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Azianah Mohamad Ibrahim, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Sumaiyah Mat, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, and Suzana Shahar

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of physical inactivity and identify the predictors for low physical activity among community-dwelling older persons living in Malaysia in 3 years follow-up. In this prospective study, physical activity levels were measured using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. The arbitrary cutoff for Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly in this study was ≤70.9 for low and >141 for high physical activity levels. Out of the 955 physically active participants at baseline, 555 of them (mean [SD] age 68.82 [4.92] years) were successfully followed up to 3 years. Cumulative incidence of being physically inactive was 21% with rate of 7 per 100 person-years. It was found that being older (<.001), from Malay ethnic group (<.05), smokers (<.01), having lower gait speed (<.001), and lower cognitive status (<.05) were predictors for physical inactivity among Malaysian community-dwelling older persons in 3 years follow-up. These factors should be taken into consideration when planning for intervention and promotion strategies to increase physical activity levels among Malaysian older persons.

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Charles Germain, Alexandra Perrot, Christophe Tomasino, Julien Bonnal, Canan Ozsancak, Pascal Auzou, and Fabrice Prieur

The present study aimed to examine the impact of the level of physical activity on prefrontal cortex activation in older adults during single- and dual-task walking. Thirty physically inactive and 36 active older adults (60–85 years old) performed six 2-min tasks on a treadmill: two static cognitive tasks, two single-task walking tests, and two dual-task walking tests. Hemodynamics at the level of the prefrontal cortex were measured continuously using functional near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate cortical activation. The perceived difficulty of the task, cognitive performance, and gait parameters were also measured. During the walking tasks, the level of prefrontal cortex activation, the perceived difficulty of the task, cognitive performance, and motor parameters were not significantly different between active and inactive older adults. This unchanged activation with physical activity was likely the consequence of a similar motor and cognitive load and cardiorespiratory fitness in both active and inactive older adults.

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Jacqueline Giovanna De Roza, David Wei Liang Ng, Chunyan Wang, Cindy Seok Chin Soh, Ling Jia Goh, Blessy Koottappal Mathew, Teena Jose, Chwee Yan Tan, and Kar Cheng Goh

This descriptive cross-sectional mixed methods study conducted in Singapore aimed to describe community-dwelling older adults’ differences in physical activity (PA) based on perceived safety to exercise, barriers to PA, and preferred modes of PA during a pandemic. Out of 268 older adults, 25.4% felt unsafe to exercise during the pandemic. More participants who felt unsafe were aged 75 years and older (72.1% vs. 57.0%, p = .028) and lacked formal education (54.4% vs. 37.0%, p = .040). Barriers included difficulties exercising with masks, family concerns, and exercise center closures. Those who felt unsafe were significantly more likely to exercise at home and had significantly shorter duration of exercise and walks per week (2.72 vs. 4.50 hr, p = .002). Perceived barriers and exercise preferences should be considered when developing programs to improve older adults’ PA during pandemics.

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Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Jorge A. Banda, K. Farish Haydel, Thomas N. Robinson, and Manisha Desai

Accelerometer data are widely used in research to provide objective measurements of physical activity. Frequently, participants may remove accelerometers during their observation period resulting in missing data referred to as nonwear periods. Common approaches for handling nonwear periods include discarding data (days with insufficient hours or individuals with insufficient valid days) from analyses and single imputation (SI) methods. Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of various discard-, SI-, and multiple imputation (MI)-based approaches on the ability to accurately and precisely characterize the relationship between a summarized measure of accelerometer counts (mean counts per minute) and an outcome (body mass index). Methods: Realistic accelerometer data were simulated under various scenarios that induced nonwear. Data were analyzed using common and MI methods for handling nonwear. Bias, relative standard error, relative mean squared error, and coverage probabilities were compared across methods. Results: MI approaches were superior to commonly applied methods, with bias that ranged from −0.001 to −0.028 that was considerably lower than that of discard-based methods (ranging from −0.050 to −0.057) and SI methods (ranging from −0.061 to −0.081). We also reported substantial variation among MI strategies, with coverage probabilities ranging from .04 to .96. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of applying MI methods over more commonly applied discard- and SI-based approaches. Additionally, we show that how you apply MI matters, where including data from previously observed acceleration measurements in the imputation model when using MI improves model performance.

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Derek Panchuk and Michael Maloney

While widely acknowledged as being important for team-sport performance, the contribution of peripheral vision is poorly understood. This study aimed to better understand the role of far peripheral vision in team sport by exploring how domain experts and novices used far peripheral vision to support decision making and action control. Expert (n = 25) and novice (n = 23) Australian football players completed a perception-only task to assess the extent of their peripheral field. Next, they completed two sport-specific variations (response and recognition) of a “no-look” pass task that required passing a ball to a teammate who appeared in their far peripheral field. In the perception-only task, novices outperformed experts. However, in the sport-specific action response and recognition tasks, experts demonstrated superior performance as they responded to the stimulus farther from central vision and more accurately. Results demonstrate expertise effects for the use of far peripheral vision in sport.

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Minsuk Oh, David R. Jacobs Jr, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Wei Bao, Gary L. Pierce, Lucas J. Carr, James G. Terry, Jingzhong Ding, John J. Carr, and Kara M. Whitaker

Background: Longitudinal association of television (TV) viewing and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) with pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is unclear. Methods: We studied Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study participants transitioning from early to middle age at Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) exam years 15 (2000–2001; N = 1975, mean age = 40.4, 55.4% women, 45.3% Black) and 25 (2010–2011). TV viewing (in hours per day) and MVPA (in exercise units) were measured using a self-report questionnaire. PAT volume (in milliliters) was measured using computed tomography. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations of tertiles of 10-year change (years 25–15) in TV viewing and MVPA with a concurrent change in PAT with adjustments for covariates. Results: Participants in the highest tertile of 10-year increase in TV viewing had a greater increase in PAT (β = 2.96 mL, P < .01). Participants in both middle (β = −3.93 mL, P < .01) and highest (β = −6.22 mL, P < .01) tertiles of 10-year changes in MVPA had smaller mean increases in PAT over 10 years when compared with the lowest tertile in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Reducing or maintaining early-midlife levels of TV viewing and increasing MVPA may be associated with less PAT accumulation with age.

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Jeong Hyun Ahn and Jin Young Nam

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, and social distancing increased, the physical activity (PA) of people decreased, which increased depression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported changes in PA with the COVID-19 pandemic and major depression according to moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) status. Methods: This study included 228,457 adults and used data from the Korea Community Health Survey 2020. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between self-reported changes in PA and major depression stratified by MVPA status. Results: The percentage of participants who reported decreases in PA was 39.5% in men and 44.7% in women compared with the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period. Those who reported decreases in PA after the onset of COVID-19 had major depression (men odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–1.43 and women odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.25–1.46). Women who were moderately or vigorously physically active had higher odds of major depression when they reported decreases in PA (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.62). Conclusions: People who reported decreases in PA were associated with major depression compared with the pre-COVID-19 pandemic period. Based on this, the government should encourage exercise to reduce major depression and provide guidelines for PA at home or outdoors.

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Mariana Wingood, Salene Jones, Nancy M. Gell, Jennifer S. Brach, and Denise M. Peters

Background: The Inventory of Physical Activity Barriers (IPAB) assesses physical activity participation barriers. Development, refinement, and psychometric evaluation of the IPAB occurred via an electronic format. However, various circumstances may require using a pen-and-paper format. As instrument formats are not always interchangeable, the authors aimed to establish whether 2 different formats (electronic and pen and paper) can be used interchangeably for the IPAB. Methods: This randomized crossover study included 66 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older (mean age = 73 [SD = 7.6]). Half the sample completed the electronic format of the IPAB first and the pen-and-paper format second, and the other half completed them in reverse order. Tests of equivalence and a Bland–Altman plot were performed. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient between formats was .94, and kappa was .68. The mean difference between the 2 administration forms of the IPAB was 0.002 (P = .96). Both administration formats had high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = .92 and .93) and illustrated construct validity (P ≤ .001 for both administration formats). Conclusion: Pen-and-paper and electronic formats of the IPAB are equivalent and, thus, can be used interchangeably among non-Hispanic whites who are highly educated. The format should be used consistently if completing preintervention and postintervention evaluations or comparing scores.

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Katja M. Pollak, Lea Boecker, Chris Englert, and David D. Loschelder

Sport injury-related growth (SIRG) describes the possibility for athletes to benefit psychologically from an injury. The present, preregistered online study examined an international sample of 335 athletes with impressive athletic biographies who sustained a severe sport-related injury. Expanding the extant literature, we empirically contrasted numerous psychological, situational, and demographic predictors of perceived SIRG—specifically, athletes’ optimism, coping style, self-efficacy, athletic identity, social support, need satisfaction, and injury centrality. Our data first provide empirical evidence for perceived SIRG, even when statistically controlling for a potential social-desirability bias in athletes’ responses. In addition, frequentist and Bayesian regression analyses showed that several psychological variables predicted perceived SIRG—particularly athletes’ informational social support, positive reframing, optimism, and injury centrality. Finally, post hoc mediation analyses showed how these psychological variables account for different levels of perceived SIRG as a function of demographic variables. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, along with directions for future research.