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Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

Evaluating athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward sports-related concussions is important. However, there is limited research involving South Asian athletes, partly due to the lack of a valid and reliable tool. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version, an established tool used to measure knowledge and attitude toward concussion, into Urdu. Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version was translated into Urdu using the standard guidelines and then completed by 369 athletes participating in contact sports at different universities in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the Concussion Attitude Index items to examine the underlying factorial structure. Construct validity of Concussion Attitude Index factors was also investigated using convergent and discriminant validity. The results showed that the Urdu version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Urdu-speaking athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward concussions.

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Kento Sabashi, Takeshi Chiba, Koji Iwasaki, Tomohiro Onodera, Eiji Kondo, Norimasa Iwasaki, and Harukazu Tohyama

Patients with knee osteoarthritis and varus knee deformity have impaired postural balance, resulting in decreased walking performance and an increased risk of falls. This study aimed to investigate the early changes in the postural balance following inverted V-shaped high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Fifteen patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were recruited. Postural balance was assessed using the center-of-pressure (COP) data during single-leg standing before and 6 weeks after inverted V-shaped HTO. The maximum range, mean velocity, and area of COP movements in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale for knee pain was assessed. The maximum range of COP in the mediolateral direction decreased (P = .017), whereas the mean velocity of COP in the anteroposterior direction increased 6 weeks postoperatively (P = .011). The visual analog scale score for knee pain significantly improved at 6 weeks postoperatively (P = .006). Valgus correction with inverted V-shaped HTO resulted in improved postural balance in the mediolateral direction and good short-term clinical outcomes early following surgery. Early rehabilitation after inverted V-shaped HTO should focus on postural balance in the anteroposterior direction.

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Motahareh Karimijashni, Fahimeh Kamali Sarvestani, and Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad

Context: Contralateral training in the early stages after surgery can improve the balance of the reconstructed knee, which is impaired following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, little is known about the neuromuscular cross exercise after ACLR. Objective: To investigate the effects of an 8-week cross exercise on balance and function of the reconstructed knee following ACLR. Design: A single-blind randomized clinical trial. Participants: Thirty athletic males who underwent ACLR were randomly divided into intervention (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15). Intervention: The intervention and control groups received a routine physiotherapy program. In addition, the intervention group performed neuromuscular exercises on the nonoperated limb. Outcome Measures: Before and 9 weeks after ACLR, dynamic and static balance, function, and pain in the reconstructed knee were measured by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), stork balance stand test, balance error scoring system (BESS), Lysholm questionnaire, and visual analog scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS using 2-independent sample t test, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Results: Between-group comparison showed that, contralateral knee neuromuscular exercises significantly increased in the reaching distance in SEBT in the anterior (P < .001), posterior (P < .001), posteromedial (P = .010), and posterolateral directions (P = .007), decreased the number of errors in 4 stance positions of BESS including single stance on the firm (P ≤ .001) and foam surface (P ≤ .001), and tandem stance on the firm (P = .028) and foam surface (P ≤ .001). It also increased the time of standing of the stork stand test (P = .044) and decreased the pain intensity (P = .014). Conclusion: Neuromuscular exercise of the nonsurgical knee could improve the dynamic and static balance, and pain in the early stages following ACLR in the surgical leg. These findings may be potentially valuable for current rehabilitation protocols.

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Xiaohan Li, Junwu Yu, Jianjuan Bai, Huiming Huang, Shanshan Ying, Aiwen Wang, and Ping Wang

Objectives: To explore the immediate and retention effect of real-time tibial acceleration feedback on running biomechanics during gait retraining. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published before May 2022. The included studies were evaluated for methodological quality and bias risk, and data were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted on the primary outcomes, including peak tibial acceleration (PTA) and vertical ground reaction force. Subgroup analysis was performed by gender, feedback criterion, mode, dosage, fading, retention period, and running environment to evaluate the source of heterogeneity. Qualitative analysis was performed to describe other variables. Results: Fourteen studies (174 participants) were eligible. Meta-analysis showed that real-time tibial acceleration feedback reduced PTA (P < .01, P < .01), vertical impact peak (P = .004, P < .01), vertical average loading rate (P < .01, P < .01), and vertical instantaneous loading rate (P < .01, P < .01) after feedback and during retention period (5 min–12 mo). Subgroup analysis showed that the immediate effect of vertical impact peak was more noticeable with mixed gender (P = .005) and fading feedback (P = .005) conditions, and the retention effect of PTA was more noticeable with high feedback dosage (P < .01) and fading feedback (P < .01) conditions. Conclusions: Real-time tibial acceleration feedback can reduce PTA and vertical ground reaction force during gait retraining, and for periods of 5 minutes to 12 months when the feedback is removed.

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Hassan Tamartash, Farid Bahrpeyma, and Manijhe Mokhtari Dizaji

Context: Anatomy trains theory states that performing techniques in any part of the superficial myofascial backline can remotely treat other parts of this pathway. Due to the connections of different parts of the superficial backline, it is possible to influence the hamstring by performing the technique in the lumbar area. As chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP) may lead to or be caused by hamstring tightness, remote myofascial release (MFR) techniques using the superficial backline can help improve hamstring tightness. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of remote MFR on hamstring tightness for those with chronic nonspecific LBP. Design: Single-blind, parallel design. Setting: The present study was performed at the clinical setting of Tarbiat Modares University in Iran. Methods: This study included 40 participants (20 males and 20 females) who were 40.5 (5.3) years old with chronic nonspecific LBP and hamstring tightness. Interventions: Participants were randomly divided into the lumbar MFR (remote area) and hamstring MFR groups. Participants underwent 4 sessions of MFR for 2 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: A passive knee-extension (PKE) test was used for muscle tightness evaluation 3 times. Results: Repeated-measure analysis of variance test showed that after the lumbar and hamstring MFR, the PKE was significantly reduced in both legs: lumbar MFR (right knee: from 61.04° [2.17°] to 51.01° [4.11°], P ≤ .003 and left knee: from 63.02° [3.12°] to 52.09° [2.48°], P ≤ .004) and hamstring MFR (right knee: from 62.01° [4.32°] to 50.50° [7.18°], P ≤ .001 and left knee: from 63.11° [2.56°] to 51.32° [5.31°], P ≤ .002). Least Significant Difference (LSD) post hoc test results showed that the 2 groups were not significantly different after the MFR (P ≥ .05). Also, the intraclass correlation coefficient index showed that the PKE test has excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, .910 for the right limb and .915 for the left limb). The minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence interval indicated that a change greater than or equal to 6° is required to exceed the threshold of the error PKE test, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the remote MFR technique to the lumbar region demonstrated the same significant results in decreasing hamstring tightness as was noted in hamstring MFR to both limbs in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP.

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Dan Wang, Man Wang, Vikki Wing-Shan Chu, Patrick Shu-Hang Yung, and Daniel T.P. Fong

Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention should focus primarily on reduction of the knee abduction moment (KAM) in landing tasks. Gluteus medius and hamstring forces are considered to decrease KAM during landing. The effects of different muscle stimulations on KAM reduction were compared using 2 electrode sizes (standard 38 cm2 and half size 19 cm2) during a landing task. Twelve young healthy female adults (22.3 [3.6] y, 1.62 [0.02] m, 50.2 [4.7] kg) were recruited. KAM was calculated under 3 conditions of muscle stimulation (gluteus medius, biceps femoris, and both gluteus medius, and biceps femoris) using 2 electrode sizes, respectively versus no stimulation during a landing task. A repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that KAM differed significantly among stimulation conditions and post hoc analysis revealed that KAM was significantly decreased in conditions of stimulating either the gluteus medius (P < .001) or the biceps femoris (P < .001) with the standard electrode size, and condition of stimulating both gluteus medius and biceps femoris with half-size electrode (P = .012) when compared with the control condition. Therefore, stimulation on the gluteus medius, the biceps femoris, or both muscles could be implemented for the examination of anterior cruciate ligament injury potential.

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Kishor Lakshminarayanan, Rakshit Shah, Yifei Yao, and Deepa Madathil

Previous studies have demonstrated that both visual and proprioceptive feedback play vital roles in mental practice of movements. Tactile sensation has been shown to improve with peripheral sensory stimulation via imperceptible vibratory noise by stimulating the sensorimotor cortex. With both proprioception and tactile sensation sharing the same population of posterior parietal neurons encoding within high-level spatial representations, the effect of imperceptible vibratory noise on motor imagery-based brain–computer interface is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this sensory stimulation via imperceptible vibratory noise applied to the index fingertip in improving motor imagery–based brain–computer interface performance. Fifteen healthy adults (nine males and six females) were studied. Each subject performed three motor imagery tasks, namely drinking, grabbing, and flexion–extension of the wrist, with and without sensory stimulation while being presented a rich immersive visual scenario through a virtual reality headset. Results showed that vibratory noise increased event-related desynchronization during motor imagery compared with no vibration. Furthermore, the task classification percentage was higher with vibration when the tasks were discriminated using a machine learning algorithm. In conclusion, subthreshold random frequency vibration affected motor imagery–related event-related desynchronization and improved task classification performance.