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Ivonne H.F. Duiser, Annick Ledebt, John van der Kamp, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

We examined the effects of number of and separation between support lines on handwriting characteristics of primary school students with satisfactory and unsatisfactory handwriting. Students (mean age 7.9 years) copied a text on paper with a baseline and with two or four support lines with a separation of 3 or 4 mm between the central lines. Handwriting size, velocity, and smoothness were determined for the four conditions relative to baseline. Children with unsatisfactory handwriting wrote larger and had more lifts during baseline condition. Writing between support lines, especially with small separation, immediately reduced the size of handwriting, but also adversely affected velocity and smoothness. Future research is needed to assess long-term effects.

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Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Hugo Sarmento, Sixto González-Víllora, Juan Carlos Pastor-Vicedo, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, and Filipe Manuel Clemente

This study analyzed the effects of with (WC) or without conducting a warm up on youth soccer players immediately before performing physical and cognitive tests. Fourteen youth soccer player (age 11.64 ± 0.50) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal condition; (b) WC (immediately before the physical and cognitive tests); and (c) without WC (passive resting for 15 min between the warm-up and physical and cognitive tests). A 30-m sprint test, countermovement jump, and psychomotor vigilance task were also applied. The WC revealed significant improvements in countermovement jump (p < .05), 30-m sprint test performance (p < .05), and reaction time in psychomotor vigilance task (p < .05) in comparison to basal lineal condition and without WC. A 15-min rest after a warm-up has a meaningfully decremental effect on the physical and cognitive readiness of youth soccer players, in comparison with when they warm-up immediately before the demands are imposed.

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Matthew J. Solomito, Andrew D. Cohen, Erin J. Garibay, and Carl W. Nissen

The instant of foot contact is an important transition point during the pitch cycle between the linear portion of the pitch, as a pitcher strides down the mound and the rotational portion of the pitch. Understanding the implications of lead foot angle at foot contact is an essential information needed to assist pitching coaches in their work with individual pitchers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association between lead foot progression angle at foot contact and ball velocity, elbow varus moment, and pelvic rotation. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 99 collegiate pitchers and analyzed using a random intercept, mixed-effects regression model. Significant associations were found between lead foot progression angle at foot contact and elbow varus moment (P = .004), as well as pelvic rotation throughout the pitching motion (P < .001). The data indicate that increased lead foot internal rotation at foot contact is associated with increases in the elbow varus moment but is not associated with ball velocity. This study provides scientific evidence that the rotational positioning of the lead foot can affect both pelvic motion and upper-extremity joint moments.

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Alireza Alizadeh, Amir Salar Jafarpisheh, Maryam Mohammadi, and Amir H. Kahlaee

Sensory reweighting of postural control was compared in participants with and without neck pain. Center of pressure variables of 60 volunteers, the same in each group, were calculated under four standing conditions: (a) eyes open, neutral head posture; (b) foam interface, eyes open; (c) cervical extension, eyes open; and (d) cervical extension, eyes closed. All center of pressure variables except anterior posterior range/velocity increased significantly in Condition 2 compared with Conditions 1 and 3 (p < .001) and in Condition 4 compared with Conditions 1 and 3. The mediolateral range/velocity and path length in both groups, anterior posterior range in patients, and center of pressure area in the control group were significantly different between Conditions 2 and 4 (p < .001). No overweighting was observed on the vestibular or visual afferents in patients. Compensatory strategies seem to lie within the proprioceptive system.

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Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota

This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.

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Rafael L. Kons and Daniele Detanico

This study aimed to verify the behavior of physiological, perceptual, and performance responses during a high-intensity exercise in judo athletes and to identify if this protocol is able to discriminate athletes from different levels (national vs. state). Forty-five male judo athletes participated and were divided into two groups: state (age 24.2 ± 3.7 years) and national (22.1 ± 3.3 years). Judo athletes performed a judo-specific protocol contained high-intensity intermittent exercise consisted of 12 sets of 20 s in all-out intensity. During the protocol, the repetitions and heart rate were assessed over the sets, and at the end of the protocol, the rate of perceived exertion was measured. The results showed that the national group presented higher repetitions (29 ± 4 repetitions) during the high-intensity intermittent exercise compared with state (22 ± 2 repetitions). However, the national group showed a progressive decrease of repetitions up to the middle of the protocol, which coincided with higher values of heart rate compared with state (first and second sets). There was a decrease of repetitions from the first set (p < .001) and similar values of heart rate from the third set in the state. In conclusion, the performance (in repetitions) during the high-intensity intermittent exercise was able to discriminate athletes from different competitive levels. National athletes presented better performance, but worse pacing strategy compared with state.

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Rena M.G. Curvey, Shannon C. White, Emily A. Murphy, Travis R. Scheadler, Myles T. Englis, Laura L. Phelps, and Candice N. Hargons

Guided by an interpretivist–constructivist paradigm and phenomenological framework, this study explored sport psychology professionals’ lived experiences to better understand their multicultural training and competence within the field of sport psychology. Twelve sport psychology professionals participated in semistructured interviews from March 2020 to May 2020. The following four themes emerged: (a) a call to reform training programs, (b) a shift from multicultural competence to cultural humility, (c) professional and ethical responsibilities of sport psychology practitioners, and (d) reflexive practice and culturally sensitive interventions. Study findings support expanding multicultural training for students of sport psychology graduate programs and suggest that sport psychology professionals have an ethical responsibility to be culturally aware. Further study findings and clinical implications are discussed.

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Ethan Steiner and Katherine A. Boyer

The study aim was to quantify the impact of a commercially available variable stiffness shoe (VSS) on 3-dimensional ankle, knee, and hip mechanics and estimated knee contact forces compared with a control shoe. Fourteen participants (10 females) with knee osteoarthritis completed gait analysis after providing informed consent. Shoe conditions tested were control shoe (New Balance MW411v2) and VSS (Abeo SMART3400). An OpenSim musculoskeletal model with static optimization was used to estimate knee contact forces. There were no differences in joint kinematics or in the knee adduction or flexion moments (P = .06; P = .2). There were increases in the knee internal and external rotation (P = .02; P = .03) and hip adduction and internal rotation moments for VSS versus control (P = .03; P = .02). The estimated contact forces were not different between shoes (total P = .3, medial P = .1, and lateral P = .8), but contact force changes were correlated with changes in the knee adduction moment (medial r 2 = .61; P < .007). High variability in knee flexion moment changes and increases in the internal rotation moment combined with small decreases in the knee adduction moment did not lead to decreases in estimated contact forces. These results suggest that evaluation of VSS using only the knee adduction moment may not adequately capture its impact on osteoarthritis.