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Shireen W. Eid, Rhonda F. Brown, Carl L. Birmingham, and Shane K. Maloney

Background: Several behaviors have been reported to interfere with sleep in otherwise healthy adults, including low physical activity (PA) levels. However, few studies have compared low PA with the other behavioral risk factors of objective sleep impairment, despite the behavior tending to cooccur in highly stressed and affectively distressed individuals. Thus, the authors compared objective and subjective measures of PA and other potential sleep disrupting behaviors as predictors of objective sleep (sleep onset latency, actual sleep time, total sleep duration, awake time, and sleep efficacy) at baseline (T1) and 3 months later (T2). Methods: A community-derived sample of 161 people aged 18–65 years were asked about PA, other behavior (ie, night eating, electronic device use, watching television, caffeine and alcohol use), stress, affective distress (ie, anxiety, depression), and demographics including shift work and parenting young children in an online questionnaire at T1 and T2. PA and sleep were also monitored for 24 hours each at T1 and T2 using actigraphy. Results: Multiple regression analyses indicated that sleep at T1 was associated with PA (ie, total number of steps, metabolic equivalents/time, time spent travelling) after controlling mean ambient temperature and relevant demographics. At T2, longer sleep onset latency was predicted by parenting young children and night time television viewing; shorter sleep duration was predicted by female gender; and awake time and sleep efficacy were predicted by alcohol intake after controlling T1 sleep measures, demographics, and mean ambient temperature. Conclusion: The risk factors for objective sleep impairment included parenting young children and watching television at night, whereas better sleep outcomes were associated with greater engagement with PA.

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Nathan Hill, Sonia Fihosy, and Paul M. Camic

There is a paucity of evidence regarding the effects of sport and physical activity on wellbeing in dementia. The present study is the first known study to involve golf with this population. People with dementia (n = 10) and carers (n = 5) participated in a 6-week golf program, facilitated by golf center staff (n = 3). Multiple avenues of data collection were utilized and were subject to thematic analysis. Five central themes were identified: emotion, respite, losing the “dementia” label, friendship/camaraderie, and improving relationships. Underlying subthemes were also identified, while potential links between themes were highlighted. Themes were also considered in terms of which participants (person with dementia, carer, and staff) provided evidence for each theme. This study presents preliminary support for the role of golf to enhance the psychological and social wellbeing of people with early stages of dementia, carers, and staff. Potential mechanisms and future research are discussed.

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Jingjing Xue, Shuo Li, Rou Wen, and Ping Hong

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the published prediction equations for determining level overground walking energy cost in young adults. Methods: In total, 148 healthy young adults volunteered to participate in this study. Resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure variables at speeds of 4, 5, and 6 km/h were measured by indirect calorimetry, walking energy expenditure was estimated by 3 published equations. Results: The gross and net metabolic rate per mile of level overground walking increased with increased speed (all P < .01). Females were less economical than males. The present findings revealed that the American College of Sports Medicine and Pandolf et al equations significantly underestimated the energy cost of overground walking at all speeds (all P < .01) in young adults. The percentage mean bias for American College of Sports Medicine, Pandolf et al, and Weyand et al was 12.4%, 16.8%, 1.4% (4 km/h); 21.6%, 15.8%, 7.1% (5 km/h); and 27.6%, 12%, 6.6% (6 km/h). Bland–Altman plots and prediction error analysis showed that the Weyand et al was the most accurate in 3 existing equations. Conclusions: The Weyand et al equation appears to be the most suitable for the prediction of overground walking energy expenditure in young adults.

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Jessica Murphy, Karen A. Patte, Philip Sullivan, and Scott T. Leatherdale

The mental health benefits of physical activity may relate more to the context of the behavior, rather than the behavior of being active itself. The association between varsity sport (VS) participation, depression, and anxiety symptoms was explored using data from 70,449 high school students from the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behavior study. The model adjusted for potential covariates; interactions by sex and participation in outside of school sport (OSS) were explored. Overall, 70% and 24% of respondents met or exceeded cutoff values for depression and anxiety, respectively. Students participating in VS had lower symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with nonparticipants. Results were consistent regardless of OSS participation; associations were strongest among students who participated in both VS and OSS and males. Participation in VS may prove beneficial for the prevention and/or management of depression or anxiety symptoms, particularly among males. An additive beneficial effect of OSS on depression and anxiety scores may exist.

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Hugo Parent-Roberge, Thomas A. Deshayes, Catherine Fortier, Karine Marquis, Christiane Lacharité-Lemieux, Chantale Rodrigue, Isabelle J. Dionne, Mohsen Agharazii, Mélanie Godin, and Eléonor Riesco

Intradialytic exercise is feasible and yields substantial clinical benefits in middle-aged patients. However, evidence is scarce in older hemodialysis patients. Objective: To assess the feasibility and clinical benefits of supervised, intradialytic exercise in older patients. Methods: Multicenter one-arm feasibility study. The main outcome was feasibility (ease of recruitment, dropout rate, adherence, affective valence, and adverse events). The secondary outcomes were physical capacity (five-repetition sit-to-stand, 60-s sit-to-stand tests, and grip strength), quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and dialysis efficacy (Kt/V and urea reduction ratio). Results: About 79% of the screened patients agreed to participate (n = 25, 73 [66–77] years). The dropout rate was high (32%), but adherence remained high among the participants who completed the study (94%). Improvements were found in the five-repetition sit-to-stand (p < .001), 60-s sit-to-stand tests (p = .028), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey mental component score (p = .008), depressive symptoms (p = .006), and quality of sleep (p = .035). Conclusion: Supervised intradialytic exercise seems safe and beneficial in older patients.

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Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Rodrigo Flores Sartori, Maike Tietjens, and Nadia Cristina Valentini

This study aimed to translate the Pictorial Scale of Physical Self-Concept for Brazilian Children (PSPPS-BR) into the Brazilian-Portuguese language, conduct a transcultural adaptation of it, and investigate its validity. Method: The authors adopted the reverse translation procedures to obtain the PSPPS-BR’s Brazilian-Portuguese version. Three motor behavior experts assessed the scale items’ clarity and pertinence. Ten professionals participated in the face validity study. Children (N = 300; 150 girls and 150 boys; 8–10 years old; Mage = 9.0, SD = 0.81) were randomly selected from six schools in Brazil and assessed using the PSPPS-BR, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The children (N = 100) were reassessed for test–retest reliability. Results: High clarity and pertinence agreement among experts (content validity coefficient from 98.4% to 100%; Gwet’s agreement coefficient from .85 to 1.00, p < .001) and among professionals (content validity coefficient clarity: 83–100%, relevance: 90–100%) were obtained. The confirmatory factorial analysis showed adequate model fits (root mean square error of approximation = .067; comparative fit index = .968; Tukey–Lewis index = .949). Polychoric correlations showed an adequate internal consistency for total scale (α = .78) and items (alpha from .73 to .78). The intraclass coefficient correlation shown strong test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .95). Conclusion: The PSPPS-BR showed adequate validity and reliability for Brazilian children.

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Andressa Crystine da Silva Sobrinho, Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Karine Pereira Rodrigues, Camila de Paula Monteiro, and Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior

The relationship between the quality of movement, considering different global and universal basic patterns of movement and cognition domains in older adults remain unclear. The current study explored this association in physically inactive older women. In total, 187 participants, aged 60–70 years (mean = 64.9, SD = 6.9 years), were recruited from a physical education program in a public university. The older adults performed the following tests: Functional Movement Screen, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Modified Baecke Questionnaire for the Older Adults. The regression analysis showed an association between age (β = −0.11, 95% confidence interval, CI, [−0.10, 0.30], p = .03); visuospatial abilities (β = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 1.23], p < .001); language (β = 0.23, 95% CI [0.20, 1.08], p < .001); and orientation domains (β = 0.13, 95% CI [0.11, 1.22], p = .016) of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Functional Movement Screen. The quality of movement was related to both age and cognitive performance, such as the visuospatial abilities, language, and orientation domains, in physically inactive older women.

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Mu Qiao

The development of performance, such as learning a new motor skill, can be represented in a performance curve. The shape of the performance curve is both of theoretical and practical relevance. Here, the author studied the interday performance of juggling over a period of 17 days in 112 college students. The results showed that 60% of participants followed an S-shaped performance curve with the inflection date on the 11th day, followed by a decelerated (20%), accelerated (14%), and linear curve (6%). As expected, except on Day 1, male participants performed at least 33% better than female participants on each practice day. Also as expected, learning performance was found to depend on the type of performance curve with the best learning performance exhibited by the linear group. The results further revealed that pooling all participants’ performance together without considering the percentage of each underlying type of performance curve would lead to biased, nonrepresentative results. Given the variety of the observed performance curves and the dominance of the S-shaped performance curve among them, coaches should continuously monitor the shape of an individual’s performance curve.

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Wesley O’Brien, Tara Coppinger, Irene Hogan, Sarahjane Belton, Marie H. Murphy, Cormac Powell, and Catherine Woods

Background: The current study was the largest physical activity (PA) surveillance assessment of youth undertaken in Ireland in recent years. The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of social support, while controlling for age and screen time, on PA and sport participation, across a representative sample of Irish female youth. Methods: A total of 3503 children (mean age: 13.54 [2.05] y) across the island of Ireland participated. Participants completed a previously validated electronic questionnaire while supervised in a classroom setting, which investigated their (1) levels of PA; (2) screen time; (3) community sport participation; and (4) social support (friend, family, and teacher) to be physically active/partake in sport. Results: There were significant differences, with medium and large effect sizes, for social support from friends and family across types of sports participation. Specifically, girls who participated in the most popular team sports, when compared with the most popular individual sports, reported higher social support scores for friends and family structures. Conclusions: Findings from this study confirm the contributing influence of friends and family as sport and PA support networks for girls. Interventions should consider the importance of culturally relevant team sports for PA engagement in female youth.

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Brianne A. Bruijns, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Brian W. Timmons, and Patricia Tucker

Background: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) offers many health benefits for preschoolers (2.5–5 y). In childcare, MVPA is predominantly accumulated outdoors, with higher rates purported among children within the first few minutes outside. The Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment intervention included shorter, more frequent outdoor play sessions; this study sought to explore children’s activity levels during various outdoor play schedules. Methods: During the final week of the Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment intervention, preschoolers wore an Actical accelerometer for 5 days during childcare and staff logged outdoor times. Separate linear mixed effects models were run to explore the effect of the intervention on preschoolers’ physical activity (total and MVPA) and sedentary time during outdoor play. Sex was entered as an interaction effect. Results: Preschoolers (n = 292) were significantly more active in the first 10 minutes outdoors compared with remaining time (P < .0083). For total outdoor time, children in the experimental group engaged in significantly less sedentary time than those in the control group (P < .017), and experimental group boys and girls engaged in higher MVPA than boys and girls in the control group (P < .017). Conclusions: Findings support scheduling more frequent outdoor play sessions in childcare to increase physical activity participation among young children.