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Miguel A. De la Cámara, Ana I. Pardos-Sevilla, Augusto Jiménez-Fuente, Thamara Hubler-Figueiró, Eleonora d’Orsi, and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

The aim of this study was to examine, theoretically, how reallocating time between the intensity of mutually exclusive categories of physical activity and sedentary behavior time is associated with metabolic syndrome. Four hundred and six older adults (61.6% women) from the second wave of the EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study were included in the study (mean age 71.7 ± 5.9 years). Isotemporal substitution analysis showed a decrease of 35% (odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [0.45, 0.96]) in the risk for metabolic syndrome when replacing 30 min/day of sedentary behavior with an equivalent amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Furthermore, it has been observed that older adults classified as low sedentary behavior and physically active were 57% less likely to have metabolic syndrome than participants classified as high sedentary and physically inactive (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% confidence interval [0.19, 0.97]). This study highlights the importance of behavioral categories that may emerge concerning the interrelationships of physical activity and health in older adults, having important implications for future health intervention programs.

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Marina Christofoletti, Paula F. Sandreschi, Sofia W. Manta, Susana C. Confortin, Rodrigo S. Delevatti, Eleonora D’Orsi, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Cassiano R. Rech, and Thiago S. Matias

This study described the clustering patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time (ST) according to handgrip strength and investigated the association between identified clusters of fat and lean mass in older adults from southern Brazil. Objective measures were used for moderate to vigorous physical activity, ST, and body composition outcomes. Two-step cluster and linear regression analyses were conducted according to handgrip strength. Three clusters were identified: all-day sitters, sitters, and active sitters. The prevalence of clusters in the low-strength group was 58.2%, 22.8%, and 19.0%, respectively, while the prevalence of clusters in the high-strength group was 42.1%, 34.8%, and 23.1%, respectively. All-day sitters had 2.6% more fat mass than active sitters with low strength. High levels of ST characterized all cluster profiles; low strength, lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and high ST levels among older adults may indicate a subpopulation at a greater risk of overweight and obesity-related diseases.

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Samira Javadpour, Ehsan Sinaei, Reza Salehi, Shahla Zahednejad, and Alireza Motealleh

To compare the effects of single- versus dual-task balance training on the gait smoothness and balance of community-dwelling older adults, 69 volunteers were randomized to single-, dual-task training, and control (no intervention) groups. Exercises were received in 18 sessions through 6 weeks. The gait smoothness was measured by the harmonic ratio of trunk accelerations using a triaxial accelerometer. Balance performance was assessed through the Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, Timed Up and Go test, Activities-specific Balance Confidence, and gait speed. After the trial, all variables improved significantly in the training groups. Moreover, differences in the mean change of all variables, except the Timed Up and Go test, were statistically significant between the interventional groups and the control group, but no significant difference was reported between the two training groups. This study suggests that balance training can improve gait smoothness as well as balance status in healthy older adults.

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Gareth Thompson, Gareth W. Davison, Jacqui Crawford, and Ciara M. Hughes

Sirtuin-1 is a protein that may orchestrate the cardioprotective effect of exercise by controlling cellular processes. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of performing a quasi-experimental study in this area. Patients with postacute myocardial infarction were recruited across four hospital sites in the United Kingdom. The participants were offered one weekly exercise session at Phase-III and Phase-IV cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Measurements were obtained pre-Phase-III CR (Week 1), post-Phase-III CR (Week 8), and post-Phase-IV CR (Week 22). Twenty-eight patients were recruited (79% male, 100% White, 60.2 ± 10.5 years old). The recruitment rate was not fulfilled (<70% eligible patients recruited; 0.9 participants recruited per week over 30 weeks). The success criteria for dropout rate, adherence rate, and collection of sirtuin-1 measures were satisfied. A large increase in sirtuin-1 (0.14 ± 0.03, d ≥ 0.8) was seen after Phase-III and Phase-IV CR. Collectively, a quasi-experimental study is feasible with a revised recruitment strategy.

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Tal Gafni, Kerem Shuval, Galit Weinstein, Carolyn E. Barlow, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Benjamin L. Willis, David Leonard, William L. Haskell, and Laura F. DeFina

This study cross-sectionally examines the relations of sitting and physical activity (PA) with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling adults aged 55–87 years (n = 3,780). Multivariable logistic regression assessed independent and joint relations of sitting and PA with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores adjusting for covariates. Sitting ≥75% of the time and not meeting PA guidelines were related to 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.19, 2.17]) and 27% (95% CI [1.06, 1.53]) higher odds for cognitive impairment, respectively. Stratification by age showed that sitting ≥75% of the time was associated with higher cognitive impairment odds in midlife (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% CI [1.31, 2.65]), but not older adults (OR = 1.06; 95% CI [0.57, 1.95]). Joint association analysis revealed that, overall, the highest odds for cognitive impairment were in those sitting ≥75% of the time while meeting or not meeting PA guidelines (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.13, 2.53]; and OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.19, 2.32], respectively). In conclusion, prolonged sitting and insufficient PA are independent risk markers for cognitive impairment.

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Lisa Sheehy, Heidi Sveistrup, Frank Knoefel, Anne Taillon-Hobson, Tara Martin, Mary Egan, Martin Bilodeau, Vivian Welch, Christine Yang, and Hillel Finestone

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of cognitive and physical decline. Virtual reality (VR) exercise may provide beneficial physical and cognitive exercise. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility and safety of home-based VR exercise and to provide pilot data for physical and cognitive efficacy. Eleven individuals with mild cognitive impairment (seven males/four females, average 78 years old, and average 3 years since diagnosis) performed a 30-min home-based VR exercise program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The VR platform was successfully installed in participants’ homes, and all participants were able to learn the VR program and progress. Participants completed 99% of the prescribed exercise. There were no major adverse events. Most participants enjoyed the VR program and reported physical benefits; fewer reported cognitive benefits. No physical or cognitive outcome measures showed change after 6 weeks. Home-based VR exercise is safe and feasible in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

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Pierre Jéhannin, Alexis Le Faucheur, Ségolène Chaudru, Aline Taoum, Guillaume Mahé, and Pierre-Yves de Müllenheim

The authors investigated the agreement between StepWatch3™ (SW3) and ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ monitors for measuring step-based metrics in patients with peripheral artery disease and older adults. In 23 patients with peripheral artery disease and 38 older participants, the authors compared the metrics obtained during an outdoor (400-m track) walking session (step count) and a 7-day free-living period (step count and 60/30/5/1-min maximal or peak step accumulation) using the SW3 (ankle) and the wGT3X+ (hip) with the low-frequency extension filter enabled (wGT3X+/LFE) or not (wGT3X+/N). During outdoor walking session, agreement was high, particularly for wGT3X+/LFE: correlations ≥.98, median absolute percentage errors <1%, and significant equivalence using a ± 15% equivalence zone or narrower. In free living, no wGT3X+ method was equivalent to SW3 for step count. The wGT3X+/LFE was equivalent to SW3 regarding all step accumulation metrics using a ± 20% equivalence zone or narrower, with median absolute percentage errors <11%. The wGT3X+/LFE method is the best option for comparisons with SW3 in peripheral artery disease and older adults.

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Bong Kil Song, Angelique G. Brellenthin, Joey M. Saavedra, and Duck-chul Lee

Background: The association between muscular strength (MS) and prevalent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the older adults is not well established. Methods: This study included 542 older adults with no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer. MS was measured by handgrip dynamometry. Participants were categorized into sex-specific quartiles of MS, while cases of GERD were identified by self-reported physician diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of GERD by quartiles of MS. Results: There were 112 GERD cases. Compared with the first quartile of MS, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of GERD were 0.50 (0.27–0.95), 0.39 (0.20–0.75), and 0.55 (0.29–1.04) in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of MS, respectively, after adjusting for possible confounders including body mass index. In a joint analysis of MS and body mass index, participants were dichotomized into weak (first MS quartile) or strong (upper 3 MS quartiles) and normal weight, overweight, or obese. Compared with the weak–obese group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.34 (0.14–0.80), 0.43 (0.16–1.13), 0.29 (0.12–0.68), 0.18 (0.06–0.55), and 0.07 (0.03–0.21) for the strong–obese, weak–overweight, strong–overweight, weak–normal weight, and strong–normal weight. Conclusions: MS was independently and inversely associated with GERD in older adults.

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Sarah Morgan Hughey, Julian A. Reed, and Sarah B. King

Purpose: Physical education (PE) provides opportunities for youth physical activity during the school day, yet daily PE policies remain low. This study investigated whether daily PE was linked to youth aerobic capacity across a 4-year period in Greenville (South Carolina). Methods: Youth in grade levels second to eighth at 2 schools providing daily PE and 2 schools that did not provide daily PE participated in the study (N = 466). The 2 schools used as comparisons provided standard PE outlined by South Carolina, which included one 50-minute session per week (elementary) and daily PE for one semester (middle school). Aerobic fitness was measured using the FITNESSGRAM® Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run test (May 2011–2015). Number of Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run laps completed, age, gender, ethnicity, body composition, and school attended were included in multilevel linear regression analyses. Results: Across the sample, aerobic fitness increased with age. Throughout the study, males demonstrated growth in aerobic fitness compared with a slight decline for females (P < .001). Youth participation in daily PE was linked to increases in aerobic fitness compared with youth who did not receive daily PE (P < .001). Conclusions: Findings suggest that exposure to daily PE may contribute to increased aerobic fitness in youth.

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Lisiane Piazza Luza, Diego Rodrigues Pimentel da Silva, Elizandra Gonçalves Ferreira, Greicy Kelly Wosniak Pires, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, and Rudney da Silva

Background: Limb loss affects quality of life, well-being, and autonomy. The World Health Organization has launched a global action plan to reduce physical inactivity and presented recommendations of physical activity for people living with disability. Knowledge of the characteristics of people with lower limb amputation regarding physical activity is important. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the quantity and type of physical activity done by people with lower limb amputation. Methods: The sample (N = 149) included adults aged 53.08 (17.24) years old with lower limb loss. Data collection was performed through the application of a sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical data sheet and the Brazilian version of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. Results: The total Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities score was between 0 and 65.79 metabolic equivalents of task per hour per day, which suggests low practice of physical activities. The most frequently practiced activities (79.9%) were those that involved stationary behavior. Women carried out more domestic activities, and subjects who used lower limb prosthesis and those with traumatic amputation reported higher practice of physical activity. Conclusions: People living with lower limb amputation, from different regions of Brazil, have low levels of physical activity and mainly carry out activities of stationary behavior.