Background: Early childhood is an important age for brain and cognitive development. Given the support of physical activity and fitness on cognition and academic performance in older children, more research has emerged recently focusing on younger children. In this systematic review, the authors review the relations between physical activity/fitness and academic-related (ie, school readiness and cognitive) outcomes in early childhood. Methods: A search was conducted from PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ERIC databases, and reference lists for articles that had participants aged less than 6 years were written in English, and were in peer-reviewed journals. Articles were excluded if the design was a case study or case series report. The Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework was followed to assess the quality of evidence by study design. Results: Sixty-eight articles reporting on 72 studies (29 observational and 43 experimental) were included. The majority of study effects were mixed, and the quality of evidence varied from very low to low. Conclusions: A clear consensus about the role of physical activity and fitness on academic-related outcomes in early childhood is still lacking given the high heterogeneity in methodological approaches and overall effects. Additional high-quality studies are needed to determine what specific dosages of physical activity are impactful at this age.
Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer
Aamir R. Memon, Quyen G. To, and Corneel Vandelanotte
Background: To date, no citation analysis has been conducted in the physical activity field, which can contribute to assess the impact of this research field and identify knowledge gaps. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the 500 most cited physical activity publications and report their bibliometric characteristics. Methods: The Web of Science database (all database indexes) was searched, and bibliometric characteristics were imported and calculated. Results: A total of 520 publications were ranked as the top 500. The sum of the citations was 326,258, and the average citation density was 41.0 (45.1) citations per year. Original research articles constituted the major portion of included publications (53.7%; 170,774 citations). Papers reporting relationship of physical activity with health were the most prevalent type of publication included (43.7%; 141,027 citations). Journal impact factor had a weak but significant positive correlation with citation density (r = .12; P = .006). The United States was ranked first in terms of the contributions from institutions and authors contributing to the most cited physical activity papers. Conclusions: Top physical activity publications are well cited compared with other health behavior fields. Original research reporting on the associations between physical activity and health has a higher citation impact compared with other types of original research within the physical activity field. The physical activity research field continues to expand rapidly as newer publications attract more citations in a shorter time span compared with older publications.
Ilona I. McMullan, Brendan P. Bunting, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, Manuela Deidda, Paolo Caserotti, Lee Smith, Dhayana Dallmeier, Marta Roque, Gudrun Weinmayr, Maria Giné-Garriga, Laura Coll-Planas, Mark A. Tully, and on behalf of the SITLESS group
Improving the capacity for physical activity interventions to maintain behavior change is a key public health concern and an important strategy for the health and independence of older adults. Ways of ensuring effective maintenance of physical activity levels in older adults are unclear. This study includes the objective measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); self-reported self-efficacy; and self-regulation at four timepoints (baseline, intervention completion at 4 months, 12-, and 18-month follow-up) from the SITLESS study, a clinical trial conducted with a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. A cross-lagged analysis found that self-regulation and self-efficacy may be key determinants of MVPA behavior in community-dwelling older adults. More specifically, the use of behavioral support strategies represents an important correlate of MVPA behavior, and its association with MVPA may be mediated by self-regulation and self-efficacy in older adults in the short and long term.
Shireen W. Eid, Rhonda F. Brown, Carl L. Birmingham, and Shane K. Maloney
Background: Several behaviors have been reported to interfere with sleep in otherwise healthy adults, including low physical activity (PA) levels. However, few studies have compared low PA with the other behavioral risk factors of objective sleep impairment, despite the behavior tending to cooccur in highly stressed and affectively distressed individuals. Thus, the authors compared objective and subjective measures of PA and other potential sleep disrupting behaviors as predictors of objective sleep (sleep onset latency, actual sleep time, total sleep duration, awake time, and sleep efficacy) at baseline (T1) and 3 months later (T2). Methods: A community-derived sample of 161 people aged 18–65 years were asked about PA, other behavior (ie, night eating, electronic device use, watching television, caffeine and alcohol use), stress, affective distress (ie, anxiety, depression), and demographics including shift work and parenting young children in an online questionnaire at T1 and T2. PA and sleep were also monitored for 24 hours each at T1 and T2 using actigraphy. Results: Multiple regression analyses indicated that sleep at T1 was associated with PA (ie, total number of steps, metabolic equivalents/time, time spent travelling) after controlling mean ambient temperature and relevant demographics. At T2, longer sleep onset latency was predicted by parenting young children and night time television viewing; shorter sleep duration was predicted by female gender; and awake time and sleep efficacy were predicted by alcohol intake after controlling T1 sleep measures, demographics, and mean ambient temperature. Conclusion: The risk factors for objective sleep impairment included parenting young children and watching television at night, whereas better sleep outcomes were associated with greater engagement with PA.
Nathan Hill, Sonia Fihosy, and Paul M. Camic
There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of sport and physical activity on wellbeing in dementia. The present study is the first known study to involve golf with this population. People with dementia (n = 10) and carers (n = 5) participated in a 6-week golf program, facilitated by golf center staff (n = 3). Multiple avenues of data collection were utilized and were subject to thematic analysis. Five central themes were identified: emotion, respite, losing the “dementia” label, friendship/camaraderie, and improving relationships. Underlying subthemes were also identified, while potential links between themes were highlighted. Themes were also considered in terms of which participants (person with dementia, carer, and staff) provided evidence for each theme. This study presents preliminary support for the role of golf to enhance the psychological and social wellbeing of people with early stages of dementia, carers, and staff. Potential mechanisms and future research are discussed.
Jingjing Xue, Shuo Li, Rou Wen, and Ping Hong
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the published prediction equations for determining level overground walking energy cost in young adults. Methods: In total, 148 healthy young adults volunteered to participate in this study. Resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure variables at speeds of 4, 5, and 6 km/h were measured by indirect calorimetry, walking energy expenditure was estimated by 3 published equations. Results: The gross and net metabolic rate per mile of level overground walking increased with increased speed (all P < .01). Females were less economical than males. The present findings revealed that the American College of Sports Medicine and Pandolf et al equations significantly underestimated the energy cost of overground walking at all speeds (all P < .01) in young adults. The percentage mean bias for American College of Sports Medicine, Pandolf et al, and Weyand et al was 12.4%, 16.8%, 1.4% (4 km/h); 21.6%, 15.8%, 7.1% (5 km/h); and 27.6%, 12%, 6.6% (6 km/h). Bland–Altman plots and prediction error analysis showed that the Weyand et al was the most accurate in 3 existing equations. Conclusions: The Weyand et al equation appears to be the most suitable for the prediction of overground walking energy expenditure in young adults.
Jessica Murphy, Karen A. Patte, Philip Sullivan, and Scott T. Leatherdale
The mental health benefits of physical activity may relate more to the context of the behavior, rather than the behavior of being active itself. The association between varsity sport (VS) participation, depression, and anxiety symptoms was explored using data from 70,449 high school students from the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behavior study. The model adjusted for potential covariates; interactions by sex and participation in outside of school sport (OSS) were explored. Overall, 70% and 24% of respondents met or exceeded cutoff values for depression and anxiety, respectively. Students participating in VS had lower symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with nonparticipants. Results were consistent regardless of OSS participation; associations were strongest among students who participated in both VS and OSS and males. Participation in VS may prove beneficial for the prevention and/or management of depression or anxiety symptoms, particularly among males. An additive beneficial effect of OSS on depression and anxiety scores may exist.
Hugo Parent-Roberge, Thomas A. Deshayes, Catherine Fortier, Karine Marquis, Christiane Lacharité-Lemieux, Chantale Rodrigue, Isabelle J. Dionne, Mohsen Agharazii, Mélanie Godin, and Eléonor Riesco
Intradialytic exercise is feasible and yields substantial clinical benefits in middle-aged patients. However, evidence is scarce in older hemodialysis patients. Objective: To assess the feasibility and clinical benefits of supervised, intradialytic exercise in older patients. Methods: Multicenter one-arm feasibility study. The main outcome was feasibility (ease of recruitment, dropout rate, adherence, affective valence, and adverse events). The secondary outcomes were physical capacity (five-repetition sit-to-stand, 60-s sit-to-stand tests, and grip strength), quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and dialysis efficacy (Kt/V and urea reduction ratio). Results: About 79% of the screened patients agreed to participate (n = 25, 73 [66–77] years). The dropout rate was high (32%), but adherence remained high among the participants who completed the study (94%). Improvements were found in the five-repetition sit-to-stand (p < .001), 60-s sit-to-stand tests (p = .028), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey mental component score (p = .008), depressive symptoms (p = .006), and quality of sleep (p = .035). Conclusion: Supervised intradialytic exercise seems safe and beneficial in older patients.
Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Rodrigo Flores Sartori, Maike Tietjens, and Nadia Cristina Valentini
This study aimed to translate the Pictorial Scale of Physical Self-Concept for Brazilian Children (PSPPS-BR) into the Brazilian-Portuguese language, conduct a transcultural adaptation of it, and investigate its validity. Method: The authors adopted the reverse translation procedures to obtain the PSPPS-BR’s Brazilian-Portuguese version. Three motor behavior experts assessed the scale items’ clarity and pertinence. Ten professionals participated in the face validity study. Children (N = 300; 150 girls and 150 boys; 8–10 years old; Mage = 9.0, SD = 0.81) were randomly selected from six schools in Brazil and assessed using the PSPPS-BR, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The children (N = 100) were reassessed for test–retest reliability. Results: High clarity and pertinence agreement among experts (content validity coefficient from 98.4% to 100%; Gwet’s agreement coefficient from .85 to 1.00, p < .001) and among professionals (content validity coefficient clarity: 83–100%, relevance: 90–100%) were obtained. The confirmatory factorial analysis showed adequate model fits (root mean square error of approximation = .067; comparative fit index = .968; Tukey–Lewis index = .949). Polychoric correlations showed an adequate internal consistency for total scale (α = .78) and items (alpha from .73 to .78). The intraclass coefficient correlation shown strong test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .95). Conclusion: The PSPPS-BR showed adequate validity and reliability for Brazilian children.
Andressa Crystine da Silva Sobrinho, Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Karine Pereira Rodrigues, Camila de Paula Monteiro, and Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior
The relationship between the quality of movement, considering different global and universal basic patterns of movement and cognition domains in older adults remain unclear. The current study explored this association in physically inactive older women. In total, 187 participants, aged 60–70 years (mean = 64.9, SD = 6.9 years), were recruited from a physical education program in a public university. The older adults performed the following tests: Functional Movement Screen, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Modified Baecke Questionnaire for the Older Adults. The regression analysis showed an association between age (β = −0.11, 95% confidence interval, CI, [−0.10, 0.30], p = .03); visuospatial abilities (β = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 1.23], p < .001); language (β = 0.23, 95% CI [0.20, 1.08], p < .001); and orientation domains (β = 0.13, 95% CI [0.11, 1.22], p = .016) of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Functional Movement Screen. The quality of movement was related to both age and cognitive performance, such as the visuospatial abilities, language, and orientation domains, in physically inactive older women.