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Tue A.H. Lassen, Lars Lindstrøm, Simon Lønbro, and Klavs Madsen

The present study investigated individualized sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) supplementation in elite orienteers and its effects on alkalosis and performance in a simulated sprint orienteering competition. Twenty-one Danish male and female elite orienteers (age = 25.2 ± 3.6 years, height = 176.4 ± 10.9 cm, body mass = 66.6 ± 7.9 kg) were tested twice in order to identify individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3 peak) following supplementation of 0.3 g/kg body mass NaHCO3 with and without warm-up. The athletes also performed two 3.5 km time-trial runs (TT-runs) following individualized timing of NaHCO3 supplementation (SBS) or placebo (PLA) on separate days in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. The occurrence of individual peak HCO3 and pH ranged from 60 to 180 min. Mean HCO3 and pH in SBS were significantly higher compared with PLA 10 min before and following the TT-run (p < .01). SBS improved overall performance in the 3.5 km TT-run by 6 s compared with PLA (775.5 ± 16.2 s vs. 781.4 ± 16.1 s, respectively; p < .05). SBS improved performance in the last half of the TT-run compared with PLA (p < .01). In conclusion, supplementation with NaHCO3 followed by warm-up resulted in individualized alkalosis peaks ranging from 60 to 180 min. Individualized timing of SBS in elite orienteers induced significant alkalosis before and after a 3.5 km TT and improved overall performance time by 6 s, which occurred in the last half of the time trial. The present data show that the anaerobic buffer system is important for performance in these types of endurance events lasting 12–15 min.

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Annemarie de Witte, Joris Hoeboer, Eline Coppens, Matthieu Lenoir, Sebastiaan Platvoet, Mark de Niet, Sanne de Vries, and An de Meester

Purpose: To study the relationship between actual motor competence (AMC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in a large sample of 6- to 12-year-old children. Method: The AMC and PMC were measured (N = 1,669, 55% boys) with the Athletic Skills Track and the Physical Self-Confidence Scale, respectively. A variable-centered approach was applied to examine the AMC–PMC association by means of correlation coefficients and Fisher’s z tests. Cluster analyses were used to identify profiles of children from a person-centered perspective. Results: The AMC–PMC correlation strengthened with increasing age (r = .084 in 6- to 7-year-olds to r = .416 in 10- to 11-year-olds). The person-centered approach revealed two profiles with corresponding levels of AMC and PMC, and two profiles with divergent levels. Discussion: In addition to clarifying the age-related increase in the association between AMC and PMC, the profiles from the person-centered approach result in new gateways for tailoring interventions to the needs of children with different AMC–PMC profiles.

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Mark David Williams, Andrew M. Hammond, and Jason Moran

Purpose: To investigate youth basketball coaches’ perceptions and implementation of fundamental movement skills training. Method: Snowball and criterion-based sampling approaches were used to survey youth basketball coaches (n=79) beliefs and experiences relating to their perceptions and implementation of nonbasketball-specific skills and fundamental movement skills into practice. Realist evaluation inspired the analysis of descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and reflexive qualitative thematic analysis to inform the results. Results: It was found that the participants had a comprehension of fundamental movement skills and acknowledge their value in the long-term development of youth players. However, there appeared to be varying levels of uptake among the surveyed coaches. Discussion: Based on these findings, coaches appear to hold sports specialization in a higher regard than the broader aspects of player development, illustrating a dichotomized perspective of fundamental movement skills and basketball. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for governing bodies to develop innovative strategies to persuade youth basketball coaches to adopt nonsports-specific movement skills to improve their practice.

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Katie Slattery, Stephen Crowcroft, and Aaron J. Coutts

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Xiuye Xie, Phillip Ward, Won Seok Chey, Leslie Dillon, Scott Trainer, and Kyuil Cho

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how preservice teachers (PSTs) developed their adaptive competence in lesson planning through repeated rehearsals and reflections in an online learning environment. Methods: A case study design utilizing descriptive analysis was used to analyze data collected from a series of lesson plan iterations made by nine PSTs in a physical education teacher education program. All participants attended one online introductory methods course, which consisted of a synchronous lecture and laboratory components to learn fundamental instruction and management skills in teaching physical education. Findings: PSTs made positive adaptations in five core practices in their lesson plan iterations. However, the frequency of adaptations in each core practice varied in different lesson components. The findings suggest that the complexity of content being taught and opportunities embedded in each lesson component may influence how adaptations were made in lesson plans. Conclusions: Repeated rehearsals and reflections can facilitate PSTs’ development of adaptations in lesson planning in an online environment. However, learning environments may prevent PSTs from adapting certain core practices.

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Eva Guijarro, Ann MacPhail, Natalia María Arias-Palencia, and Sixto González-Víllora

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish any difference in terms of game performance and game involvement using Sport Education (SE) or a combined use of SE and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). In a bid to facilitate future implementation of these models, the study provides a rich description of the pedagogies arising during both interventions. Method: The participants were 85 fourth- and fifth-grade students (aged 9–11) from four physical education classes within one elementary school. The content was a 15-lesson season of basketball taught through the principles of SE or a combined use of SE and TGfU. The game performance assessment instrument was used in a systematic observation of video recordings of students’ game behavior. Results: In terms of decision making, support, overall game performance, and game involvement, a combined use of SE and TGfU unit overtakes the scores in SE. Conclusions: There is evidence that supporting the use of combined models in the physical education context can improve students’ game performance and game involvement.