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Martha J. Anderson, Yvette Ingram, Linda Meyer, Thomas West, and Ellen West

Collegiate athletes have demonstrated a need for social support to help cope with their daily responsibilities. The purpose of this research was to explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes’ perception of social support from friends, teammates, family, coaches, significant others, and athletic trainers following injury, illness, or other identified life stressors. There were 546 participants who completed a five-part survey using the University Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Athletic Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic section. Of the participants, 352 (64.5%) stated that they experienced moderate stress levels, and all participants indicated experiencing an identified life stressor within the last 12 months. The results indicated statistically significant differences when comparing providers of social support: females preferred the support of friends, significant others, and athletic trainers, and freshmen and sophomores perceived more social support from friends than did juniors and seniors.

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Koki Nishiomasu, Takahiro Ogawa, and Keisuke Sato

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive status during rehabilitation and assess factors associated with ADL improvement among older patients undergoing rehabilitation after hip fractures. This retrospective cohort study comprised 306 patients aged ≥80 years who underwent hip fracture rehabilitation. The functional independence measure gain during rehabilitation was significantly lower in the group with abnormal cognition than in the group with normal cognition. Mini-Mental State Examination, Charlson Comorbidity Index, daily duration of rehabilitation, and length of hospitalization for rehabilitation were independent factors associated with functional independence measure gain during rehabilitation in the multivariate regression analysis. Although older patients with cognitive impairment had lower ADL improvements during hip fracture rehabilitation, such patients may be able to improve their ADL by undergoing intensive and long rehabilitation programs. They should not refrain from such rehabilitation programs due to older age, fracture, and cognitive impairment.

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Ellea Bachmeier, and Taylor Mair

Qualitative research has demonstrated the prevalence of gender inequity and sexism in sport-related careers, including those in sport psychology. To provide quantitative evidence, we examined the role of gender in Certified Mental Performance Consultants’ (CMPC) specialization and employment by extracting and coding the data (N = 576) from the CMPC Directory. Independent samples t tests showed that male CMPCs specialized in more masculine sports, less feminine sports, and a similar number of gender-neutral sports compared with female CMPCs. Chi-square tests of independence revealed a larger proportion of male than female CMPCs working in professional sport. No significant differences were found in other employment settings (college sport, military, and private practice), age-group specialization, and mental health licensure. These findings, which should be interpreted with caution before further investigation, suggest a need for collaboration between sport psychology professionals and sport organizations that might help mitigate internal and external barriers to gender equity.

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Alexander W.J. Freemantle, Lorenzo D. Stafford, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Lucy Akehurst

Researchers have shown that the emotions that athletes experience during sporting competition can be transferred between team members to create collective team emotional states. Nevertheless, collective emotions have not yet been investigated for sporting dyads. In this study, the emotional experiences of 68 doubles table tennis players (34 dyads) were examined at three time points: precompetition, in-competition, and postcompetition. It was found that the intensity of each emotional state differed as a function of match situation (positive/negative). Moreover, in-competition anxiety, dejection, and anger were shown to predict poorer subjective performance, and anxiety was shown to negatively impact future objective athlete performance. Most pertinently, within-dyad emotional aggregation was identified for athlete in-competition happiness and dejection and for postcompetition happiness, dejection, and anger. These findings represent the first quantitative evidence of emotional convergence in sport dyads and provide support for the social functional theory of emotion in sport.

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Charles B. Corbin, Hyeonho Yu, and Diane L. Gill

Physical education programs in the United States emerged in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Over time, physical education became the field of kinesiology with an established disciplinary base with multiple associated professions. Historical context is provided for five different eras. Textbooks, including those authored by National Academy of Kinesiology fellows, played an important role in the evolution of the field, providing direction, context, and content for both the subdisciplines and the professions. Arguments are offered for the value of textbooks as an important form of scholarship (the scholarship of integration), for the value of textbooks in providing visibility and real-world impact for the field of kinesiology, and for the value of associated textbook ancillary materials as teaching resources for faculty in institutions of higher learning.

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Shirley M. Bluethmann, Eileen Flores, Meghan Grotte, Jared Heitzenrater, Cristina I. Truica, Nancy J. Olsen, Christopher Sciamanna, and Kathryn H. Schmitz

Physical activity (PA) promotes survival and mitigates symptoms in older breast cancer survivors (BCS), especially to reduce joint pain associated with adjuvant hormonal treatment. The purpose is to describe the adaptation process for an evidence-based exercise and education curriculum (i.e., Fit & Strong!) to support older BCS participating in the Using Exercise to Relieve Joint Pain and Improve Aromatase Inhibitor Adherence in Older Breast Cancer Survivors trial. We reviewed all educational materials with scientific/clinical experts to identify necessary content changes. Next, we conducted semistructured phone interviews with BCS to review all educational materials and conducted a real-time pretest for the trial. Overall, BCS found the adapted materials and experience acceptable (mean score of 9.2/10 for satisfaction). Content changes included simplifying exercise instructions, prioritizing content related to the trial goals, and updating photographs. Because of COVID, the pretest was conducted via Zoom. Our multistep adaptation process provided an acceptable intervention to meet the needs of older BCS. Lessons learned will be applied to the forthcoming pilot trial.

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Dina L. Jones, Terry Kit Selfe, Sijin Wen, Jennifer L. Eicher, Sara Wilcox, and Corrie Mancinelli

This study implemented a 16-week Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance® intervention for older adults in churches in hard-to-reach, medically underserved, rural communities, and evaluated the process using the RE-AIM Framework. Community-dwelling adults, aged 55 years, or older, were eligible. Data (N = 237) were collected at baseline, 16 weeks, and 32 weeks on falls efficacy, depression, physical/mental health-related quality of life, aerobic activity, gait speed, mobility, balance, and leg strength. Generalized/linear mixed models determined if outcomes improved. Eighteen churches sponsored 16 classes. Church adoption was 94%, instructor adoption was 86%, reach was 90%, and fidelity was good/fair. All outcomes improved except physical health-related quality of life and gait speed. Thirty-six percent of participants, 28% of churches, and 37% of instructors continued Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance at 32 weeks. Compared with two prior RE-AIM evaluations, adoption and reach rates, improvements in outcomes, and satisfaction were comparable; attendance, program completion, and continuation rates were lower.

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Sinika Timme, Jasmin Hutchinson, Anton Regorius, and Ralf Brand

The affective response during exercise is an important factor for long-term exercise adherence. Pottratz et al. suggested affective priming as a behavioral intervention for the enhancement of exercise-related affect. The present paper aims to replicate and extend upon these findings. We conducted a close replication with 53 participants completing a brisk walking task in two conditions (prime vs. no prime). Affective valence was assessed during exercise, and exercise enjoyment and remembered/forecasted pleasure were assessed postexercise. We could not replicate the findings of Pottratz et al., finding no evidence for positive changes in psychological responses in the priming condition. However, linear mixed models demonstrated significant interindividual differences in how participants responded to priming. These results demonstrate that affective priming during exercise does not work for everyone under every circumstance and, thus, provide an important contribution to the understanding of boundary conditions and moderating factors for priming in exercise psychology.

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Cassandra M. Seguin and Diane M. Culver

While research advancements have substantially improved concussion management efforts, consideration for the psychological and social aspects of concussive injuries have remained largely absent from concussion protocols. The present study was undertaken to identify elite athletes’ psychological and social needs during the recovery process. Elite athletes with a history of concussion and mental performance consultants who work with concussed elite athletes participated in focus group interviews to shed light on these needs. A thematic analysis of these focus groups revealed six psychological and social needs: acceptance, normality, confidence, self-efficacy, trust in relationships, and social support. These themes are framed within concussion literature to help initiate a conversation on how psychological and social needs should be addressed as part of multifaceted efforts to improve concussion recovery.

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Márcio Beck Schemes, Simone de Azevedo Bach, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Rodrigo Rabuski Neske, Cláudia Dornelles Schneider, and Ronei Silveira Pinto

Decreased muscle quality (MQ) may explain functional capacity impairments during aging. Thus, it is essential to verify the interaction between MQ and functional capacity in older adults. We investigated the relationship between MQ and functional capacity in older adults (n = 34; 66.3 ± 4.6 year). MQ was estimated by maximum strength of knee extensors normalized to thigh muscle mass. Maximum strength was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer (peak torque), while dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasonography, and anthropometry were used to determine thigh muscle mass. Functional capacity was verified by 30-s sit to stand and timed up and go tests. Significant correlations were found between MQ assessed by DXA with 30-s sit to stand (r = .35; p < .05) and timed up and go (r = −.47; p < .05), and MQ assessed by anthropometry with timed up and go (r = −.41; p < .05), but not between MQ assessed by ultrasonography with functional capacity (p > .05). No significant relationship between muscle mass with functional capacity was observed. Thus, MQ assessed by DXA and MQ assessed by anthropometry may partially explain functional capacity in older adults. Interestingly, muscle mass alone did not explain performance in functional tests in this population.