetes.
Colin M. Wierts, Bruno D. Zumbo, Ryan E. Rhodes, Guy Faulkner, and Mark R. Beauchamp
This two-part study examined Dweck’s psychological needs model in relation to exercise-related well-being and particularly focused on the basic need for optimal predictability and compound needs for identity and meaning. In Part 1 (N = 559), using exploratory factor analysis, scores derived from items assessing optimal predictability (prediction of affect and instrumental utility in exercise) were empirically distinct from scores derived from items assessing competence, relatedness, and autonomy. In Part 2, participants from Part 1 (N = 403) completed measures of exercise-related well-being 4 weeks after baseline assessment. Prediction of affect was the most consistent predictor of subsequent exercise-related well-being. An implication of these findings is that optimal predictability (primarily prediction of affect) represents a unique experience that may be necessary for thriving in the context of exercise. Prediction of affect should be targeted in experimental designs to further understand its relationship with exercise-related well-being.
Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry
To better understand exercise-related cognitive errors (ECEs) from a dual processing perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine their relationship to two automatic exercise processes. It was hypothesized that ECEs would account for more variance than automatic processes in predicting intentions, that ECEs would interact with automatic processes to predict intentions, and that exercise schema would distinguish between different levels of ECEs. Adults (N = 136, M age = 29 years, 42.6% women) completed a cross-sectional study and responded to three survey measures (ECEs, exercise self-schema, and exercise intentions) and two computerized implicit tasks (the approach/avoid task and single-category Implicit Association Test). ECEs were not correlated with the two implicit measures; however, ECEs moderated the relationship between approach tendency toward exercise stimuli and exercise intentions. Exercise self-schema were differentiated by ECE level. This study expands our knowledge of ECEs by examining their relationship to different automatic and reflective processes.
Ian Ju Liang, Oliver J. Perkin, Polly M. McGuigan, Dylan Thompson, and Max J. Western
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered, home-based exercise programs on physical function and well-being in self-isolating older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a four-arm randomized controlled trial, 63 participants (aged 65 years and older) were allocated to one of three home-based daily (2 × 10-min) exercise interventions (exercise snacking, tai chi snacking, and combination) or control (UK National Health Service Web pages). Functional assessments were conducted via video call at baseline and 4-week follow-up. A web-based survey assessed the acceptability of each exercise program and secondary psychological/well-being outcomes. Ecological momentary assessment data, collected in Weeks 1 and 4, explored feeling states as antecedents and consequences of exercise. All intervention groups saw increased physical function at follow-up and displayed good adherence with exercise snacking considered the most acceptable program. Multilevel models revealed reciprocal associations between feelings of energy and exercise engagement. Further studies are needed with larger, more diverse demographic samples.
Timothy D. Lee and Heather Carnahan
The authors reflect on the dire state of motor learning at the time of Brooks’s book and consider reasons why research was resurrected in the 1980s and flourished in the ensuing years. In so doing, they provide an overview of the various research topics that have been studied, discuss the influence of motor learning on other fields of study, and consider the future of motor learning research both within and outside the academic study of kinesiology.
Sari Aaltonen, Teemu Palviainen, Richard J. Rose, Urho M. Kujala, Jaakko Kaprio, and Karri Silventoinen
Background: Both genetic and environmental influences have been shown to contribute to the association between physical activity and overall academic performance. The authors examined whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) shares genetic and environmental variances between spelling, essay writing, reading aloud, reading comprehension, and mathematics in early adolescence. Moreover, they investigated whether genetic polymorphisms associated with physical activity behavior affect these academic skills. Methods: Participants were 12-year-old Finnish twins (n = 4356–4370 twins/academic skill, 49% girls). Academic skills were assessed by teachers, and LTPA was self-reported. Polygenic scores for physical activity behavior were constructed from the UK Biobank. Quantitative genetic modeling and linear regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: The trait correlations between LTPA and academic skills were significant but weak (r = .05–.08). The highest trait correlation was found between LTPA and mathematics. A significant genetic correlation was revealed between LTPA and essay writing (rA = .14). Regarding polygenic scores of physical activity, the highest correlations were found with reading comprehension, spelling, and essay writing, but these results only approached statistical significance (P values = .09–.15). Conclusions: The authors’ results suggest that reading and writing are the academic skills that most likely share a common genetic background with LTPA.