The purpose of this study was to examine the inclusiveness of visually impaired youths’ experiences in integrated physical education. An experiential qualitative research approach was utilized, and 22 visually impaired youth (age 12–17 years) acted as participants. Data sources included one-on-one Zoom interviews, written responses to long-answer prompts, and reflexive interview notes. Data were analyzed using a reflexive thematic analysis approach, and three themes were constructed: (a) I’m not there, so how could I: The absent person; (b) I can’t see, so I can’t do it: The incapable person; and (c) It’d be nice to feel like everyone else: The “normal” person. Participants described that feelings of inclusion were unavailable to them and that feeling, and being viewed as, absent, incapable, and (not) “normal” highlighted this unavailability.
Absent, Incapable, and “Normal”: Understanding the Inclusiveness of Visually Impaired Students’ Experiences in Integrated Physical Education
Justin A. Haegele, Lindsay E. Ball, Xihe Zhu, M. Ally Keene, and Lindsey A. Nowland
Medicalization of Exercise Through Vigilance, Productivity, and Self-Care: A Secondary Data Analysis of Qualitative Interviews Among Those With Multiple Sclerosis
Brynn Adamson, Matthew Adamson, Dominique Kinnett-Hopkins, and Robert Motl
Exercise is becoming more integrated into the management of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is promoted to manage impairments and symptoms. Whereas extensive research outlines factors impacting participation, less is known regarding how medicalized exercise promotion might impact views of exercise and self. We conducted a secondary data analysis to understand how medicalized exercise-promotion paradigms impact the meaning and roles of exercise among those with MS. Twenty-two interviews were selected for reanalysis with an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology and a critical disability studies lens. Three themes were identified: Constant Vigilance (worry about exercise), Productivity and Social Engagement (exercise to feel productive, engage socially, and enhance self-worth), and Exercise as Medicine/Self-Care (exercise to manage MS, relax, improve mental well-being, prevent/reverse disability, and stay healthy). This research underscores that exercise occupies many contradictory roles reflecting a medicalized exercise-promotion paradigm for those with MS, and this should inform exercise promotion practices.
Exploring the Relationship Between Quality and Quantity of Physical Activity Participation in Community-Based Exercise Programs for Persons With Physical Disabilities
Laura C. Koch, Shane N. Sweet, Kristiann E. Man, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Krystn Orr, Andrea Bundon, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, and Jennifer R. Tomasone
Community-based exercise programs for persons with disabilities promote greater quantity of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation among their members, perhaps because of the quality experiences fostered by the program. This study aimed to explore the relationship between quality and quantity of physical activity participation in the context of community-based exercise programming and the role that gender plays in this relationship. Adults with physical disabilities (N = 91; M age = 55, 49 men) from three community-based exercise programs across Canada completed a survey asking about quality participation (Measure of Experiential Aspects of Participation [MeEAP]) and LTPA. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between MeEAP scores and LTPA. Quality participation was not related to LTPA, even with gender included as a moderator. Men reported higher levels of LTPA and quality participation than women, highlighting gender differences that should be considered when researching and designing exercise programs for individuals with disabilities.
Does Symptom Severity Moderate the Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Motor Competence in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders? An Exploratory Study
Yu Song, Bo Shen, Liansan Dong, Yanli Pang, and Jin Bo
To date, there has been little research considering both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and motor impairment simultaneously when investigating their associations with obesity. This study was designed to identify the moderating role of symptom severity in the relationship between motor competence and overweight/obesity for children with ASD. Seventy-eight children with a clinical diagnosis were recruited from a large autism rehabilitation center in Wuhan, China. Chi-square, partial correlation, and moderation regression analyses revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was similar regardless of symptom severity. Balance was the only motor skill that correlated with body mass index. Furthermore, symptom severity significantly moderated the correlation. Children with low autism severity might be more likely to demonstrate the relationship between balance and body mass index than those with high autism severity. Combating obesity by enhancing motor competence should cautiously consider personal and environment factors such as individual severity of ASD.
Comparison of Physical Activity Between Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
John P. Rech, J. Megan Irwin, Adam B. Rosen, Jessica Baldwin, and Michaela Schenkelberg
Lower levels of physical activity (PA) are often observed among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to children without ASD; however, some studies have demonstrated few to no PA differences between the two groups. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the differences in PA between children (2–18 years) with and without ASD. An exhaustive search of five online databases was completed, and 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. A pooled random-effects Hedges’s g model was used to determine differences in PA between children with and without ASD. Children with ASD were found to be significantly less physically active than children without ASD (Δ = −0.62, p < .001). Subgroup analyses revealed significant moderate to large differences in PA by intensity level, age, setting, and measurement methods. Future studies are needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms associated with lower levels of PA among children with ASD.
Volume 39 (2022): Issue 2 (Apr 2022)
A Feasibility Trial for Virtual Administration of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Laura A. Prieto, Benazir Meera, Heather Katz, and Luis Columna
The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 is one of the most popular assessment tools in physical education and physical activity settings. It is a valid assessment originally designed to administer in-person, but the virtual administration of the assessment has yet to be deemed feasible. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the trial feasibility of virtual data collection using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 to assess the fundamental motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. Most specifically, we report on the design and feasibility of the online assessment process. A total of 22 families of children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the online data collection.
A Model of Perfectionism, Moral Disengagement, Altruism, and Antisocial and Prosocial Behaviors in Wheelchair Athletes
Frazer Atkinson, Jeffrey J. Martin, and E. Whitney G. Moore
Two forms of perfectionism were examined in the present study to see whether they predicted prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport through moral disengagement and altruism in a sample of 327 wheelchair basketball and rugby athletes (M = 33.57 years, SD = 10.51; 83% male). Using structural equation modeling, the following significant direct and indirect effects were found. First, perfectionistic strivings positively predicted perceived prosocial behaviors and altruism. Second, perfectionistic concerns negatively predicted altruism and prosocial behaviors and positively predicted moral disengagement. Third, antisocial behaviors were positively predicted by moral disengagement and altruism. Furthermore, perfectionistic concerns indirectly predicted antisocial behaviors positively through moral disengagement and negatively through altruism. Finally, perfectionistic strivings positively predicted antisocial behaviors through altruism. Results provided partial support for the role of perfectionism in predicting prosocial and antisocial behaviors through moral disengagement among athletes with a disability.
“They’re Either Going to Find Ways to Include You or They’re Just Kind of Not”: Experiences of Students With Orthopedic Impairments in Integrated Physical Education
Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele, Xihe Zhu, and Jonna Bobzien
This study explored the experiences of students with orthopedic impairments in integrated physical education (PE) classes. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and six students with orthopedic impairments (age = 10–14 years) served as participants. Data sources were semistructured, audiotaped interviews and reflective interview notes. Based on data analysis, three themes were developed—“Without it, they probably would like, just treat me normal,” visibility, disclosure, and expectations; “I sit out,” limited participation and a lack of modifications/accommodations; and “PE doesn’t feel great,” social interactions and perception of self. The experiences portrayed throughout these themes highlight the marginalization and lack of access that the participants encountered in their integrated PE classes. The findings indicated that PE professionals working with students with orthopedic impairments may benefit from reflecting on personal biases and their instructional practices in an effort to improve the quality of PE experiences for these students.
Three Simulated Goalball Games in the Same Day Cause Central Fatigue and Can Impair Game Technical Performance
Jônatas Augusto Cursiol, Tarine Botta de Arruda, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, and Ricardo Augusto Barbieri
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three simulated goalball games on neuromuscular, physiological, perceptual, and technical parameters. Ten male players underwent assessments before and immediately after each game. Heart rate was recorded at rest and during all games that were entirely filmed for further technical performance analysis. Exercise significantly decreased knee extensor muscles peak force and percentage of voluntary activation after the second and third games, indicating the presence of central fatigue. Heart rate responses remained predominantly in a range equivalent to moderate activity intensity in all games. In addition, perceptual parameters were associated with reduced frequency of throws and density of actions. These findings suggest significant implications for the management of physical training, game strategy during a competition, and fixture change from three to two games per day.