We are experiencing a planetary tipping point with global warming, environmental degradation, and losses in biodiversity. The burdens of these changes fall disproportionately on poor and marginalized populations. Physical activity promotion strategies need to be aligned with climate action commitments, incorporating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios in physical activity action plans. The promotion strategies must consider equity a core value and promote physical activity to the most vulnerable populations so that they are protected from the ill-health impacts of a changing climate.
Rodrigo Reis, Ruth F. Hunter, Leandro Garcia, and Deborah Salvo
Guillermo Mendez-Rebolledo, Ann M. Cools, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Elias Quiroz-Aldea, and Fernanda A.P. Habechian
Context: Knowing the possible association between the isometric strength of the shoulder rotators, scapular muscles, and the Y-balance test upper quarter (YBT-UQ) performance could help identify which indicators of shoulder stability should be considered in this field test. This study aimed to determine whether the isometric strength of the shoulder rotators and scapular muscles is associated with the YBT-UQ performance of the dominant upper limb in amateur volleyball players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A convenience sample of 22 male and 18 female volleyball players (≥12 h of training/week) between 18 and 26 years of age. The isometric strength of the middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, internal, and external rotator muscles was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Participants performed the YBT-UQ in the superolateral, medial, and inferolateral directions. The absolute isometric peak force (in Newtons) was normalized to body weight (in Newtons per kilogram) for each muscle test. For each YBT-UQ direction, the distance (in centimeters) was normalized for upper limb length (in percentage). A backward multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Results: The analysis revealed that the isometric strength of the lower trapezius (β = 26.82; 95% confidence interval, 21.24–32.40) is associated with inferolateral YBT-UQ performance (adjusted R 2 = .706; P < .001). This factor explains 70% of the variability of the YBT-UQ in the inferolateral direction. Conclusions: Lower trapezius isometric strength is associated with inferolateral YBT-UQ performance of the dominant upper limb in amateur volleyball players. These findings could help in the development of more specific training programs and rehabilitation goals according to the performance of the athletes in the test.
Declan A. Patton, Colin M. Huber, Susan S. Margulies, Christina L. Master, and Kristy B. Arbogast
Field studies have evaluated the accuracy of sensors to measure head impact exposure using video analysis, but few have studied false negatives. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the proportion of potential false negatives in high school soccer head impact data. High school athletes (23 females and 31 males) wore headband-mounted Smart Impact Monitor-G impact sensors during competitive soccer games. Video footage from 41 varsity games was analyzed by 2 independent reviewers to identify head contact events, which were defined as visually observed contact to the head. Of the 1991 video-identified head contact events for which sensors were functioning and worn by the players, 1094 (55%) were recorded by the sensors. For female players, 45% of video-identified head contact events were recorded by the sensor compared with 59% for male players. For both females and males, sensitivity varied by impact mechanism. By quantifying the proportion of potential false negatives, the sensitivity of a sensor can be characterized, which can inform the interpretation of previous studies and the design of future studies using head impact sensors. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining ground truth labels of head impacts, video review should be considered a complementary tool to head impact sensors.
Benoit R. Lafleur, Alyssa M. Tondat, Steven P. Pretty, Marina Mourtzakis, and Andrew C. Laing
Trochanteric soft tissue thickness (TSTT) is a protective factor against fall-related hip fractures. This study’s objectives were to determine: (1) the influence of body posture on TSTT and (2) the downstream effects of TSTT on biomechanical model predictions of fall-related impact force (F femur) and hip fracture factor of risk. Ultrasound was used to measure TSTT in 45 community-dwelling older adults in standing, supine, and side-lying positions with hip rotation angles of −25°, 0°, and 25°. Supine TSTT (mean [SD] = 5.57 [2.8] cm) was 29% and 69% greater than in standing and side-lying positions, respectively. The F femur based on supine TSTT (3380  N) was 19% lower than the standing position (4173  N) and 31% lower than the side-lying position (4908  N). As factor of risk was directly influenced by F femur, the relative effects on fracture risk were similar. While less pronounced (<10%), the effects of hip rotation angle were consistent across TSTT, F femur, and factor of risk. Based on the sensitivity of impact models to TSTT, these results highlight the need for a standardized TSTT measurement approach. In addition, the consistent influence of hip rotation on TSTT (and downstream model predictions) support its importance as a factor that may influence fall-related hip fracture risk.
Cory E. Dixon, Jared A. Russell, and Peter A. Hastie
Purpose: This study examined the pedagogical experiences of former graduate teaching assistants following their teaching experiences at a youth development center. Method: A case study approach was utilized to investigate each participant case while a phenomenological approach was employed to analyze each case. The participants, Malik, Dante, and Ray, previously taught physical education at a youth development center as graduate teaching assistants. Results: The results of this study are presented as three cases centered on the participants and their experiences. The first case, “developing people from where they are, not where you want them to be . . .” (Malik) highlights the participants’ appreciation of their students’ culture and context. The second case, “resiliency to teach well regardless of circumstance or situation . . .” (Dante) features the participants’ ability to teach diverse learners. The third case, “uphill battles . . . you cannot learn this in a textbook . . .” (Ray) features the challenges faced while teaching at the youth development center. Discussion: Consistencies across participants’ experiences, the impact on their current careers, and implications for introducing culturally relevant and sustaining pedagogies via nontraditional settings are discussed.
Jonathan Robertson, Mathew Dowling, Marvin Washington, Becca Leopkey, Dana Lee Ellis, and Lee Smith
Institutional theory has generated considerable insight into fundamental issues within sport. This study seeks to advance Washington and Patterson’s review by providing an empirical review of institutional theory in sport. We follow Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review protocol to identify 188 sport-related institutional studies between 1979 and 2019. Our review provides evidence regarding the state of institutional scholarship within sport via an analysis of authorship, year, journal, methodology, method, study population, and use of institutional constructs (legitimacy, isomorphism, change, logics, fields, and work). Rather than a hostile takeover or a joint venture proposed in Washington and Patterson’s review, the relationship between fields is more aptly described as a diffusion of ideas. By developing an empirical review of institutional studies in sport, we hope to expedite the diffusion of ideas between the two fields and work toward realizing the collective benefits any future joint venture may bring.
Courtney W. Hess and Barbara B. Meyer
Objectives: Injury is a common and challenging experience for many athletes, and return-to-sport outcomes have been persistently poor despite advancements in research and practice. To ameliorate this challenge and to bridge a gap that exists in the sport injury literature between theoretical conceptualization and intervention design, research is needed to explore team-based approaches to professional practice. The current study aimed to begin this work through exploration of a single performance management team (PMT) through 2 injury and rehabilitation cases leading into and across the 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Design: Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Method: Interviews were conducted with the 5 members of the PMT (coach, physiotherapist, sport psychology consultant, case manager, and athlete) involved in both injury cases. Lower-order and higher order themes were identified and interpreted through the extent literature. Results: Results indicate that 3 higher order themes interacted to impact the lived experiences of the PMT members across the 2 injury cases. Participants described the sociocultural context that surrounded the team, the individual struggles they faced, and the functioning of the team as the primary contributors to their lived experiences as well as observed rehabilitation outcomes. Conclusions: Findings of this study mirror previous research in team science within the general health care domain, and prompt ongoing exploration of how to improve the experiences for PMT members as well as rehabilitation and return-to-sport outcomes for athletes.