The objective of this study was to evaluate physical function and health-related quality of life 4 months after the cessation of a 4-month exercise intervention in 89 older adults after discharge from hospital. Linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate between-group differences. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. There was no statistically significant between-group difference in the Short Physical Performance Battery (mean difference 0.5 points, 95% confidence interval [−0.6, 1.5], p = .378). There was a statistically significant difference in favor of the intervention group in functional capacity (the 6-min walk test; mean difference 32.9 m, 95% confidence interval [1.5, 64.3], p = .040) and physical health–related quality of life (physical component summary of medical outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey; mean difference 5.9 points, 95% confidence interval [2.0, 9.7], p = .003). Interventions aiming to maintain or increase physical function and health-related quality of life should be encouraged in this population.
Sylvia Sunde, Karin Hesseberg, Dawn A. Skelton, Anette H. Ranhoff, Are H. Pripp, Marit Aarønæs, and Therese Brovold
Bridgitte Swales, Gemma C. Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker
Frailty is associated with negative health outcomes, disability, and mortality. Physical activity is an effective intervention to improve functional health status. However, the effect of resistance training on multidimensional health in frail older adults remains unclear. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a U.K. residential care home to assess feasibility with limited efficacy testing on health and functional outcomes and to inform a future definitive randomized controlled trial. Eleven frail older adults (>65 years) completed a 6-week machine-based resistance training protocol three times a week. Uptake and retention were greater than 80%. The measures and intervention were found to be acceptable and practicable. The analyses indicated large improvements in functional capacity, frailty, and strength in the intervention group compared with the controls. These findings support the feasibility of a definitive randomized controlled trial and reinforce the value of resistance training in this population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03141879.
Yong Yang, Shu-Chen Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chihw-Wen Hsu, Wen-Sheng Zhou, and Kuei-Yu Chien
Muscle strength after detraining is still higher than the level before training, which is an important issue for middle-aged and older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of detraining duration (DD), resistance training duration (RTD), and intensity on the maintenance of resistance training (RT) benefits after detraining in middle-aged and older adults. A systematic search yielded 15 randomized control trails (n = 383) eligible for inclusion. The results showed that RTD ≥ 24 weeks and DD ≥ RTD, the RT benefits were still significantly maintained even with medium and low intensity (standardized mean difference = 1.16, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.38, 1.94], p = .004). When RTD < 24 weeks and DD ≤ RTD, only the high-intensity groups maintained the RT benefits (DD, 4–6 weeks: standardized mean difference = 0.71, 95% CI [0.34, 1.08], p = .0002; DD 8–16 weeks: standardized mean difference = 1.35, 95% CI [0.66, 2.04], p = .0001). However, when DD > RTD, the RT benefits were not maintained even with high intensity. In summary, when RTD was less than 24 weeks, RTD > DD was an important factor in maintaining muscle strength.
Vincent Berardi, David Pincus, Evan Walker, and Marc A. Adams
This study examined whether patterns of self-organization in physical activity (PA) predicted long-term success in a yearlong PA intervention. Increased moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was targeted in insufficiently active adults (N = 512) via goal setting and financial reinforcement. The degree to which inverse power law distributions, which are reflective of self-organization, summarized (a) daily MVPA and (b) time elapsed between meeting daily goals (goal attainment interresponse times) was calculated. Goal attainment interresponse times were also used to calculate burstiness, the degree to which meeting daily goals clustered in time. Inverse power laws accurately summarized interresponse times, but not daily MVPA. For participants with higher levels of MVPA early in the study, burstiness in reaching goals was associated with long-term resistance to intervention, while stochasticity in meeting goals predicted receptiveness to intervention. These results suggest that burstiness may measure self-organizing resistance to change, while PA stochasticity could be a precondition for behavioral malleability.
Sara Oliveira, Marina Cunha, António Rosado, and Cláudia Ferreira
This study aimed to test a model that hypothesized that the compassionate coach, as perceived by the athletes, has an impact on athlete-related social safeness and psychological health, through shame and self-criticism. The sample comprised 270 Portuguese adult athletes, who practiced different competitive sports. The path analysis results confirmed the adequacy of the proposed model, which explained 45% of the psychological health’s variance. Results demonstrated that athletes who perceive their coaches as more compassionate tend to present higher levels of social safeness (feelings of belonging to the team) and of psychological health, through lower levels of shame and self-criticism. These novel findings suggest the importance of the adoption of supportive, warm, safe, and compassionate attitudes from coaches in athletes’ mental health. This study also offers important insights by suggesting that feelings of acceptance and connectedness in team relationships may be at the root of athletes’ emotional processes and well-being.
Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf
Jeromy M. Alt, Adam W. Kiefer, Ryan MacPherson, Tehran J. Davis, and Paula L. Silva
Athletes commonly make decisions about the passability of closing gaps when navigating sport environments. This study examined whether increased temporal pressure to arrive at a desired location modifies these decisions. Thirty participants navigated toward a waypoint in a virtual, sport-inspired environment. To do so, they had to decide whether they could pass through closing gaps of virtual humans (and take the shortest route) or steer around them (and take a longer route). The decision boundary of participants who were time pressured to arrive at a waypoint was biased toward end gaps of smaller sizes and was less reliably defined, resulting in a higher number of collisions. Effects of temporal pressure were minimized with experience in the experimental task. Results indicate that temporal pressure affects perceptual–motor processes supporting information pickup and shapes the information–action coupling that drives compliance with navigation demands. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Susumu Iwasaki, Mary D. Fry, and Candace M. Hogue
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of mindful engagement in the relationship between male high school athletes’ motivational climate perceptions on their teams (i.e., caring, task-, and ego-involving climate) to athlete coachability. Athletes (N = 164, M age = 15.58 years) from multiple sports completed measures assessing mindful engagement in sport (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale—Revised), Caring Climate Scale, task- and ego-involving climate perceptions (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire), and coachability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations linked mindful engagement and coachability positively with perceptions of a caring and task-involving climate and negatively with ego-involving climate perceptions. Structural equation modeling analyses then revealed mindful engagement mediated the relationship between climate and coachability. Encouraging coaches and players to foster a caring/task-involving climate might assist in enhancing athletes’ mindful engagement in sport, which may positively influence the degree to which they are coachable.
Dana K. Voelker, Nick Galli, Maya Miyairi, Justine J. Reel, and Karley James
Unhealthy cognitive–emotional relationships with exercise can hinder positive treatment outcomes when left unaddressed. However, clinicians lack validated tools to monitor this aspect of treatment. This study examined the 14-item Intuitive Exercise Scale with 165 patients in the United States (M age = 26.48 years) who were receiving treatment for an eating disorder. The original factor structure was inadequate for the current sample, and exploratory factor analysis generated three factors—emotional exercise, body intuition, and exercise variety. The three-factor solution yielded strong internal consistency and partial support for the scale’s validity. Furthermore, patients scored lowest in body intuition, confirming low awareness of bodily cues common in patients with eating disorders. This study informs how clinicians may integrate and monitor patients’ cognitive–emotional relationship with exercise as part of holistic and intuitive eating disorder treatment approaches.
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard, and Todd A. Gilson
The rate of alcohol consumption among student-athletes places them at risk for engaging in unsafe behaviors. Although coaches play a key role in regulating alcohol use among athletes, many lack the knowledge and self-confidence to be effective. This study aimed to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy among National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches and attempted to identify types of training and education wanted to better manage student-athlete alcohol use. A total of 518 National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches completed alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy measures and two open-ended questions about what kind of alcohol training, information, and skills were needed. When accounting for previous education/training and gender of team coached, alcohol consumption literacy predicted all confrontation efficacy subscales. Content analysis showed coaches wanted training related to alcohol literacy, effective communication, and prevention planning. Findings have implications for designing alcohol prevention and intervention programs aimed at National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches.