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Examination of Physical Activity, Organized Sport, and Sitting Time Among Women and Mothers From Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

Susan Paudel, Gita D. Mishra, Jenny Veitch, Gregore I. Mielke, and Kylie D. Hesketh

Background: Little evidence is available from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities on the association between motherhood and physical activity (PA). This study aimed to examine independent and joint associations of cultural background and motherhood with meeting PA guidelines, participation in organized sports, and high sitting time (>8 h/d). Methods: We used self-reported cross-sectional data from survey 8 of the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. PA was measured using the Active Australia Survey while organized sport and sitting time were measured using single items. CALD was defined as being born in a non-English speaking country or primarily speaking a non-English language at home. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to examine independent and joint associations. Results: Data from 5967 women (mean age 42.4 [SD 1.5] y, 6.9% CALD, 81.2% mothers) were analyzed. Women of CALD background had lower odds of meeting PA guidelines (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.80; 0.64–0.98) and participation in organized sports (0.68; 0.54–0.86), but no statistically significant association with sitting time (0.90; 0.72–1.14). Mothers had lower odds of meeting PA guidelines (0.75; 0.64–0.87) and high sitting time (0.42; 0.36–0.49). Compared with non-CALD women without children, mothers (irrespective of cultural background) were less likely to meet PA guidelines and have high sitting time. The association of “cultural background and motherhood” with organized sports participation was only significant for CALD mothers. Conclusions: Increased efforts and investments are needed to ensure that sports and other PA promotion interventions are culturally sensitive and engaging for CALD women and those with children.

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A Systematic Review of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns in an Osteoarthritic Population

Zoe E. Dawson, Alexander J. Beaumont, and Sophie E. Carter

Objective: To explore physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in individuals with lower limb (LL) Osteoarthritis (OA) and the influence of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on these behaviors. Design: Systematic review search: PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception until July 2023. Study criteria: Studies that reported quantifiable device-based or self-reported data for PA and SB variables in adults clinically diagnosed with LL OA were included. Data synthesis: A synthesis of PA and SB levels for those diagnosed with LL OA and the influence age, sex, and BMI have on these behaviors. Results: From the 1930 studies identified through the electronic search process, 48 met the inclusion criteria. PA guidelines were met by 33% of the sample population that measured moderate and moderate to vigorous PA. No studies reported 75 minutes per week or more of vigorous PA. Additionally, 58% of the population reporting SB were sedentary for 8 hours per day or more. Also, increasing age, BMI, and the female sex were identified as negative influences on PA levels. There were numerous methodological inconsistencies in how data were collected and reported, such as various activity monitor cut points for PA and SB bout duration. Conclusion: Adults with LL OA may be at an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases due to low PA and high SB levels. It is important to consider age, sex, and BMI when investigating behavior patterns in those with LL OA.

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Adherence to the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines by Infants and Toddlers and Its Association With Well-Being

Guan Yuan Loh, Terence Buan Kiong Chua, Kok Hian Tan, Benny Kai Guo Loo, Phaik Ling Quah, and Michael Yong Hwa Chia

Background: This study estimated the prevalence of Singapore infants and toddlers who met the new Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood and examined its association with well-being. Methods: A total of 267 parents of children aged between 0 and 2 years completed an online questionnaire that consists of the Singaporean Children Lifestyle Questionnaire and either the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory Infant Scale or the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Well-being of infants was measured through parent responses to PedsQL and that of toddlers was measured through Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Data were benchmarked against age-specific guidelines for physical activity, screen time, and sleep in the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood. Results: A higher percentage of infants (37.3%) than toddlers (20.6%) had met 3 guidelines. In contrast, a lower percentage of infants than toddlers met at least one or did not meet any guidelines (3.8% and 0% for infants vs 22.4% and 1.8% for toddlers, respectively). Infants who met more guidelines had significantly higher parent-reported PedsQL total scale score than infants who met fewer guidelines (P < .05). However, the present study found that the number of guidelines met was not associated to infants’ PedsQL scale score and toddlers’ total difficulty score (P > .05). Conclusion: Adherence to this set of local guidelines should be widely publicized, so parents will have greater awareness and knowledge on cultivating good physical activity, screen time, and sleep habits for their child from a young age.

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The “Matildas Effect”: Will the FIFA Women’s World Cup Generate a Legacy in Australia?

Ding Ding, Katherine Owen, Adrian E. Bauman, Gregore I. Mielke, and Klaus Gebel

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Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Adapted to Include Adults With Physical Disability

Julianne G. Clina, R. Drew Sayer, James E. Friedman, Tsz Kiu Chui, Tapan Mehta, James H. Rimmer, and James O. Hill

Background: People with physical disabilities (PWD) participate in less physical activity than people without physical disabilities (PWoD), which increases the risk for several negative health consequences. Comparing physical activity between PWD and PWoD remains a challenge since no reliable and valid survey exists to measure physical activity in both populations. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was adapted to be inclusive of PWD using a recently developed survey adaption framework; however, the adapted IPAQ has not been assessed for reliability and validity. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the adapted IPAQ. Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, the adapted IPAQ was completed twice within a 72-hour period by 172 individuals (PWD: n = 102, PWoD: n = 70) and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Using Spearman rho, convergent validity and construct validity were assessed in 62 individuals by comparing the adapted IPAQ against the original instrument and activity monitor measured step count, respectively. Results: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of total scores for the total sample of .690 (95% confidence interval [CI] .581–.770) and among subgroup analysis (PWD, .640, 95% CI, .457–.761; PWoD, .758, 95% CI, .610–.850). Correlation coefficients were also good for the assessment of convergent validity of total score (.727; 95% CI, .579–.829; P < .001). Construct validity assessment yielded moderate coefficient (.406; 95% CI, .166–.596; P = .001). Conclusions: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity and is appropriate for use in PWD and PWoD.

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Volume 20 (2023): Issue 12 (Dec 2023)

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Effect of a Customized Physical Activity Promotion Program on Visceral Fat and Glycemic Parameters in Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Radhika A. Jadhav, G. Arun Maiya, Shashikiran Umakanth, and K.N. Shivashankara

Background: Physical activity of any amount results in substantial health benefits. However, public awareness of physical activity benefits in chronic diseases is inadequate in India. Prediabetes is a significant health issue on a global scale. Visceral fat (VF) is considered as an early predictor of prediabetes. Ethnicity and race have a substantial impact on VF. Hence, this study intended to evaluate the effect of a customized physical activity promotion program on VF and glycemic parameters in individuals with prediabetes. Methods: In the current, parallel group randomized controlled trial, a total of 158 participants were recruited: 79 in intervention and 79 in control group. The study included the prediabetes individuals based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants from the intervention group received the customized physical activity promotion program for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measures of the study were VF level and glycemic parameters that included fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin. Two-way mixed analysis of variance was used to study the mean difference of an outcome between 2 groups over time. Results: The study found a statistically significant interaction between the intervention and times on VF level, F 1,136 = 23.564, fasting blood sugar levels, F 1,136 = 8.762, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, F 1,136 = 64.582 at the end of 24 weeks (P < .05). Conclusions: This study concluded that a customized physical activity promotion program was effective in reducing VF in individuals with prediabetes as compared with controls. It improved glycemic control by reducing fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin levels.

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Effects of Breaking Up Sedentary Behavior With Short Bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on Glycemia, Concentration, and Well-Being

Alexander Colvin, Lynne Murray, Jillian Noble, and Sebastien Chastin

Background: Investigating the effects of breaking up sedentary behavior with short bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on glycemic control, concentration, and well-being in healthy individuals. Methods: In this randomized balanced incomplete block study, 15 adults (age = 26 [2.50] y, 8 females) completed 2 of 3 protocols: uninterrupted sitting (Control), sitting interrupted with 3 minutes of Yoga every 30 minutes, or with 3 minutes of Tai-Chi every 30 minutes. Protocols lasted 7.5 hours and included a standardized diet. Glucose was measured every 30 minutes with a glucometer (Abbott FreeStyle Libre). Concentration and well-being were recorded with self-reported ecological momentary assessment. Area under the curve was calculated for glucose data. Statistical analyses were performed as a hierarchical repeated-measures model. Results: Glucose area under the curve for the Yoga intervention (34.55 [3.12] mmol/L) was significantly lower than the Control (38.14 [3.18] mmol/L; P < .05). There was a trend toward lower glucose in the Tai-Chi group compared with the Control, but no significant differences were found (AUCTai-Chi = 36.64 [3.11] mmol/L; P = .57). Mean concentration in all groups decreased throughout the day, with the largest decrease in the Control. Well-being for the Yoga and Control groups decreased but increased with Tai-Chi. Concentration and well-being responses were not statistically significant between intervention groups. Conclusions: Breaking up sedentary behavior using 3-minute bouts of Yoga significantly lowers blood glucose in healthy individuals without compromising concentration or well-being. Tai-Chi did not provide the same significant effect on glucose levels but allowed better maintenance of concentration and well-being. These interventions provide effective ways to combat the deleterious effects of prolonged sedentary time while maintaining concentration and well-being.

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Improved Physical Health in Middle-Older Aged Golf Caddies Following 24 Weeks of High-Volume Physical Activity

Graeme G. Sorbie, Ashley K. Williams, Sophie E. Carter, Amy K. Campbell, Jonathan Glen, David Lavallee, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Andrew Murray, and Alexander J. Beaumont

Background: The physical demands of golf caddying, including walking while carrying a golf bag, may potentially affect body composition, and markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal health. Therefore, this study examined the impact of 24 weeks of caddying on physical health in middle-older aged males. Methods: Eleven full-time experienced male caddies (age: 59 [8] y; caddying experience: 14 [12] y) were recruited from a local golf course. The following were assessed at preseason and after 24 weeks of caddying (March–September 2022): body composition, heart rate, blood pressure, blood lipids, and performance tests (static and dynamic balance, strength, and submaximal fitness). Physical activity (PA) levels were assessed at preseason and at the mid-point of the caddying season. Across the caddying season, participants completed a monthly average of 24.0 (3.8) rounds. Results: Following the caddying season, improvements in static balance (Δ = 13.5 s), dynamic balance (Δ = −1.8 s), and lower back absolute strength (Δ = 112.8 N), and muscle quality (Δ = 2.0 N·kg−1) were observed (all P < .05). Additionally, blood lipids, including total cholesterol (Δ = −0.6 mmol·L−1), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Δ = 0.1 mmol·L−1), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Δ = −0.6 mmol·L−1) (all P < .05), and body composition, including body mass (Δ = −2.7 kg), fat mass (Δ = −1.9 kg), fat percentage (Δ = −1.4%), fat-to-muscle ratio (Δ = −0.03), and body mass index (Δ = −0.9 kg·m−2) (all P < .05) improved. Caddying did not offer beneficial changes to cardiovascular variables or cardiorespiratory fitness (P > .05), while coronary heart disease risk score decreased (Δ = −3.3%) (P < .05). In relation to PA, light- (Δ = 145 min) and moderate-intensity (Δ = 71 min) PA, moderate to vigorous PA (Δ = 73 min), and total PA (Δ = 218 min) between preseason and the mid-point of the caddying season increased, while sedentary time (Δ = −172 min) decreased (all P < .05). Conclusion: Golf caddying can provide several physical health benefits such as improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health, lower back absolute strength, and static and dynamic balance. The physical health improvements that caddying offers is likely contributed to by increased PA volume and intensity through walking on the golf course. Therefore, caddying may represent a feasible model for increasing PA volume and intensity and achieve physical health–related benefits.

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Inequalities in Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Television Viewing According to Age Among a Brazilian Adult Population

Andrea Wendt, Adriana K.F. Machado, Bruna G.C. da Silva, Caroline S. Costa, Luiza I.C. Ricardo, and Shana Ginar da Silva

Background: The present study aims to estimate leisure-time physical activity and television (TV) viewing curves according to age stratified by sex, area of residence, and socioeconomic position. Methods: Using data from the Brazilian National Health Survey, we estimated the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and TV viewing according to continuous age. The estimates were calculated using fractional polynomials and stratified by sex, wealth, skin color, and area of residence. Results: The sample included 87,376 adults (aged 18 y or over). In general, leisure-time physical activity decreased according to age while TV viewing increased. Regarding behavior of curves according to stratifiers, for leisure-time physical activity the disadvantaged groups maintained a pattern of low physical activity across all age groups or presented the decrease earlier when compared to groups in social advantage. On the other hand, for TV viewing, women presented an increase in prevalence before men, and individuals living in the urban area and the wealthiest group were those with a higher increase according to age. Conclusions: Our findings may help researchers and policymakers further explore inequalities in physical activity across life in different settings, as well as develop sensitive cultural actions to support more vulnerable people to adopt public health recommendations.