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A. Rui Gomes, Alexandre Gonçalves, Catarina Morais, Clara Simães, and Rui Resende

According to the Leadership Efficacy Model, leadership efficacy depends on leaders’ tendency to make linear relationships between leadership philosophy, practice, and criteria (i.e., congruence of leadership cycles). Moreover, efficacy increases if coaches make these linear relationships by using the optimal leadership profile and by considering the antecedent factors of leadership (characteristics of the leader, team members, and organizational conditions; i.e., favorability of conditions for leadership). This study compared the perceptions of athletes and their coaches regarding leadership cycles, and tested the moderator role of optimal leadership profile and leadership favorability in the relationship between leadership cycles and leadership efficacy. This study included 92 football athletes (ages less than 17 and 19 years) and respective coaches (n = 5). The evaluation protocol included measures of leadership cycles, leadership styles, leadership favorability, and sport performance perception. Athletes and coaches agreed on coaches’ need to increase their practice and criteria, but athletes also considered that coaches should better clarify their philosophy. Regression analyses confirmed that leadership congruency predicts higher perceptions of team performance in athletes. Moreover, optimal leadership profile and higher leadership favorability were associated with higher team and individual performance. However, these two factors did not moderate the relationship between leadership congruency and efficacy.

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David J. Shonk

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David G. Behm, Nehara Herat, Gerard M.J. Power, Joseph A. Brosky, Phil Page, and Shahab Alizadeh

Context: Both health professionals and consumers use menthol-based topical analgesics extensively for the temporary relief of pain from musculoskeletal ailments or injury. However, there are no reports of differences in the pain pressure threshold (PPT) or the relative effectiveness of topical analgesics to reduce pain in the upper and lower body muscles and tendons. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences existed in PPT and relative pain attenuation associated with a menthol-based topical analgesic over a variety of upper and lower body muscles and tendons. Design: Randomized allocation, controlled, intervention study. Methods: Sixteen participants (10 females and 6 males) were tested on their dominant or nondominant side. The order of specific muscle/tendon testing was also randomized, which included upper body (middle deltoid, biceps brachii, and lateral epicondylar tendon) and lower body locations (quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, lumbosacral erector spinae muscles, and patellar and Achilles tendons). The PPT was monitored before and 15 minutes following the application of a menthol-based topical analgesic. Results: A menthol-based topical analgesic increased PPT (decreased pain sensitivity) overall (P = .05; 11.6% [2.4%]; d = 1.05) and PPT was higher (P < .0001; 31.5%–44.2%; d = 1.03–1.8) for lower versus upper body locations. Conclusions: Health professionals and the public can be assured of similar reductions in pain sensitivity independent of the location of application of a menthol-based topical analgesic.

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Marziyeh Amraei and Elaheh Azadian

This study aims to investigate the effect of age and urban and rural living environments on children’s actual and perceived motor competence. To that end, 320 female students aged 8–12 years were selected through random cluster sampling. The perceived motor competence of the participants was assessed using Marsh’s Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, and their actual motor competence was measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development-3. The results showed significant differences between urban and rural girls in perceived and actual motor competence (p < .05). However, age did not make any significant difference in motor competence (p > .05). The most significant differences in actual and perceived motor competence between urban and rural girls were observed in girls aged 8 and 10 (p < .05). The findings also indicated that rural children performed better in actual motor skills, especially ball skills. Therefore, based on the findings, it was concluded that the rural environment could have a greater impact on actual motor competence.

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Vitor P. Lopes and Luis P. Rodrigues

Understanding the mechanisms associated with engaging in physical activity (PA) is crucial for its promotion. The aim was to analyze the relationship between motor competence (MC) and PA and the role of physical fitness (PF). Participants were N = 1,064 children of both sexes (n = 530 girls) and 7.87 ± 1.17 years of age. MC was assessed with KörperkoordinationTest für Kinder. PF was assessed with 50-yard dash, 1-mile run/walk, and standing long jump. PA was assessed with a questionnaire. Mediation and moderation were determined according to Baron and Kenny using Sobel test for indirect effect and using PROCESS (version 3.4). Mediation results showed perfect mediation in girls but not in boys and not when all participants were included in the analysis. The linear moderation was significant for all participants and for boys and girls apart. However, the results of conditional effects of MC at the 16th, 50th, and 84th percentile of the PF, which became significant at the 50th percentile for all participants and for boys, were not significant in girls. In conclusion, perfect mediation seems to exist in girls but not in boys. In boys, the relationship between MC and PA seems conditioned by the PF levels.

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Bradley Beseler, Kathleen Williams, and Mandy S. Plumb

Background: Roberton’s movement components are used to assess fundamental motor skills as segmental developmental sequences. In 1991, Haywood, Williams and VanSant determined that original developmental sequences proposed for the backswing levels of the overarm throw did not encompass all ages. Their study of older throwers identified two new qualitatively different levels, with half the participants categorized at two new levels. This investigation extended the initial validation across a wider age range. Method: Two hundred and twenty-eight primary, high school, university students, and adults were instructed to make five throws for maximum force using their dominant hand. Throws were recorded with side and rear cameras synchronized for analysis. Prelongitudinal screening was used to analyze the Haywood et al. revisions of the Langendorfer developmental sequence. Results: Five of the six levels of Haywood’s sequence were suitable for assessing throwers 8 years of age through to adulthood. More study is needed of one less advanced pattern. Lower level throws corresponded to lower velocities; higher level throws were faster, suggesting the sequence was properly ordered. More males than females were classified at higher levels, demonstrating typical gender differences. Discussion: The categories hypothesized for the backswing action of the overarm throw were valid descriptors of differences observed across ages, from childhood to adulthood. Additional study of Levels 3 and 4 is warranted to clarify their order.

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Steffen Greve, Kira Elena Weber, Björn Brandes, and Jessica Maier

Purpose: A previous study about a long-term internship implemented in the Master’s program of eleven physical education preservice teachers showed that the preservice teachers had low performance scores in the area of Instructional Support. These results left many questions unanswered, so the written self-reflections of the preservice teachers were investigated. Method and Results: A quantitative content analysis of their written reflections, based on the dimensions of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System K–3, showed that the participants pay little attention to the domain of Instructional Support. A qualitative content analysis showed that the preservice teachers relied on self-made experiences and the advice given by their mentors from school who pay little attention to Instructional Support. Discussion and Conclusion: Instructional Support should be given a higher priority in the context of long-term internships and in accompanying reflective assignments, especially with regard to differentiation and inclusion of all students.

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Samuel Wood, David Richardson, and Simon Roberts

Consideration of a learners’ biography is deemed to impact on their engagement with formal education and their connection with, and perceived relevance of, educational course content. It is considered equally important to understand coaches who enrol on formal coach learning in sport—their motivations, beliefs, values, existing knowledge, and previous life experiences. This research explored the individual biographies of eight neophyte cycling coaches over an 18-month period following the successful completion of a national governing body coach award. Following 23 formal semistructured interviews and 26 unstructured interviews, deductive thematic narrative analysis revealed three different typologies of coach: the “performance coach”; the “parent-coach”; and the “community coach.” Although the subjective details of the life stories varied according to their idiosyncratic perspective, all participants’ stories broadly followed one of these three identifiable narratives. Identifying different “typologies” of cycling coaches’ answers calls from coach developers to account for the specific backgrounds of coaches’ practices. It is hoped this research will begin the process of developing more personalised approaches to coach education.

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Samuel Mettler, Georgette Lehner, and Gareth Morgan

Compared with adult athletes, rather little is known about supplementation behavior in adolescent athletes. This study’s aim was to determine elite adolescent athletes’ supplement use and sources of information relating thereto. A total of 430 (87%) of 496 questioned athletes returned the anonymized questionnaire. Thereof, 84% consumed at least one weekly supplement and 97% indicated some supplement intake during the previous 4 weeks. On average, 13.3 supplement servings were consumed per week. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile was 4.5, 10.5, and 20.0 servings per week, with a maximum of 67. The most prevalent supplements in use were multimineral products (41% of all athletes), multivitamins (34%), Vitamin C (34%), and Vitamin D (33%). Male athletes consumed significantly more Vitamin C and D, sports drinks, protein powder, and recovery products compared with female athletes; whereas, women consumed more iron supplements. The three most important motives for supplement use were recovery support (40%), health maintenance (39%), and performance enhancement (30%). The most frequent answers to the question “who recommended that you use supplements” were family/friends (36%), a physician (27%), and a trainer/coach (25%). The main three information sources about the supplements in use were the persons who recommended the supplementation (56%), the internet (25%), and information provided by supplement suppliers (11%). A positive doping attitude was associated with the consumption of performance enhancing supplements (p = .017). In conclusion, this study among elite adolescent Swiss athletes indicates a widespread and large-scale use of dietary supplements, which was associated with a low level of information quality.

Open access

Bridget C. Foley, Mathew McLaughlin, Sarah Edney, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Jessica Seymour, Louisa R. Peralta, Angela Douglas, Simon Rosenbaum, Holly Thorpe, Janice Atkin, Tim Olds, and Ding Ding

The Australasian Society for Physical Activity aims to advance the science and practice of physical activity in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Fun, enjoyment, and cross-disciplinary discourse are important to ensure the network of physical activity professionals and our collective voice continues to grow. In May 2021, Australasian Society for Physical Activity’s Early Career Network curated an engaging online Physical Activity Debate attended by 206 professionals. This commentary provides a synopsis of the debate and the central arguments presented by the affirmative and negatives teams. The authors describe the debate format and interactive design of the online Physical Activity Debate to provide insights for future online events that aim to boost interaction among physical activity professionals from various disciplines.