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Postural Control and Adaptation Strategy of Young Adults on Unstable Surface

Qian Qi Lai, Darwin Gouwanda, and Alpha A. Gopalai

Balance control is essential for postural adjustment in physical activities. This study investigates the behavior of human postural control and the coordination and adaptation strategy of hip, knee, and ankle when standing on an unstable surface. Twenty participants were recruited. Four different conditions were investigated: a quiet bipedal stance with eyes open and eyes closed, and standing on an unstable surface with eyes open and eyes closed. Other than the joint angle, the standard body sway measures, such as sway area and sway velocity, were computed. A nonlinear time series measure, that is, sample entropy, was used to determine the regularity of the time series and body adaptability to change and perturbation. The results show that the body sway increases as the difficulty increases. This study also confirms the coordination of the hip, knee, and ankle to maintain body balance on the unstable surface by decreasing the joint angle and adopting a lower posture. Even though the individual joint has lower sample entropy value and is deemed to be rigid and less adaptive to perturbation, the postural control exhibits higher sample entropy value, particularly in the anterior–posterior direction, and has the ability to stabilize the body by manipulating the joints simultaneously. These outcomes suggest that an unstable surface not only challenges the human postural control, but also reduces the hip, knee, and ankle adaptability to perturbation, thus making it a great tool to train body balance.

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Volume 26 (2022): Issue 4 (Oct 2022)

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Memory-Guided Reaching: Is It Effortful?

Hui-Ting Goh, Jill Campbell Stewart, Kevin Becker, and Cheng-Ju Hung

We previously showed that perceived effort during visually guided reaching was altered as task demand varied. Further, self-reported subjective fatigue correlated with perceived effort and reach performance under visually guided conditions. Memory-guided reaching often leads to performance deterioration and can provide insights about the planning and control of reach actions. It is unclear how perceived effort changes during memory-guided reaching and whether self-reported subjective fatigue is associated with perceived effort of memory-guided reaching. Twenty-three young adults performed reach actions under visually- and memory-guided conditions. Perceived effort, reaction time, and endpoint error increased significantly from the visually- to the memory-guided condition. Self-reported subjective fatigue was associated with perceived effort and reach distance error during memory-guided reaching; those with higher levels of fatigue reported greater perceived effort and tended to reach farther when visual information was not available. These findings establish a foundation to examine relationships between subjective fatigue, perceived effort, and reach control.

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Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis of the Effects of Different Fatigue Locations on Kinematic Coordination During a Repetitive Upper-Limb Task

Matthew Slopecki, Fariba Hasanbarani, Chen Yang, Christopher A. Bailey, and Julie N. Côté

Fatigue at individual joints is known to affect interjoint coordination during repetitive multijoint tasks. However, how these coordination adjustments affect overall task stability is unknown. Twelve participants completed a repetitive pointing task at rest and after fatigue of the shoulder, elbow, and trunk. Upper-limb and trunk kinematics were collected. Uncontrolled manifold framework was applied to a kinematic model to link elemental variables to endpoint fingertip position. Mixed and one-way analysis of variances determined effects (phase and fatigue location) on variance components and synergy index, respectively. The shoulder fatigue condition had the greatest impact in causing increases in variance components and a decreased synergy index in the late phase of movement, suggesting more destabilization of the interjoint task caused by shoulder fatigue.

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Functional Performance, Leg Muscle Strength, and Core Muscle Endurance in Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Mild Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study

Cagla Ozkul, Kader Eldemir, Sefa Eldemir, Muhammed Seref Yildirim, Fettah Saygili, Arzu Guclu-Gunduz, and Ceyla Irkec

This study aimed to investigate the relationship of sit-to-stand and walking performance with leg muscle strength and core muscle endurance in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) with mild disabilities. In this study, 49 PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score = 1.59 ± 0.79) and 26 healthy controls were enrolled. The functional performances, including sit-to-stand and walking performances, were evaluated with the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, timed up and go test, and 6-min walking test. The PwMS finished significantly slower five-repetition sit-to-stand, timed up and go, and 6-min walking test than the healthy controls. In addition, the significant contributors were the weakest trunk lateral flexor endurance for five-repetition sit-to-stand; the Expanded Disability Status Scale score, and the weakest hip adductor muscle for timed up and go; the weakest hip extensor muscles strength for 6-min walking test. The functional performances in PwMS, even with mild disabilities, were lower compared with healthy controls. Decreases in both leg muscle strength and core muscle endurance are associated with lower functional performance in PwMS.

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Between a Walk and a Hard Place: How Stepping Patterns Change While Navigating Environmental Obstacles

Ashwini Kulkarni, Chuyi Cui, Shirley Rietdyk, and Satyajit Ambike

Maintaining a consistent relationship between each footfall and the body’s motion is a key mechanism to maintain balance while walking. However, environmental features, for example, puddles/obstacles, impose additional constraints on foot placement. This study investigated how healthy young individuals alter foot placements to simultaneously manage body-centric and environmental constraints during an obstacle-crossing task. Consistent step length promotes balance for all steps, whereas accurate foot placement around the obstacle is essential to avoid a trip. While crossing an obstacle, any error in positioning one foot relative to the obstacle can be compensated by selecting the placement of the subsequent step. However, compensation will necessarily alter step length from its average value. The interstep covariance index computed from two consecutive foot placements was used to quantify this tradeoff between body-centric and environmental constraints for six consecutive steps while approaching, crossing, and resuming unobstructed gait after crossing the obstacle. The index declined only when either one or both feet were adjacent to the obstacle. The decline was driven in part by a tendency toward higher step length variability. Thus, changes in the stepping patterns to address the environmental constraint occurred at the cost of the body-centric constraint. However, the step length never ceased to be controlled; the interstep covariance index was positive for all steps. Overall, participants adapted foot placement control to account for the larger threat to balance. The environmental constraint was prioritized only when a potential trip posed greater threat to balance compared with the threat posed by variable step length.

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The Dawn of the Study of Motor Timing: Wilhelm Camerer (1866) and Karl von Vierordt (1868) on the Time Course of Voluntary Movements

John H. Wearden

This article discusses material from the doctoral thesis of Wilhlem Camerer, which was devoted to the topic of the timing of voluntary movements, and appeared in 1866, thus being one of the earliest studies of any aspect of time perception. It was conducted under the supervision of Karl von Vierordt, at the University of Tübingen in Germany. The data reported come from Camerer’s attempts to make a movement over a distance of about 65 mm, either by flexion or extension of his arm, with the behavior recorded via a kymograph, and measured from its trace. Most of his data come from his attempts to make movements at a constant speed, with the speed varying from one trial to another from 5 to 60 mm/s, but he also conducted a study where the movement was intended to be accelerated or decelerated during the trial. In general, when extension movements were intended to be performed with constant speed, a gradual increase in movement speed usually occurred throughout the movement duration. For flexions the opposite occurred, albeit less clearly. Camerer linked the apparent distortions of speed to Vierordt’s experiments on the perception of time and his thesis contains what is probably the first mention of Vierordt’s Law, the proposition that short times are judged as longer, and long times as shorter, than they really are.

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Effect of Exercise Intensity on Psychomotor Vigilance During an Incremental Endurance Exercise in Under-19 Soccer Players

Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Parraga-Montilla, Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez, and Filipe Manuel Clemente

The aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of an incremental resistance test on psychomotor vigilance in 16 soccer players under-19 years old (age 16.42 ± 0.85 years). Borg 15-point subjective perception of effort scale, the psychomotor vigilance task test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were used. Four evaluation sessions were conducted with different intensities of efforts (30%–40%, 60%–75%, 80%–90%, and 100%) on different days (counterbalanced order). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed in the reaction time of the psychomotor vigilance task. The results showed that participants responded faster during efforts between 80% and 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (501.20 ± 70.77 ms). From that threshold, the players decreased their performance through a longer reaction time (601.23 ± 85.05 ms; p value < .001). The main findings were that the reaction time performance was worse at the lowest and highest effort conditions (5 and 17 km/hr, respectively). This fact helps to focus on the importance of designing and proposing training tasks with medium–high efforts to provoke optimal reaction times in young soccer players.

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Response Time Modulates the Relationship Between Implicit Learning and Motor Ability in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Study

Jin Bo, Bo Shen, Liangsan Dong, YanLi Pang, Yu Xing, Mingting Zhang, Yuan Xiang, Patricia C. Lasutschinkow, and Dan Li

Difficulty with implicit learning plays an important role in the symptomology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, findings in motor learning are inconsistent. This study evaluated implicit sequence learning and its relationship with motor ability in children with and without ASD. We adopted a classic serial reaction time task with a retention task and three awareness tests. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was administered to assess children’s motor ability. Significant learning differences between children with and without ASD were only found in retention but not immediately after the serial reaction time task. These findings suggest that the impaired implicit learning in ASD is characterized as impaired consolidation where the relatively permanent changes are missing. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed a significant relationship between implicit learning and motor ability for individuals with faster response time. We argue the importance of response speed for optimal learning and should be weighted more for future intervention in children with ASD.

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Cognitive-Motor Interference and Cortical Activation While Walking in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis

Michael VanNostrand, Brittany Belanger, Gabriel Purin, Susan L. Kasser, and Michael Cannizzaro

The present study expands on current understanding of dual-task cognitive-motor interference, by including cortical activation measures to both traditional and ecologically valid dual-task paradigms. Fifteen individuals with multiple sclerosis and 14 control participants underwent mobility testing while wearing functional near-infrared spectroscopy. In the absence of increased prefrontal cortical activation, subjects with multiple sclerosis performed significantly worse on measures of cognition under both single- and dual-task conditions. These findings suggest that persons with multiple sclerosis may be unable to allocate additional cortical resources to cognition under dual-task conditions, leading to significant cognitive-motor interference and decrements in performance. This study is the first to investigate cortical activation across several commonly used and ecologically valid dual-task assessments.