The purpose of this article is to examine the content of previously published empirical literature utilizing self-efficacy theory with regard to physical education teachers’ perceived self-confidence to teach students with disabilities in general physical education. Keyword searches were used to identify relevant literature from electronic databases published from 2000 to 2022. Twenty-four articles, from 11 countries, met all inclusion criteria, and relevant data regarding participants, theory, measurement, research design, and dependent variables were extracted. Of the 24 studies, nine were survey validation, eight were experimental, six were cross-sectional, and one was mixed-methods design. Major findings across the examined studies indicate that teachers’ perceptions of training, amount of experience, and support from personnel significantly influence their self-efficacy toward teaching students with disabilities.
Lindsey A. Nowland and Justin A. Haegele
Sana Affes, Rihab Borji, Nidhal Zarrouk, Thouraya Fendri, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai
This study explored the acute effects of different running intensities on cognitive and motor performances in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). An ID group (age, M = 15.25 years, SD = 2.76) and a control group without ID (age, M = 15.11 years, SD = 1.54) performed visual simple and choice reaction times, auditory simple reaction time, and finger tapping tests before and after running at low or moderate intensity (30% and 60% of heart rate reserve [HRR], respectively). Visual simple reaction time values decreased (p < .001) after both intensities at all time points with higher (p = .007) extend after the 60% HRR intensity for both groups. After both intensities, the VCRT decreased (p < .001) in the ID group at all time points compared with preexercise (Pre-EX) while, in the control group, these values decreased (p < .001) only immediately (IM-EX) and after 10 min (Post-10) of exercise cessation. Compared withs Pre-EX, in the ID group, the auditory simple reaction time values decreased (p < .001) at all time points after the 30% HHR intensity whereas, after the 60% HRR, these values decreased only at IM-EX (p < .001), Post-10 (p = .001) and Post-20 (p < .001). In the control group, auditory simple reaction time values decreased (p = .002) only after the 30% HRR intensity at IM-EX. The finger tapping test increased at IM-EX (p < .001) and at Post-20 (p = .001) compared to Pre-EX in both groups only after the 30% HHR intensity and for the dominant hand. The effect of physical exercise on cognitive performances in individuals with ID seems to depend on the cognitive test type as well as the exercise intensity.
Roxy Helliker O’Rourke, Krystn Orr, Rebecca Renwick, F. Virginia Wright, James Noronha, Kirsten Bobbie, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos
School sports programs intentionally created for students with and without disabilities may increase social participation of students with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Special Olympics Unified Sports is one program where students with and without ID participate on one team. Guided by a critical realist paradigm, this study explored the perceptions of students with and without ID and coaches of in-school Unified Sports. Interviews were conducted with 21 youths (12 with ID) and 14 coaches. Thematic analysis resulted in four developed themes (identified is outdated language): Inclusion—Is it a “we” or a “they?” Roles and Responsibilities, Educational Context for Inclusion, and Buy-In. Findings suggest students with and without ID and coaches value the inclusive nature of Unified Sports. Future research should explore training for coaches on inclusive practices (e.g., language), and optimal methods for consistent training (e.g., use of training manuals) to foster the philosophy of inclusion within school sports.
Adam S. Forbes and Joonkoo Yun
Visual supports have been advocated as one strategy to teach children with autism in physical education. However, empirical studies documented inconsistencies in their effectiveness, with some demonstrating positive effects while others reported limited support for their use. Without a clear synthesis of information, physical educators may have difficulties in identifying and meaningfully utilizing visual supports. A systematic literature review on visual supports was conducted with synthesized current literature for physical educators to make informed decisions regarding their use for children with autism in physical education. A total of 27 articles were reviewed, which included empirical- and narrative-based manuscripts. Results suggest that picture task cards, visual activity schedules, and video prompting can be potential strategies that physical educators can use to teach motor skills to children on the spectrum. However, video modeling may need to be further investigated to fully understand how to use it in the context of physical education.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Sharon Barak, Salomé Aubert, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Riki Tesler, Cindy Sit, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, José Francisco López-Gil, and Kwok Ng
The purpose was to synthesize information gathered from the interpretation and conclusion sections of the Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on the physical activity of children and adolescents with disabilities. The synthesis was based on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats framework. The procedure consisted of three stages: (a) the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as the theoretical framework; (b) identifying and aligning Global Matrix indicators and benchmarks with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components through a Delphi approach; and (c) using content analysis to identify themes from specific report cards. Outcomes reveal that further attention toward including children and adolescents with disabilities in fitness assessments is needed as well as adapted assessment methods. Program availability, equipment and facilities, and professional training emerged as strengths but need further development to overcome weaknesses. Paralympic inspiration was an opportunity, whereas extreme weather conditions presented potential threats to physical activity participation among children and adolescents with disabilities.
Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Inmaculada González-Ponce, Tomás García-Calvo, Edgar Enrich-Alturo, and Francisco M. Leo
We present two studies examining the relationship between athlete leadership quality and team resilience and explored the mediating effect of team identification. In Study 1, 194 soccer players (Mage = 18.50, SD = 4.49) from eight national teams participated. Structural equation modeling showed cross-sectionally that the four types of athlete leadership qualities were positively related to the characteristics of resilience and negatively to vulnerability under pressure. Team identification was shown to be a mediator of these relationships. Study 2, with four different time-points, involved 208 young soccer players (Mage = 16.05, SD = 3.39) from two professional clubs (i.e., La Liga). Cross-lagged panel models revealed that task leadership quality (Times 1–2) was positively related to the characteristics of resilience (Times 3–4) and negatively to vulnerability under pressure (Times 3–4). However, team identification did not mediate these relationships. Therefore, practitioners should consider the perceptions of leader quality to achieve benefits during competition.
Lee T. Atkins, Michael Lowrey, Sarah Reagor, Kirsten Walker, and Dhalston Cage
Research indicates that increasing trunk flexion may optimize patellofemoral joint loading. However, this postural change could cause an excessive Achilles tendon force (ATF) and injury risk during movement. This study aimed to examine the effects of increasing trunk flexion during stair ascent on ATF, ankle biomechanics, and vertical ground reaction force in females. Twenty asymptomatic females (age: 23.4 [2.5] y; height: 1.6 [0.8] m; mass: 63.0 [12.2] kg) ascended stairs using their self-selected and flexed trunk postures. Compared with the self-selected trunk condition, decreases were observed for peak ATF (mean differences [MD] = 0.14 N/kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.23; Cohen d = −1.2; P = .003), average rate of ATF development (MD = 0.25 N/kg/s; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.43; Cohen d = −0.9; P = .010), ankle plantar flexion moment (MD = 0.08 N·m/kg; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.13; Cohen d = −1.1; P = .005), and vertical ground reaction force (MD = 38.6 N/kg; 95% CI, 20.3 to 56.90; Cohen d = −1.8; P < .001). Increasing trunk flexion did not increase ATF. Instead, this postural change was associated with a decreased ATF rate and magnitude and may benefit individuals with painful Achilles tendinopathy.
Chris J. Alfiero, Ann F. Brown, Youngmin Chun, Alexandra Holmes, and Joshua P. Bailey
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of foot positioning and lean mass on jumping and landing mechanics in collegiate dancers. Thirteen dancers performed 3 unilateral and bilateral vertical jumps with feet in neutral and turnout positions. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, jump height, vertical stiffness, and joint stiffness were assessed for relationships between foot positions. Jump heights were greater in right compared with left limb (P = .029) and neutral compared with turnout (P = .020) during unilateral jumping. In unilateral landing, knee stiffness was greater in turnout compared with neutral (P = .004) during the loading phase. Jump height (P < .001) was significantly increased, and vertical stiffness (P = .003) was significantly decreased during bilateral jumping in neutral compared with turnout. Significantly increased hip stiffness during the attenuation phase was observed in neutral compared with turnout (P = .006). Left-limb lean mass was significantly less than the right limb (P < .05). Adjustments for bilateral jumping were focused on hip stiffness, whereas there was a slight shift to knee strategy for unilateral jump.