Background: Following the 2019 Hong Kong Para Report Card, the 2022 Hong Kong Para Report Card aimed to provide an updated and evidence-based assessment for nine indicators related to physical activity in children and adolescents with special educational needs and to assess the results using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. Methods: Using a systematic process, the best available data on nine indicators were searched from the past 10 years and were assessed by a research work group. Letter grades were assigned and considered by stakeholders and auditors. Results: Four indicators were assigned a letter grade (overall physical activity: F [mixed device-measured and self-reported data]; sedentary behaviors: D [device-measured data]; active transportation: D−; government strategies & investment: C+). SWOT analysis highlighted opportunities for facilitating children and adolescents with special educational needs to achieve health recommendations. Conclusion: There were deteriorating trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Effective, multilevel, and cross-sector interventions are recommended to promote active behavior in children and adolescents with special educational needs.
Results and SWOT Analysis of the 2022 Hong Kong Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Special Educational Needs
Cindy H.P. Sit, Wendy Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Venus M.H. Li
Feasibility of Using Q-Sort to Map Conditional Participation in Physical Activity in Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Susann Arnell, Kajsa Jerlinder, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist
Background: Participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism is often conditional. However, there is a lack of methods for identifying these specific conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a Q-sort tool to map individual-specific conditions for participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism and to identify different viewpoints regarding conditions for such participation. Method: An exploratory mixed-methods design was employed to investigate the feasibility of using Q methodology and the Q-sort procedure to identify what individual-specific conditions are important for participation in physical activity for adolescents with autism. Results: The adolescents ranked the statements with varying levels of ease. Two viewpoints were identified: Autonomous participation without surprises and Enjoyment of activity in a safe social context. Conclusion: Q-sort is a feasible method for mapping conditions for participation, which can guide the development of tailored physical activity interventions.
Accessible Guide for People With Intellectual Disabilities in a Fitness Environment: A Delphi Study
San Hong, Jieun Yang, Donghyun Kim, and Yongho Lee
The purpose of this study was to draw consensus among an expert panel regarding essential elements of an accessible fitness center guide for people with intellectual disabilities that will enable them to engage in physical activity fully and effectively. The study was situated in the socioecological model of disability. Researchers drew expert consensus regarding the essential features of accessible guides in fitness environments. A three-round Delphi procedure was used, involving repeated circulation of the questionnaire to an expert panel (N = 33). The panel was asked to rate the importance and adequacy of 66 items regarding the accessible fitness guide. A consensus was reached regarding 43 items after three rounds. The items include 7 body-weight exercises, 2 machine exercises, 12 environment-related items, 15 exercise preparations, 4 social etiquettes, and 3 emergencies.
Editor’s Farewell Remarks
Jeffrey J. Martin
Volume 39 (2022): Issue 3 (Jul 2022)
Low Muscle Strength, Low Bone Mineral Density, and High Body Mass Index Among Adult Special Olympics Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Examination
Morgan Cleveringa and E. Andrew Pitchford
Adults with intellectual disabilities have increasing life expectancy but may be susceptible to early aging-related conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the presence of low muscle strength, low bone mineral density, and high body mass index with age and sex in adult Special Olympics athletes. Grip strength (n = 6,477; 40.9% female), chair stand time (n = 6,444; 40.5% female), body mass index (n = 7,824; 43.7% female), and bone mineral density (n = 3,091; 43.2% female) measurements were provided by Special Olympics International. Poor grip strength, chair stand time, bone mineral density, and body mass index were identified in 43.8%, 46.2%, 28.7%, and 50.3% of each sample, respectively. Increasing age was a risk factor for all conditions (odds ratio = 1.30–10.89; p < .05). High rates of adverse health conditions were observed in a sample of adults with intellectual disabilities. Increased risk was observed as early as the fourth decade of life.
ZáNean McClain, Erin Snapp, and Daniel W. Tindall
Erratum: Absent, Incapable, and “Normal”: Understanding the Inclusiveness of Visually Impaired Students’ Experiences in Integrated Physical Education
Comparison of the Physical Response During Official Matches and Small-Sided Games in International Cerebral Palsy Footballers: Implications for Evidence-Based Classification
Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Matías Henríquez, Alba Roldan, and Raúl Reina
This study aimed to analyze whether there are differences and associations in the physical responses in international-level cerebral palsy footballers between official matches and 2v2 small-sided games (2v2-SSG). One hundred seventy international cerebral palsy footballers participated in this study during three international championships. The physical responses of mean and maximum velocities, total distance, distance covered at different intensities, short-term actions, and player load were collected during 2v2-SSG and the real competition. The mean velocity, total distance, jogging, medium- and high-intensity distances, the number of moderate/high accelerations, decelerations, and player load were relatively higher in the 2v2-SSG than in the official matches. Even though the 2v2-SSG could become an appropriate drill to include during the classification process, due to the differences between a 2v2-SSG and the official competition, it is necessary to deepen the scientific knowledge for developing observation methods during real competition to strengthen the relationships between eligible impairments and activity limitation.
Absent, Incapable, and “Normal”: Understanding the Inclusiveness of Visually Impaired Students’ Experiences in Integrated Physical Education
Justin A. Haegele, Lindsay E. Ball, Xihe Zhu, M. Ally Keene, and Lindsey A. Nowland
The purpose of this study was to examine the inclusiveness of visually impaired youths’ experiences in integrated physical education. An experiential qualitative research approach was utilized, and 22 visually impaired youth (age 12–17 years) acted as participants. Data sources included one-on-one Zoom interviews, written responses to long-answer prompts, and reflexive interview notes. Data were analyzed using a reflexive thematic analysis approach, and three themes were constructed: (a) I’m not there, so how could I: The absent person; (b) I can’t see, so I can’t do it: The incapable person; and (c) It’d be nice to feel like everyone else: The “normal” person. Participants described that feelings of inclusion were unavailable to them and that feeling, and being viewed as, absent, incapable, and (not) “normal” highlighted this unavailability.