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Sofía Pereira-García, Elena López-Cañada, and Agnes Elling-Machartzki

Purpose: The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, and queer/questioning students normally occupy a marginalized and at-risk position in classes and especially in physical education. In this paper, the authors explore the ways in which queer tango can contribute to counteracting heteronormativity and opening up students to new interactions and identifications through the performance of different gender performances in Physical Education and Sport Tertiary Education. Method: A queer tango session was carried out with 111 university students (91 men and 19 women aged 19–22 years). Data were obtained from interviews, video records, and open questionnaires about the practice. Results: The findings reveal that the performance of dance roles that are contrary to the heteronormative order reinforced both heteronormativity and queer embodiments in Physical Education and Sport Tertiary Education. Conclusion: An isolated activity is not enough, and more queer pedagogical practices should be introduced in order to make meaningful changes to mainstream students’ ideology and behaviors.

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Nick Dobson

Clinical Scenario: Resistance training (RT) programs promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy through the progressive physiological stress applied to an individual. Currently, the vast majority of studies regarding the hypertrophic response to RT have focused on either sedentary or untrained individuals. This critically appraised topic focuses on the hypertrophic response to high- and low-load RT in resistance-trained men. Clinical Question: In experienced male weightlifters, does high-load RT lead to greater increases in muscle mass than low-load RT? Summary of Key Findings: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, while 4 studies were included in the analysis. Each of the 4 studies showed that low-load RT elicited hypertrophic gains similar to high-load RT when sets were taken to failure. Three of the studies were not volume equated, indicating a dose–response relationship between training volume-load and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. One of the studies was volume equated, indicating that skeletal muscle hypertrophy could be achieved at levels comparable to those observed in high-load protocols as a result of high levels of metabolic stress and the concomitant recruitment of high-threshold motor units that can occur during fatiguing contractions. Clinical Bottom Line: Evidence suggests that low-load training produces hypertrophic gains similar to those observed in high-load RT protocols when sets are taken to failure in resistance-trained men. Strength of Recommendation: There is moderate to strong evidence to suggest that low-load RT elicits hypertrophic gains similar to those observed in high-load RT protocols when sets are taken to failure in resistance-trained men.

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Dong Ha Kim, Heewon Kang, and Seunghyun Yoo

Walking promotes active aging; however, walking prevalence changes among older adults by age and environmental conditions remain unclear. Age-period-cohort (APC) differences in walking trends among Korean older adults were examined. Data included adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 592,235) from the nationally representative Korean Community Health Survey. Regional units examined were metropolitan cities, small- and medium-sized cities, and rural areas. Environment-stratified APC modeling was applied for walking prevalence (walking days/time during the past week). From 2008 to 2017, the walking prevalence gap between regional units widened. Decreasing trends were most apparent in rural areas, including by birth year. In all areas, walking decreased with increased age. No distinct period effects were found. Each effect’s magnitude was larger in rural areas than cities. Differential APC effects by environmental conditions likely influence walking prevalence changes among older adults. Walking promotion for older adults should consider APC effects and environmental conditions.

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Mansi Gaitonde, Shannon Jones, Courtney McCracken, Matthew E. Ferguson, Erik Michelfelder, Ritu Sachdeva, and William Border

Background: Elevated left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients during exercise can occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) as well as in athletes and normal controls. The authors’ staged exercise protocol calls for imaging at rest and during each stage of exercise to evaluate the mechanism of LVOT obstruction at each stage. They investigated whether this staged approach helps differentiate HCM from athletes and normal controls. Methods: They reviewed pediatric exercise stress echocardiograms completed between January 2009 and October 2017 at their center and identified those with gene-positive HCM, athlete’s heart, and normal controls. Children with inducible obstruction (those with no LVOT gradient at rest who developed a LVOT peak gradient > 25 mm Hg during exercise) were included. LVOT peak gradient, velocity time integral, acceleration time, and deceleration time were measured at rest, submaximal stages, and peak exercise. Results: Compared with athletes, HCM patients had significantly higher LVOT peak gradients at rest (P = .019), stage 1 of exercise (P = .002), and peak exercise (P = .051), as well as a significantly higher change in LVOT peak gradient from rest to stage 1 (P = .016) and from rest to peak (P = .038). The acceleration time/deceleration time ratio of the LVOT Doppler was significantly lower in HCM patients compared with normal controls at peak exercise. Conclusions: The HCM patients who develop elevated LVOT gradients at peak exercise typically manifest early obstruction in the submaximal stages of exercise, which helps to differentiate them from athletes and normal controls.

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Pankaja Desai, Shannon Halloway, Klodian Dhana, Yanyu Zhang, Thomas Holland, Puja Agarwal, Christopher N. Ford, Carlos Mendes de Leon, Denis A. Evans, and Martha C. Morris

This study examined the relationship between walking and cognitive function among Chicago Health and Aging Project participants. Data collection occurred during six 3-year cycles, of which Cycles 4–6 were used for this specific analysis. Information was obtained regarding walking frequency and duration, demographics, chronic conditions, cognitive activities, apolipoprotein E4, physical function, and cognitive function (global and domains). A composite walking measure was developed and categorized as follows: no walking, ≤105 min/week, and >105 min/week. Mixed-effects regression analyses tested associations between walking and global cognitive function, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. The sample consisted of 4,320 participants (African American/Black: 65%; female: 65%; mean education: 13 years; mean age: 75 years). Composite or total walking had a statistically significant association with global cognitive function and perceptual speed, after adjustments were made.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Erin E. Snapp, E. Whitney G. Moore, Lauren J. Lieberman, Ellen Armstrong, and Staci Mannella

Youth with visual impairments (VIs) often experience unique barriers to physical activity compared with their sighted peers. A psychometrically sound scale for assessing barriers to physical activity for youth with VI is needed to facilitate research. The purpose of this study was to confirm the ability of the previously identified three-factor structure of the Physical Activity Barriers Questionnaire for youth with Visual Impairments (PABQ-VI) to produce scores considered to be valid and reliable that perform equally well across age, VI severity, and gender. Our results supported the three-factor structure and that the PABQ-VI produces scores considered valid and reliable. Mean, variance, and correlation differences were found in personal, social, and environmental barriers for age and VI severity, but not gender. Researchers can use the PABQ-VI to test and evaluate ways to reduce barriers for this population.

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Elif Turgut, Gozde Yagci, and Volga Bayrakci Tunay

Context: Knowledge on how to utilize a kinetic chain approach in foot and ankle rehabilitation is important. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise on foot pronation and single-leg neuromuscular control. Design: Cross-over study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: This cross-over study included 44 asymptomatic volunteers with foot pronation. Interventions: All participants performed (1) a hip-focused neuromuscular exercise and (2) a sham exercise in randomized order. Main Outcome Measures: Foot pronation was assessed by the navicular drop test, and lower-extremity neuromuscular control was assessed by the Modified Star Excursion Balance Test and frontal plane projection angle during single-leg squat before and after the experiments. Results: Navicular drop test scores were significantly lower after the hip-focused neuromuscular exercise than after the sham exercise (mean difference [95% CI] = 2.84 [−1.08 to 6.77], P = .003). Modified Star Excursion Balance Test scores in the anterior (P = .008), posteromedial (P = .04), and posterolateral (P < .001) directions were significantly increased after hip-focused neuromuscular exercise. No statistically significant condition × time interaction was found for the frontal plane projection angle (P > .05). However, a main effect of time (P = .003) indicated that less dynamic knee valgus occurred during single-leg squat after both experiments. Conclusions: Hip-focused neuromuscular exercise produced immediate alterations in foot pronation and dynamic balance. Thus, the hip-focused neuromuscular exercise may be used to control foot posture in foot rehabilitation integrated with a kinetic chain approach and could be an effective prevention and treatment strategy.

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Antoine Raberin, Elie Nader, Jorge Lopez Ayerbe, Patrick Mucci, Vincent Pialoux, Henri Meric, Philippe Connes, and Fabienne Durand

This study aimed to investigate the changes in blood viscosity, pulmonary hemodynamics, nitric oxide (NO) production, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) during a maximal incremental test conducted in normoxia and during exposure to moderate altitude (2,400 m) in athletes exhibiting exercise-induced hypoxemia at sea level (EIH). Nine endurance athletes with EIH and eight without EIH (NEIH) performed a maximal incremental test under three conditions: sea level, 1 day after arrival in hypoxia, and 5 days after arrival in hypoxia (H5) at 2,400 m. Gas exchange and oxygen peripheral saturation (SpO2) were continuously monitored. Cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and total pulmonary vascular resistance were assessed by echocardiography. Venous blood was sampled before and 3 min after exercise cessation to analyze blood viscosity and NO end-products. At sea level, athletes with EIH exhibited an increase in blood viscosity and NO levels during exercise while NEIH athletes showed no change. Pulmonary hemodynamics and aerobic performance were not different between the two groups. No between-group differences in blood viscosity, pulmonary hemodynamics, and V˙O2max were found at 1 day after arrival in hypoxia. At H5, lower total pulmonary vascular resistance and greater NO concentration were reported in response to exercise in EIH compared with NEIH athletes. EIH athletes had greater cardiac output and lower SpO2 at maximal exercise in H5, but no between-group differences occurred regarding blood viscosity and V˙O2max. The pulmonary vascular response observed at H5 in EIH athletes may be involved in the greater cardiac output of EIH group and counterbalanced the drop in SpO2 in order to achieve similar V˙O2max than NEIH athletes.

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Nazli Busra Cigercioglu, Hande Guney-Deniz, Ezgi Unuvar, Filiz Colakoglu, and Gul Baltaci

Purpose: Repetitive and asymmetric movements in tennis can result in biomechanical adaptation in shoulder joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and functional performance tests between the dominant and nondominant shoulders, as well as to identify gender differences in junior tennis players. Methods: Forty-two junior tennis players (age mean: 11.3 [1.2] y, body mass index 18.3 [2.4] kg/m2) were included in the study. Shoulder internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER) ROM, and total ROM, IR and ER isokinetic strength and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability, seated medicine ball throw used, grip hold tests were applied bilaterally. Paired sample t test and Student t test were used to compare the differences. Results: ER ROM was greater, while IR ROM and total ROM were lower on the dominant shoulder (all P values < .05). Nineteen players had glenohumeral IR deficit (IR ROM difference >13°). The players had a greater ER strength on the dominant side and similar IR strength between shoulders. There was significant difference in seated medicine ball throw results between the dominant and nondominant sides (P < .001). The mean distance for bilateral seated medicine ball throw was 377.02 (85.70) m, and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability results were calculated as a mean of 15.85 (1.72) touches. Differences between the genders: total ROM of the dominant shoulder was higher in female players (P = .045), the IR PT/BW at 60°/s angular speed was higher in male players’ dominant shoulder (P = .030), and closed kinetic chain upper-extremity stability performance was higher in male players (P = .019). Conclusions: Adolescent tennis players demonstrated differences in strength, ROM, and functional performance results between the dominant and nondominant shoulders. Gender differences were also seen in the aforementioned parameters in junior tennis players. Determining these differences may improve our understanding of sport-specific shoulder joint adaptations in tennis.