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Resistance Exercise Training, a Simple Intervention to Preserve Muscle Mass and Strength in Prostate Cancer Patients on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

Lisanne H.P. Houben, Milou Beelen, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Sandra Beijer

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) forms the cornerstone in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. However, by suppressing testosterone ADT results in a decrease of skeletal muscle mass. In this narrative review, we explore the magnitude and mechanisms of ADT-induced muscle mass loss and the consequences for muscle strength and physical performance. Subsequently, we elucidate the effectiveness of supervised resistance exercise training as a means to mitigate these adverse effects. Literature shows that resistance exercise training can effectively counteract ADT-induced loss of appendicular lean body mass and decline in muscle strength, while the effect on physical performances is inconclusive. As resistance exercise training is feasible and can be safely implemented during ADT (with special attention for patients with bone metastases), it should be incorporated in standard clinical care for prostate cancer patients (starting) with ADT.

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A Collective Case Study of Parent–Athlete–Coach Triads in British Youth Tennis

Ella F. Tagliavini, Chris G. Harwood, Sophia Jowett, and Sam N. Thrower

While important for athletic development and well-being in youth sport, knowledge remains limited around the processes underpinning triadic relationships between parents, athletes, and coaches. This study aimed to examine the relational processes that drive the functioning of parent–athlete–coach triads across three developmental stages of youth tennis. Using a collective-case-study design, 10 players, 10 coaches, and 9 mothers completed preinterview tasks and semistructured interviews and provided conversational history. Reflexive thematic analysis led to the generation of two higher order themes: foundations of relationship quality and factors enabling team effectiveness. Findings highlighted how specific relationship qualities (i.e., commitment, trust, respect, and parent–coach proximity) and team effectiveness constructs (i.e., shared goals, collaborative and adjusted roles, support, and role-specific communication) served to facilitate the tennis experience for triads. Scholars are encouraged to consider integrating small-group principles (e.g., team building) into tailored support programs that address the psychosocial needs of the triad.

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Effects of Timing and Types of Protein Supplementation on Improving Muscle Mass, Strength, and Physical Performance in Adults Undergoing Resistance Training: A Network Meta-Analysis

Huan-Huan Zhou, Yuxiao Liao, Xiaolei Zhou, Zhao Peng, Shiyin Xu, Shaojun Shi, Liegang Liu, Liping Hao, and Wei Yang

Precise protein supplementation strategies for muscle improvement are still lacking. The timing or type of protein supplementation has been debated as a window of opportunity to improve muscle mass, strength, and physical performance. We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with protein supplements and resistance training. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched until May 1, 2023. We included 116 eligible trials with 4,711 participants that reported on 11 timing and 14 types of protein supplementation. Compared with placebo, protein supplementation after exercise (mean difference [MD]: 0.54 kg [95% confidence intervals 0.10, 0.99] for fat-free mass, MD: 0.34 kg [95% confidence intervals 0.10, 0.58] for skeletal muscle mass) and at night (MD: 2.85 kg [0.49, 5.22] for handgrip strength, MD: 12.12 kg [3.26, 20.99] for leg press strength) was most effective in improving muscle mass and strength, respectively (moderate certainty). Milk proteins (milk, whey protein, yogurt, casein, and bovine colostrum), red meat, and mixed protein were effective for gains in both muscle mass and strength (moderate certainty). No timing or type of protein showed a significant enhancement in physical performance (timed up-to-go test, 6-min walk test, and gait speed). Pre/postexercise and Night are key recommended times of protein intake to increase muscle mass and strength, respectively. Milk proteins are the preferred types of protein supplements for improving muscle mass and strength. Future randomized controlled trials that directly compare the effects of protein timing or types are needed. This trial was registered at International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews as CRD42022358766.

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Volume 18 (2023): Issue 12 (Dec 2023)

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Volume 37 (2023): Issue 4 (Dec 2023)

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Acknowledgments

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“Learn to Function in the System”: The Organizational Socialization of Urban Physical Educators

Colin G. Pennington, Galila Werber-Zion, and Tanya Prewitt-White

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how urban physical educators’ experiences influence their motivations toward vocational persistence emphasizing health and fitness. Methods: Participants included 16 urban physical educators who participated in semistructured interviews about their experiences teaching in urban settings. For minority youths, who predominantly attend urban public schools, fitness rates are lower than the national average. Physical education has been discussed as a potential solution to combating this public health trend; however, considering Common Core reforms in public education by which health and physical education has been de-emphasized as a curricular requirement, scholars are pursuing knowledge of how the experiences of urban physical educators are evolving. Using occupational socialization as the operating theoretical framework, this study seeks to explore how 16 urban physical educators’ experiences are evolving with the changes in public education, including administrative support and other indicators of marginalization and attrition.  Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in the construction of six themes which suggest that teaching students to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle remains a powerful motivator for urban physical educators’ persistence despite feelings of marginalization and burnout. Conclusions: The authors provide practical suggestions for practitioners and scholars to overcome feelings of marginalization and lack of resources.

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A Qualitative Examination of Online Practices During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Observational Preferences Within Physical Education

Ken Murfay, Sarah Pyszczynski, and Heather Erwin

Purpose: This qualitative case study examined students’ interpretations of their physical activity (PA) experiences within in-person and online physical education and how that influenced their PA self-efficacy. Method: The study participants were 40 (24 females) current high school students from three different schools who participated in focus group semistructured interviews. Results: Two themes were developed during analysis of the coded data: (a) online participation in PA within physical education was awkward and (b) students had a variety of observational preferences based on perceived and actual similarities/differences between students and their teachers, peers, and people within online videos. Discussion/Conclusion: The design of PA experiences should attempt to support or increase students’ PA self-efficacy by limiting students’ feelings of being uncomfortable or on display, increasing students’ opportunities to learn from each other in comfortable ways, and providing students with detailed demonstrations from teachers and peers with a variety of skill levels.

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Having a Goal Up Your Sleeve: Promoting a Mastery Climate in a Youth Football Academy Team

Niels N. Rossing, Michael Lykkeskov, Luc J. Martin, and Ludvig Johan Torp Rasmussen

In sport, there is extensive evidence that supports the benefits associated with a mastery climate. However, limited studies have explored how physical tools could be used to promote mastery climates in youth sport contexts. Using an action research approach, we sought to understand the benefits and drawbacks of applying tools grounded in goal setting to promote a mastery environment: (a) an “arm sleeve” to be worn by athletes during training and matches and (b) a “reflection sheet” for use pre- and posttraining/-matches. These tools were implemented for a 3-week period with a U13 academy team (18 players and two coaches). Based on observation notes, focus groups, and one-on-one interviews, the analysis showed that the arm sleeves were helpful reminders for process goals, whereas the coaches had abandoned the use of reflection sheets due to lack of time. The benefits and drawbacks of the tools are discussed while pedagogical and practical implications are considered.

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Shifting the Energy Toward Los Angeles: Comparing the Energetic Contribution and Pacing Approach Between 2000- and 1500-m Maximal Ergometer Rowing

Daniel J. Astridge, Peter Peeling, Paul S.R. Goods, Olivier Girard, Sophie P. Watts, Myles C. Dennis, and Martyn J. Binnie

Purpose: To compare the energetic contribution and pacing in 2000- and 1500-m maximal rowing-ergometer performances. Methods: On separate visits (>48 h apart, random order), 18 trained junior (16.7 [0.4] y) male rowers completed 3 trials: a 7 × 4-minute graded exercise test, a 2000-m time trial (TT2000), and a 1500-m TT (TT1500). Respiratory gases were continuously measured throughout each trial. The submaximal power-to-oxygen-consumption relationship from the graded exercise test was used to determine the accumulated oxygen deficit for each TT. Differences in mean power output (MPO), relative anaerobic contribution, percentage of peak oxygen uptake, pacing index, maximum heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were assessed using linear mixed modeling. Results: Compared to TT2000 (324 [24] W), MPO was 5.2% (3.3%) higher in TT1500 (341 [29 W]; P < .001, η p 2 = .70 ). There was a 4.9% (3.3%) increase (P < .001, η p 2 = .71 ) in anaerobic contribution from 17.3% (3.3%) (TT2000) to 22.2% (4.3%) (TT1500). Compared to TT1500, maximum heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were all greater (P < .05) in TT2000. The pacing index was not different between trials. Percentage increase in MPO from TT2000 to TT1500 was negatively associated with pacing variance in TT1500 (R 2 = .269, P = .027). Conclusions: Maximal ergometer performance over 1500 m requires a significantly greater anaerobic contribution compared with 2000 m. Junior male athletes adopt a consistent pacing strategy across both distances. However, those who experienced greater percentage increases in MPO over the shorter test adopted a more even pacing strategy. To prepare for 1500-m performance, greater emphasis should be placed on developing capacity for work in the severe domain and completing race simulations with a more even pacing strategy.