The rate of alcohol consumption among student-athletes places them at risk for engaging in unsafe behaviors. Although coaches play a key role in regulating alcohol use among athletes, many lack the knowledge and self-confidence to be effective. This study aimed to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy among National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches and attempted to identify types of training and education wanted to better manage student-athlete alcohol use. A total of 518 National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches completed alcohol consumption literacy and alcohol confrontation efficacy measures and two open-ended questions about what kind of alcohol training, information, and skills were needed. When accounting for previous education/training and gender of team coached, alcohol consumption literacy predicted all confrontation efficacy subscales. Content analysis showed coaches wanted training related to alcohol literacy, effective communication, and prevention planning. Findings have implications for designing alcohol prevention and intervention programs aimed at National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches.
Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard, and Todd A. Gilson
Brenda Carolina Nájera Chávez, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Roland Burghardt, and Pablo Hernáiz Driever
Drawing and handwriting are fine motor skills acquired during childhood. We analyzed the development of laterality by comparing the performance of the dominant with the nondominant hand and the effect of bimanual interference in kinematic hand movement parameters (speed, automation, variability, and pressure). Healthy subjects (n = 187, 6–18 years) performed drawing tasks with both hands on a digitizing tablet followed by performance in the presence of an interfering task of the nondominant hand. Age correlated positively with speed, automation, and pressure, and negatively with variability for both hands. As task complexity increased, differences between both hands were less pronounced. Playing an instrument had a positive effect on the nondominant hand. Speed and automation showed a strong association with lateralization. Bimanual interference was associated with an increase of speed and variability. Maturation of hand laterality and the extent of bimanual interference in fine motor tasks are age-dependent processes.
Jessica Murphy, Christopher Gladney, and Philip Sullivan
Student athletes balance academic, social, and athletic demands, often leading to increased levels of stress and poor sleep. This study explores the relationship between sleep quality, sleep hygiene, and psychological distress in a sample of student athletes. Ninety-four student athletes completed the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, and four components from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Age, gender, and sport were also collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index revealed that 44.7% of student athletes received ≥6.5 hr of sleep each night; 31% of athletes showed signs of severe mental illness according to the K6. Stepwise regression predicted K6 scores with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale scores as independent variables. A significant model accounting for 26% of the variation in K6 scores emerged; sleep schedule and sleep disturbances were significant predictors. Athletic staff should highlight the importance of sleep for mental health; suggestions on how to help athletes are provided.
Daniel J. Madigan, Henrik Gustafsson, Andrew P. Hill, Kathleen T. Mellano, Christine E. Pacewicz, Thomas D. Raedeke, and Alan L. Smith
The present editorial provides a series of perspectives on the future of burnout in sport. Specifically, for the first time, seven burnout researchers have offered their opinions and suggestions for how, as a field, we can progress our understanding of this important topic. A broad range of ideas are discussed, including the relevance of the social context, the value of theory and collaboration, and the use of public health frameworks in future work. It is hoped that these perspectives will help stimulate debate, reinforce and renew priorities, and guide research in this area over the coming years.
Carlie K. Elmer and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod
Focused Clinical Question: Does cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduce concussion symptoms among children and adolescents following mild traumatic brain injury? Clinical Bottom Line: Based on the results of this critically appraised topic, there is moderate evidence to support the use of CBT as a treatment intervention to reduce complaints of persistent concussion symptoms in children and adolescents.
Danielle Peers, Lindsay Eales, Kelvin Jones, Aidan Toth, Hernish Acharya, and Janice Richman–Eisenstat
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and meaningfulness of a 15-week recreational dance and singing program for people with neuromuscular conditions. Within a transformative mixed-methods design, pulmonary function tests, plethysmography through wearable technology (Hexoskin vests), individualized neuromuscular quality-of-life assessments (version 2.0), and semistructured interviews were used. The interviews were analyzed through inductive, semantic thematic analysis. Although the sample sizes were small (six people with neuromuscular conditions), the authors found no evidence of safety concerns. There was evidence of respiratory improvements and reported improvements in swallowing and speech. The most notable quality-of-life changes included improvements related to weakness, swallowing, relationships, and leisure. The participants shared that the program offered meaningful social connection and embodied skills and safe and pleasurable physical exertion. The authors learned that recreational singing and dancing programs could be a safe and deeply meaningful activity for those with neuromuscular conditions that impact respiration.
Rachel R. Kleis, Matthew C. Hoch, Deirdre Dlugonski, and Johanna M. Hoch
Patients with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) report decreased levels of physical activity participation, which can result in a significant public health burden. Psychosocial factors, such as fear of reinjury and decreased self-efficacy, negatively impact physical activity levels in this population. However, factors such as attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, motivation, self-efficacy, and social support are known to positively influence physical activity participation. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) incorporate such constructs and have been utilized to predict and improve physical activity behaviors in a variety of populations. Emerging evidence has applied the TPB and SDT to rehabilitation adherence in populations with musculoskeletal injury and post-ACLR. However, we believe a combination of the TPB and SDT will provide a framework for increasing physical activity engagement for people with a history of ACLR. The purpose of this review is to present an integrated theoretical model that combines the TPB and SDT with the aim of increasing physical activity after ACLR. Recommendations for future research and clinical practice based on the proposed model are also discussed.
Rachel K. Straub, Alex Horgan, and Christopher M. Powers
Given that increased use of the knee extensors relative to the hip extensors may contribute to various knee injuries, there is a need for a practical method to characterize movement behavior indicative of how individuals utilize the hip and knee extensors during dynamic tasks. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the difference between sagittal plane trunk and tibia orientations obtained from 2D video (2D trunk–tibia) could be used to predict the average hip/knee extensor moment ratio during athletic movements. Thirty-nine healthy athletes (15 males and 24 females) performed 6 tasks (step down, drop jump, lateral shuffle, deceleration, triple hop, and side-step-cut). Lower-extremity kinetics (3D) and sagittal plane video (2D) were collected simultaneously. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine if the 2D trunk–tibia angle at peak knee flexion predicted the average hip/knee extensor moment ratio during the deceleration phase of each task. For each task, an increase in the 2D trunk–tibia angle predicted an increase in the average hip/knee extensor moment ratio when adjusted for body mass (all P < .013, R 2 = .17–.77). The 2D trunk–tibia angle represents a practical method to characterize movement behavior that is indicative of how individuals utilize the hip and knee extensors during dynamic tasks.