You are looking at 81 - 90 of 8,251 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Open access

Esther Frema Ofosu, Len de Nys, Jenni Connelly, Gemma Cathrine Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker

Physical activity (PA) is a known approach for managing anxiety symptoms in older adults. This systematic review and meta-analysis address the benefits of PA and its dimensions (frequency, session time, type, and intervention period) on anxiety symptoms in older adults aged 65 years and above. Searches covered eight databases reporting eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-RCTs. Meta-analysis of RCTs (standardized mean difference = −0.41; 95% confidence interval [−0.58, −0.24]; p < .00001) and Fisher’s method of combining p values for non-RCTs supported the effectiveness of PA for managing anxiety symptoms in older adults. Subgroup analysis revealed significant effects for all PA types, session times, frequency, and intervention periods compared with control groups, albeit with different magnitudes of effect. In conclusion, although some dimensions of PA contribute to its effectiveness for anxiety, PA intensity and mode required to maximize PA effects remain unclear.

Restricted access

Carlo Pruneti, Simone Ferrari, and Sara Guidotti

Stress is a psychophysical condition that causes an impairment in athletes’ performance by causing an increase in sympathetic activity and an autonomic imbalance. The current methods for the measurement of psychophysiological stress introduce the use of the heart rate variability as a useful index of the well-being of these people. The heart rate variability corresponds to the time intervals between consecutive heartbeats, such as an irregularity in the normal sinus heart rhythm whose variability is due to the control exercised by a complex system of mechanisms, including the respiratory control system, and provides information about the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. This review aims at summarizing the promising results, despite small amount, of the recent literature on the efficacy of heart rate variability biofeedback on the autonomic imbalance and psychophysical well-being of athletes as well as cognitive and motor performance.

Restricted access

Lindsay Morrison, Meghan H. McDonough, Chantelle Zimmer, Cari Din, Jennifer Hewson, Ann Toohey, Peter R.E. Crocker, and Erica V. Bennett

Instructors in organized physical activity classes can be a source of social support through their relationships with participants, influence on participants’ interactions with each other, and design of activities. Grounded in interpretive description, the objective of this study was to examine older adults’ experiences of and their perspectives on group physical activity instructors’ supportive behaviors. Observations of 16 group physical activity classes (N = 295) and focus groups or interviews with N = 38 class participants aged ≥ 55 (n = 29 women) were conducted at four municipal recreation facilities in a Canadian city. Five themes shed light on how instructors provided social support: (a) supporting autonomous engagement, (b) developing caring connections, (c) fostering trust through expert instruction, (d) managing conflict directly and effectively, and (e) creating a climate where people want to go. Instructor training should consider older adults’ social support needs and help instructors embody behaviors that support continued physical activity participation, thereby contributing to healthy aging.

Restricted access

Sarah Deck, Alison Doherty, Craig Hall, Angela Schneider, Swarali Patil, and Glen Belfry

While masters sport aligns with the holistic concept of active aging, related research has focused predominantly on the physical domain, and less is known about the psychological, cognitive, and social benefits of older adults’ participation. This study examined, in combination, the perceived psychological, social, cognitive, and physical benefits of training and competing as a masters athlete, while considering age and gender differences. Forty masters athletes residing in Canada were interviewed (21 men and 19 women; 15 who were 50–64 years and 25 who were 65–79 years), representing 15 different sports. Interviews were coded both deductively and inductively, revealing several subthemes of benefits for the broader perceived psychological, social, cognitive, and physical benefits, with few but notable differences between women and men, and those younger than 65 years and those 65+ years. Our findings provide new insights into the positive experiences of active aging associated with high levels of physical activity among older adults, such as greater self-confidence, especially for women, comradery, and feeling mentally sharper, especially for the older age group.

Restricted access

Xiaohong Zhang, Cees Peter van der Schans, Yanhui Liu, Wilhelmus Petrus Krijnen, and Johannes Simon Maria Hobbelen

Although dance interventions may have lots of advantages in improving frailty, there are few papers focusing on the effects such interventions have on frail older adults living in the community setting. This study investigates whether a dance intervention can improve the level of frailty among Chinese older adults living in the community setting. The dance intervention was done five times a week for 16 weeks. Participants in the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Mixed models were used to test for the effects on frailty, depression, short physical performance battery, and grip strength between the groups over time. The level of frailty (p < .05) and depression (p < .001) decreased, and short physical performance battery (p < .001) increased over time in the dance group compared with the control group. A dance intervention lasting 16 weeks showed improved frailty, depression, and physical performance among Chinese older adults living in the community setting.

Restricted access

Sarah C. Galway, Meghan H.D. Laird, Matthieu Dagenais, and Kimberley L. Gammage

Online exercise programming has surged in popularity; however, little is known about older adults’ perceptions and experiences of online exercise. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine older adults’ (aged 59–82 years) experiences and perceptions of an online exercise program during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nineteen individuals (individuals who used the online exercise program and those who did not) completed a semistructured interview. Three main themes were generated from the data using reflexive thematic analysis: (a) can online exercise really work for older adults? (b) technology attitudes and experiences influence online participation, and (c) barriers and advantages of the online exercise program and the home environment. Most participants who took part were able to overcome initial barriers through technical support and experience. Our findings highlight ways to promote advantages and address barriers of online exercise for older adults and emphasize the importance of fostering social experiences and training online exercise instructors.

Restricted access

Michael Douglas da Silva Martins, Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Eleonora Esposito, Priscila Kalil Morelhão, Pedro Henrique Narciso, Márcia Rodrigues Franco, and Rafael Zambelli Pinto

To investigate the association between physical activity (PA) domains and chronic low back pain (LBP) in older adults. A cross-sectional study where sociodemographic, behavioral, and health variables; PA; and presence of chronic LBP were collected. Higher scores of PA defined the “more active” participants. Binary logistic regression was used to test the association between PA domains and chronic LBP. A total of 516 participants were included. The mean age was 71.8 (95% confidence interval, CI, [71.1, 72.5]) years, and 29%, 27%, 25%, and 31% were identified as “more active” in the household, sports, leisure-time, and total PA domains, respectively. “More active” participants in sports (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.40, 0.97]), leisure-time (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% CI [0.35, 0.85]) and total (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% CI [0.39, 0.92]) PA domains were less likely to report chronic LBP. High levels of sports, leisure-time, and total PA were inversely associated with chronic LBP.

Free access

Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramirez Varela, and Adrian Bauman

Free access

Thitikorn Topothai, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Nicholas Alexander Petrunoff, Orana Chandrasiri, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

Background: Understanding patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior is essential, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior in the Thai population; their sociodemographic correlates; and the contribution of specific domains to total physical activity. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2021 Health Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey, conducted by the Thailand National Statistical Office during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. “Sufficiently active” was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. “Highly sedentary” was defined as sitting ≥7 hours per day. The contribution of work, transport, and recreational physical activity was determined as the proportion of total physical activity. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of being sufficiently active and being highly sedentary. Results: Of the total study population (N = 78,717), 71.9% were sufficiently active, whereas 75.8% were highly sedentary. Females, having a labor-intensive work, and living in Bangkok had a higher likelihood of being sufficiently active. Those with higher education and income levels, and living in Bangkok and the Central region had a greater likelihood of being highly sedentary. The work domain contributed the highest proportion toward physical activity (82.1%), followed by the recreation (10.0%) and transport domains (7.9%). Conclusions: Policies should focus on promoting transport and recreational physical activity and activity that can break up sedentary behavior among adults because when countries become technologically advanced, physical activity at work declines.

Restricted access

Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Mark E. Hartman, and Matthew A. Ladwig

For decades, the exercise psychology research literature echoed the conclusion that exercise makes most people feel better, with no clear evidence that this “feel-better effect” is moderated by intensity. An overhaul of the methodological approach subsequently showed that high-intensity exercise is experienced as unpleasant, and the “feel-better effect,” although possible, is conditional and therefore not as robust or prevalent as initially thought. Recently, several studies investigating high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have concluded that HIIT is pleasant and enjoyable, despite the high intensity. Considering that HIIT is emerging as an option in physical activity recommendations and exercise prescription guidelines, in part due to these claims, a methodological checklist is presented to aid researchers, peer reviewers, editors, and other readers in critically appraising studies examining the effects of HIIT on affect and enjoyment. This first part addresses the characteristics and number of participants, as well as the selection of measures of affect and enjoyment.