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Volume 34 (2022): Issue 2 (May 2022)

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Sex-Related Differences in Oxygen Consumption Recovery After High-Intensity Rowing Exercise During Childhood and Adolescence

Joffrey Bardin, Hugo Maciejewski, Allison Diry, Claire Thomas, and Sébastien Ratel

Purpose: To determine sex-related differences in oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) recovery after high-intensity exercise during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Forty-two boys and 35 girls (10–17 y) performed a 60-second all-out test on a rowing ergometer. Postexercise V ˙ O 2 recovery was analyzed from (1) the V ˙ O 2 recovery time constant obtained from a biexponential model (τ1 V ˙ O 2 ) and (2) excess postexercise oxygen consumption calculated over a period of 8 minutes (EPOC8) and until τ 1 V ˙ O 2 was reached (EPOCτ 1). Multiplicative allometric modeling was used to assess the concurrent effects of body mass or lean body mass, and age on EPOC8 and EPOCτ 1. Results: EPOC8 increased significantly more in boys from the age of 14 years. However, the sex difference was no longer significant when EPOC8 was analyzed using an allometric model including body mass + age or lean body mass + age. In addition, despite a greater increase in EPOCτ 1 in boys from the age of 14 years, τ 1 V ˙ O 2 was not significantly different between sexes whatever age. Conclusion: While age and lean body mass accounted for the sex-related differences of EPOC during childhood and adolescence, no significant effect of age and sex was observed on the V ˙ O 2 recovery time constant after high-intensity exercise.

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Martial Arts Training for Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Maarten K.N. Stessel, Imelda J.M. de Groot, and Mariska M.H.P. Janssen

Purpose: The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of a 3-month martial arts-based training (MAT) program for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The secondary aim was to examine changes in physical and psychosocial abilities after participating in the MAT program. Methods: Twelve patients with DMD (10 ambulant and 2 nonambulant) were included. The MAT program was evaluated on feasibility and safety. Changes in physical abilities were measured using the Motor Function Measure, Performance of Upper Limb scale, and the North Star Ambulatory Assessment. Changes in psychosocial abilities were measured using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, Personal Adjustment and Role Skills for DMD, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children/Adolescents. Results: Two participants did not complete the MAT program. Attendance rate for the 10 remaining participants was 91%. Eleven falls were reported during the training, but these falls did not result in injuries. Therefore, the MAT program was found feasible and safe. After completing the MAT program, most participants showed an improvement of their psychosocial abilities, and their physical abilities did not show deterioration. Conclusion: The MAT program is feasible and safe for boys with DMD.

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Practices and Procedures in Clinical Pediatric Exercise Laboratories in North America

Kelli M. Teson, Jessica S. Watson, Wayne A. Mays, Sandy Knecht, Tracy Curran, Paul Rebovich, David D. Williams, Stephen M. Paridon, and David A. White

Interinstitutional differences in clinical pediatric exercise laboratory (CPEL) practices may affect patient care and efficacy of multicenter research. Purpose: To describe current practices/procedures in CPELs and explore differences in CPELs employing exercise physiologists to those that do not. Methods: A 40-item survey was distributed to CPELs in North America focusing on (1) staffing; (2) exercise stress testing (EST) volumes, reporting, and interpretation; and (3) EST procedures/protocols. Results: Of the 55 responses, 89% were in the United States, 85% were children’s hospitals with university affiliation, and 58% were cardiology specific. Exercise physiologists were employed in 56% of CPELs, and 78% had master’s degrees or higher. Certifications were required in most CPELs (92% emergency life-support, 27% professional, and 21% clinical). Median volume was 201 to 400 ESTs per year, 80% used treadmill, and 10% used cycle ergometer as primary modalities. Ninety-three percent of CPELs offered metabolic ESTs, 87% offered pulmonary function testing, 20% used institution-specific EST protocols, and 72% offered additional services such as cardiac/pulmonary rehabilitation. CPELS staffing exercise physiologists performed higher volumes of ESTs (P = .004), were more likely to perform metabolic ESTs (P = .028), participated in more research (P < .001), and provided services in addition to ESTs (P = .001). Conclusions: Heterogeneity in CPELs staffing and operation indicates need for standardization.

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Repeated Sprint Protocols With Standardized Versus Self-Selected Recovery Periods in Elite Youth Soccer Players: Can They Pace Themselves? A Replication Study

Florian A. Engel, Stefan Altmann, Hamdi Chtourou, Alexander Woll, Rainer Neumann, Tomer Yona, and Billy Sperlich

Purpose: Replicating the studies of Gibson et al and Brownstein et al to assess performance, and physiological, and perceived variables during a repeated sprint protocol (RSP) with standardized versus self-selected recovery in youth soccer players. Methods: Nineteen male soccer players (age 13.1 [1.3] y) completed 2 separate RSPs. RSP1: 10 × 30-m sprints with 30-second recovery and RSP2: 10 × 30-m sprints interspersed with self-selected recovery periods. Mean time of both 10 × 30-m RSPs and self-selected recovery periods of RSP2 were assessed. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rates of perceived exertion were measured following RSPs. Results: RSP2 revealed longer recovery periods (RSP1: 30.0 [0.0] s; RSP2: 39.0 [7.7] s; P < .001; effect size d = 1.648) with shorter repeated sprint time (mean 30-m sprint time: RSP1: 4.965 [0.256] s; RSP2: 4.865 [0.227] s; P = .014; d = 0.414). Blood lactate concentration (P = .002–.005; d = 0.730–0.958), heart rate (P < .001; d = 1.353), and rates of perceived exertion (RSP1: 14.9 [1.9]; RSP2: 12.9 [2.1]; P = .016; d = 1.046) were higher following RSP1. Conclusion: In contrast to the original studies, the present replication study demonstrated that self-selected recovery periods during a RSP leads to better repeated sprint performance compared with standardized recovery periods in youth soccer players. The better repeated sprint performance with individual recovery durations in RSP2 was achieved with less physiological and perceived effort.

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Physical Literacy of Marginalized Middle School Adolescents in Kansas City Public Schools

Katlyn E. Eighmy, Joseph S. Lightner, Amanda R. Grimes, and Teesha Miller

Purpose: Physical inactivity among adolescents in the United States continues to be a pervasive and growing problem, especially among low income and adolescents of color. Physical literacy is important for adolescents to engage in physical activity. However, few studies have assessed physical literacy among marginalized populations. The purpose of this study is to describe levels of physical literacy among marginalized adolescents in a Midwest City. Methods: Data were collected from 169 participants (85 adolescents and 84 parents). Adolescents included in the study were from 4 Kansas City (Missouri) public schools. Univariate statistics were calculated for 3 physical literacy domains (PLAYinventory, PLAYself, and PLAYparent). To assess for differences among groups, the authors conducted a single-factor analysis of variance (1-way analysis of variance). Results: The sample (N = 169) was primarily Hispanic (48.2% adolescents and 42.9% parents). Sedentary behaviors were self-reported as the highest overall activities adolescents participated in within the past 12 months. The mean physical literacy score for this sample was 71.9 among adolescent reported and 72.7 among parent reported. Analysis of variance of racial and ethnic groups for PLAYself and PLAYparent assessments showed no significant difference in values. Compared with other subscales of both the PLAYparent and PLAYself instrument, parents and adolescents showed a lack of confidence in adolescent’s ability to be active in the 4 environments (land, water, ice, and snow). Conclusion: Physical literacy is shown to be important in maintaining physical activity throughout life; given this, it is important to understand how to increase confidence of seasonal specific skills in marginalized adolescents.

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Significant Energy Deficit and Suboptimal Sleep During a Junior Academy Tennis Training Camp

James A. Fleming, Liam D. Corr, James Earle, Robert J. Naughton, and Liam D. Harper

Purpose: To assess the training load, energy expenditure, dietary intake, and sleep quality and quantity of junior tennis players during a tennis training camp. Methods: Ten junior academy tennis players (14 [1] y) completed a 6-day camp with daily morning and afternoon training. Players wore accelerometer watches to measure activity energy expenditure and sleep. Global positioning system units were worn to monitor external training load (distance covered, maximum velocity, and PlayerLoad). Dietary intake was obtained from a food diary and supplementary food photography. Results: Players covered significantly more distance and had higher PlayerLoad during morning sessions than afternoon sessions (5370 [505] m vs 4726 [697] m, P < .005, d = 3.2; 725 [109] a.u. vs 588 [96] a.u., P < .005, d = 4.0). Players also ran further (5624 [897] m vs 4933 [343] m, P < .05, d = 1.0) and reached higher maximum velocities (5.17 [0.44] m·s−1 vs 4.94 [0.39] m·s−1, P < .05, d = 0.3) during simulated match play compared with drill sessions. Mean daily energy expenditure was 3959 (630) kcal. Mean energy intake was 2526 (183) kcal, resulting in mean energy deficits of 1433 (683) kcal. Players obtained an average of 6.9 (0.8) hours of sleep and recorded 28 (7) nightly awakenings. Conclusions: Junior academy tennis players failed to achieve energy balance and recorded suboptimal sleep quantity and quality throughout the training camp.

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Psychological Responses to Intermittent Activities in Children With and Without Asthma

Anna E. Schwartz, Lexie R. Beemer, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Katherine Q. Scott-Andrews, Toby C. Lewis, Leah E. Robinson, and Rebecca E. Hasson

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological responses to intermittent activities of varying intensities and types among children with and without asthma. Methods: A total of 37 children and adolescents (51% male, aged 8–16 y, 54% nonwhite, and 54% without asthma) participated in this study. Participants completed 5 exercises in the same order: self-paced walking, resistance activities, dance video, gamified obstacle course, and step test. In-task mood was assessed using the Feeling Scale, in-task perceived exertion was assessed via the ratings of perceived exertion scale, and postactivity enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Results: There was a significant main effect of exercise type on mood (P < .001), ratings of perceived exertion (P < .001), and enjoyment (P < .002). There was not a significant main effect of asthma status on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, or enjoyment (Ps > .05). Children with asthma reported significantly lower in-task mood during the step exercise (P < .037) and reported significantly lower postactivity enjoyment after the walk and obstacle course exercises (Ps < .03). Conclusions: Regardless of differences by asthma status for in-task mood during the obstacle course and for postactivity enjoyment during the walk and step exercises, both children with and without asthma reported high in-task mood and postactivity enjoyment during all 5 exercises.

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Acute Perceptive Responses to 2 Combined Training Methods in Adolescents: A Crossover Study

Waynne Ferreira de Faria, Renan Camargo Corrêa, Filipe Rodrigues Mendonça, Kleverton Krinski, and Antonio Stabelini Neto

Objective: To compare the acute perceptive responses of different combined training methods in adolescents. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 adolescents, insufficiently active, aged between 14 and 18 years (58% female). The adolescents performed 2 sessions in a randomized order: moderate-intensity continuous training + resistance training (MICT + RT) and high-intensity interval training + resistance training (HIIT + RT). The rating of perceived exertion, affect, and satisfaction were measured by self-report in 5 moments during the combined training (HIIT or MICT—moments 1, 2, and 3; RT—moments 4 and 5) and 10 minutes after the end of the session. Results: During HIIT, adolescents reported higher values of rating of perceived exertion compared to the MICT session at moments 2 and 3 in both sexes (P < .05). In addition, at moments 2 and 3 of the HIIT session, female participants were reported to have a higher value of satisfaction compared to MICT (F = 3.953; P = .005; η 2 = .067). Conclusion: During the execution of both HIIT + RT and MICT + RT protocols, adolescents showed an increase in the values of pleasure and satisfaction, regardless of sex.

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Peak Loads Associated With High-Impact Physical Activities in Children

Zach Fassett, Adam E. Jagodinsky, David Q. Thomas, and Skip M. Williams

Physical activities involving impact loading are important for improving bone strength and mineral density in children. There is little research quantifying impact loads associated with various high-impact activities. Purpose: Examine the magnitude of peak ground reaction forces (pGRF) across different jumping activities in children. Methods: Eight children between 8 and 12 years (9.63 [1.49] y; 1.42 [0.08] m; 33.69 [4.81] kg), performed 5 trials of a broad jump, countermovement jump, jumping jack, leap jump, and drop jump on a force plate. The pGRF were determined during the landing phase of each activity and expressed in units of body weight (BW). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was employed to assess differences in pGRF across activities. Results: Drop jump exhibited the greatest pGRF (3.09 [0.46] BW) in comparison with the vertical jumping jack (2.56 [0.21] BW; P < .001) and countermovement jump (2.45 [0.22] BW; P = .001), as well as the horizontal broad jump (2.25 [0.2] BW; P = .003), and leap jump (2.01 [0.1] BW; P = .002). Conclusion: Peak loads between 2 and 3.1 BW were exhibited across each jump activity, which is moderate compared with magnitudes in most jump interventions seeking to improve bone health. All conditions except drop jump exhibited loading <3 BW, suggesting these activities may not produce sufficient loads to improve bone outcomes.