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Ray N. Fredrick III, Risto Marttinen, Kelly Johnston, and Juana Fernandez

Purpose: In the United States, after-school programs have been found to improve healthy behaviors and increase time in safe, structured environments for youth, but less is known about Latin American contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of an educational program in an underserved school in Latin America. Method: A qualitative case study was used for this study. A Peace Corps volunteer was the main participant in the study. Data collection included interviews, field notes, artifacts, and reflective notes. Data were coded using constant comparative methods. Results: Three themes emerged that represent program implementation in a Latin American country: (a) learning to teach in a new country with new rules, (b) expectations and going with the flow, and (c) extending the positive youth development model to international outreach programs in rural communities. Conclusion: Relational developmental systems metatheoretical approach to positive youth development through sport model is effective in Latin American settings.

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Korey L. Boyd, Mara Simon, and Cory E. Dixon

Introduction: Physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) are informed by whiteness, resulting in marginalization and forced hypervisibility for community members of color. Culturally relevant and sustaining pedagogies (CRSP) facilitate “within group . . . [and] across-group cultural practices” for students and teachers of color to thrive. Purpose: This study highlights CRSP grounded in the experiences of Black and Latinx preservice PE teachers enrolled in predominantly White PETE programs. Methods: For this qualitative visual inquiry, 10 Black and Latinx PETE students each completed three interviews, coupled with participant-generated imagery. Data were analyzed inductively and deductively. Results: Students’ narratives included “othering” and hypervisibility. Participants’ understandings of CRSP illustrated the meaning-making they associated with CRSP. Participants identified co-conspirators, sources of support, and PETE pedagogies within a CRSP framework. Conclusion: The narratives support the call to embed CRSP within PETE programs to center students’ diverse cultural and ethnic identities.

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Tue A.H. Lassen, Lars Lindstrøm, Simon Lønbro, and Klavs Madsen

The present study investigated individualized sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) supplementation in elite orienteers and its effects on alkalosis and performance in a simulated sprint orienteering competition. Twenty-one Danish male and female elite orienteers (age = 25.2 ± 3.6 years, height = 176.4 ± 10.9 cm, body mass = 66.6 ± 7.9 kg) were tested twice in order to identify individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3 peak) following supplementation of 0.3 g/kg body mass NaHCO3 with and without warm-up. The athletes also performed two 3.5 km time-trial runs (TT-runs) following individualized timing of NaHCO3 supplementation (SBS) or placebo (PLA) on separate days in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. The occurrence of individual peak HCO3 and pH ranged from 60 to 180 min. Mean HCO3 and pH in SBS were significantly higher compared with PLA 10 min before and following the TT-run (p < .01). SBS improved overall performance in the 3.5 km TT-run by 6 s compared with PLA (775.5 ± 16.2 s vs. 781.4 ± 16.1 s, respectively; p < .05). SBS improved performance in the last half of the TT-run compared with PLA (p < .01). In conclusion, supplementation with NaHCO3 followed by warm-up resulted in individualized alkalosis peaks ranging from 60 to 180 min. Individualized timing of SBS in elite orienteers induced significant alkalosis before and after a 3.5 km TT and improved overall performance time by 6 s, which occurred in the last half of the time trial. The present data show that the anaerobic buffer system is important for performance in these types of endurance events lasting 12–15 min.

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Annemarie de Witte, Joris Hoeboer, Eline Coppens, Matthieu Lenoir, Sebastiaan Platvoet, Mark de Niet, Sanne de Vries, and An de Meester

Purpose: To study the relationship between actual motor competence (AMC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in a large sample of 6- to 12-year-old children. Method: The AMC and PMC were measured (N = 1,669, 55% boys) with the Athletic Skills Track and the Physical Self-Confidence Scale, respectively. A variable-centered approach was applied to examine the AMC–PMC association by means of correlation coefficients and Fisher’s z tests. Cluster analyses were used to identify profiles of children from a person-centered perspective. Results: The AMC–PMC correlation strengthened with increasing age (r = .084 in 6- to 7-year-olds to r = .416 in 10- to 11-year-olds). The person-centered approach revealed two profiles with corresponding levels of AMC and PMC, and two profiles with divergent levels. Discussion: In addition to clarifying the age-related increase in the association between AMC and PMC, the profiles from the person-centered approach result in new gateways for tailoring interventions to the needs of children with different AMC–PMC profiles.

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Mark David Williams, Andrew M. Hammond, and Jason Moran

Purpose: To investigate youth basketball coaches’ perceptions and implementation of fundamental movement skills training. Method: Snowball and criterion-based sampling approaches were used to survey youth basketball coaches (n=79) beliefs and experiences relating to their perceptions and implementation of nonbasketball-specific skills and fundamental movement skills into practice. Realist evaluation inspired the analysis of descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and reflexive qualitative thematic analysis to inform the results. Results: It was found that the participants had a comprehension of fundamental movement skills and acknowledge their value in the long-term development of youth players. However, there appeared to be varying levels of uptake among the surveyed coaches. Discussion: Based on these findings, coaches appear to hold sports specialization in a higher regard than the broader aspects of player development, illustrating a dichotomized perspective of fundamental movement skills and basketball. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for governing bodies to develop innovative strategies to persuade youth basketball coaches to adopt nonsports-specific movement skills to improve their practice.

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Katie Slattery, Stephen Crowcroft, and Aaron J. Coutts