For this research, we analyzed the immediate effects of warm-up condition (WC) or without warm-up condition (WWC) on amateur referees’ physical and cognitive functioning. Eight professional soccer referees from the Balearic Committee of Football Referees were the participants of this study. Body composition characteristics were measured and the scores on three tests were recorded: the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery, repeated-sprint ability, and psychomotor vigilance task. Regarding results, the psychomotor vigilance task was performed better after warm-up training (p = .002, η2 = .79) with faster reaction times following WC (M = 318.2, SD = 27.1 ms) than WWC (M = 334.9, SD = 26.1). Similarly, the referees’ performance was better on the repeated-sprint ability test after WC (p = .002, d = 0.53) than WWC, with minimum and average power values higher after WC (M = 626.77, SD = 112.57) than WWC (M = 562.35, SD = 79.63). We conclude that re-warm-up training may mitigate the vigilance performance changes caused by effects of rest on soccer referees.
Effects of Warm-Up Training on Psychomotor Vigilance and Repeated-Sprint Ability of Professional Soccer Referees: A Pilot Study
Mateu Busquets-Ferrer, Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Filipe Manuel Clemente, and Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez
Postural Sway and Muscle Activity Dynamics of Upright Standing on Sloped Surfaces
Jacey Baldridge and Adam C. King
During upright standing, individuals often use co-contraction muscle activity at the ankle joint when encountering increased postural difficulty; however, this strategy has been shown to be maladaptive. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of sloped standing on postural sway and muscle co-contraction at the ankle joint as a function of postural difficulty. Twelve young (21.67 ± 1.11 years) adults performed upright standing on flat, declined, and inclined support surfaces. Center of pressure displacements indexed postural sway while electromyography data were collected for the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. A co-contraction index and a nonlinear coupling metric (cross-approximate entropy) were computed between ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscles (tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius medialis) activity. The results showed that higher degrees of postural difficulty led to increased amounts of sway as well as increased sway regularity. Lower co-contraction index was observed for higher degrees of postural difficulty; however, increased dynamic coupling occurred with deviations from the flat standing condition. Overall, increased postural difficulty as manipulated by sloped standing (in either inclined or declined conditions) resulted in individuals adopting a more regular sway trajectory that may be due, in part, to a stronger dynamic coupling strategy occurring at the neuromuscular level.
Using Monte Carlo Simulation to Propagate Processing Parameter Uncertainty to the Statistical Analyses of Biomechanical Trajectories
Todd C. Pataky
Biomechanical trajectories are often routed through a chain of processing steps prior to statistical analysis. As changes in processing parameter values can affect these trajectories, care is required when choosing data processing specifics. The purpose of this Research Note was to demonstrate a simple way to propagate data processing parameter uncertainty to statistical inferences regarding biomechanical trajectories. As an example application, the correlation between foot contact duration and vertical ground reaction force during constant-speed treadmill walking was considered. Uncertainty was modeled using plausible-range uniform distributions in three data processing steps, and Monte Carlo simulation was used to construct probabilistic representations of both individual vertical ground reaction force measurements and the ultimate statistical results. Whereas an initial, plausible set of parameter values yielded a significant correlation between contact duration and late-stance vertical ground reaction force, Monte Carlo simulations revealed strong sensitivity, with “significance” being reached in fewer than 40% of simulations, with relatively little net effect of parameter uncertainty magnitude. These results indicate that propagating processing parameter uncertainty to statistical results promotes a cautious, nuanced, and robust view of observed effects. By extension, Monte Carlo simulations may yield greater interpretive consistency across studies involving data processing uncertainties.
Motor Control: A Conceptual Framework for Rehabilitation
Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli
There is a lack of conceptual and theoretical clarity among clinicians and researchers regarding the control of motor actions based on the use of the term “motor control.” It is important to differentiate control processes from observations of motor output to improve communication and to make progress in understanding motor disorders and their remediation. This article clarifies terminology related to theoretical concepts underlying the control of motor actions, emphasizing how the term “motor control” is applied in neurorehabilitation. Two major opposing theoretical frameworks are described (i.e., direct and indirect), and their strengths and pitfalls are discussed. Then, based on the proposition that sensorimotor rehabilitation should be predicated on one comprehensive theory instead of an eclectic mix of theories and models, several solutions are offered about how to address controversies in motor learning, optimality, and adaptability of movement.
Volume 26 (2022): Issue 3 (Jul 2022)
Kinematic and Electromyography Responses to Increasing Proprioception Demand and a Lack of Visual Feedback in Healthy, Middle-Aged Women Tested on an Unstable Platform
Ewa Szczerbik, Malgorzata Kalinowska, and Malgorzata Syczewska
The purpose of the study was to investigate which changes in kinematics and muscle activity in healthy, middle-aged women are introduced to maintain balance on an unstable platform. Biodex Balance System tests were used in stable and unstable modes (sudden with eyes open/closed and gradual with eyes open). Simultaneously, lower-extremity kinematics and surface electromyography of back and legs muscles were captured. The dependence between balance scores, movement ranges, and root mean square of electromyography was assessed with multiple regression to evaluate the strategy used. The results showed multisegmental movements in sudden instability, and activity of at least one of the following muscles: gluteus maximus, erector spinae, and soleus in all conditions. Best balance scores were achieved when movements appeared in pelvis in transverse, and hip in frontal planes, worst when in pelvis in frontal, hip, and ankle in sagittal planes, and when mentioned muscles were activated. Further research is needed to identify the determinants of strategy choice.
Addition of a Cognitive Task During Walking Alters Lower Body Muscle Activity
Jordyn Vienneau, Sandro Nigg, and Benno M. Nigg
This study compared electromyography of five leg muscles during a single walking task (WALK) to a dual task (walking + cognitive task; COG) in 40 individuals (20 M and 20 F) using a wavelet analysis technique. It was hypothesized that muscle activation during the dual task would differ significantly from the walking task with respect to both timing (H1) and frequency (H2). The mean overall intensity for the COG trials was 4.1% lower for the tibialis anterior and 5.5% higher for the gastrocnemius medialis than in the WALK trials. The changes between the WALK and COG trials were short 50 ms bursts that occurred within 100 ms of heel strike in the tibialis anterior, and longer activation periods during the stance phase in the gastrocnemius medialis. No changes in overall intensity were observed in the peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, or soleus. Furthermore, no clear frequency bands within the signal could further characterize the overall changes in muscle activity during the COG task. This advances our understanding of how the division of attentional resources affects muscle activity in a healthy population of adults.
Postural Control Adaptations in Yoga Single-Leg Support Postures: Comparison Between Practitioners and Nonpractitioners
Dafne Pires Pinto, Pedro Vieira Sarmet Moreira, and Luciano Luporini Menegaldo
This paper investigates whether a group of regular Yoga practitioners shows postural control differences compared with healthy controls while performing single-leg Yoga postures. Ten Yoga practitioners were compared with a control group of 10 nonpractitioners performing two single-leg support Yoga postures: Vrksasana (tree posture) and Natarajasana (dancer posture). Rambling and trembling decomposition of the center of pressure trajectories was implemented using a genetic algorithm spectral optimization that avoids using horizontal forces and was validated with bipedal posture data. Additionally, the center of mass was estimated from body kinematics using OpenSim and compared with the rambling outputs. During Natarajasana, no postural control adaptations were observed. For Vrksasana, the Yoga practitioners showed a lower center of pressure ellipse confidence interval area, center of pressure anteroposterior SD, and smaller rambling SD in the mediolateral direction, suggesting possible supraspinal feed-forward motor adaptations associated with Yoga training.
Prefrontal Cortex Brain Activation During Texting and Walking: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Feasibility Study
Tal Krasovsky, Rawda Madi, Eyal Fruchter, Elias Jahjah, and Roee Holtzer
Texting while walking is an increasingly common, potentially dangerous task but its functional brain correlates have yet to be reported. Therefore, we evaluated prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation patterns during single- and dual-task texting and walking in healthy adults. Thirteen participants (29–49 years) walked under single- and dual-task conditions involving mobile phone texting or a serial-7s subtraction task, while measuring PFC activation (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) and behavioral task performance (inertial sensors, mobile application). Head lowering during texting increased PFC activation. Texting further increased PFC activation, and decreased gait performance similarly to serial-7 subtraction. Our results support the key role of executive control in texting while walking.
Range of Motion Remains Constant as Movement Rate Decreases During a Repetitive High-Speed Knee Flexion–Extension Task
José Pedro Correia, João R. Vaz, Erik Witvrouw, and Sandro R. Freitas
Maintaining the range of motion in repetitive movement tasks is a crucial point since it directly influences the movement rate. Ensuring the movement amplitude can be reliably maintained when motor function is assessed by measuring the maximum movement rate is therefore a key consideration. However, the performed range of motion during such tasks is often not reported. This study aimed to determine whether individuals are able to maintain an intended range of motion during a knee flexion/extension maximum movement rate task in the absence of tactile and visual feedback. Twelve healthy male individuals performed knee flexion/extension at maximum speed for eight 10-s blocks in a 45° arc between 45° and 90°. The range of motion was monitored using a marker system and the movement rate was measured. The performed range of motion was not significantly different from the 45° arc during the task despite a 13.47% decrease in movement rate from the start to the end of the task. Nevertheless, there was only anecdotal evidence of no difference from 45° in most blocks, while on the second and seventh blocks, there was anecdotal evidence of differences in the Bayesian one-sample test. There was also no significant shift in the maximum flexion/extension angles throughout the task. Healthy male individuals were thus able to perform a consistent average predefined knee range of motion in a maximum movement rate task despite decreases in movement rate. This was achieved without constraint-inducing devices during the task, using only basic equipment and verbal feedback.